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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938479/pulmonary-function-and-sleep-breathing-two-new-targets-for-type-2-diabetes-care
#1
Albert Lecube, Rafael Simó, Maria Pallayova, Naresh M Punjabi, Carolina López-Cano, Cecilia Turino, Cristina Hernández, Ferran Barbé
Population based studies showing the negative impact of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on lung function are overviewed. Among the well-recognized pathophysiological mechanisms, the metabolic pathways related to insulin resistance, low-grade chronic inflammation, leptin resistance, microvascular damage, and autonomic neuropathy are emphasized. Histopathological changes are exposed, and findings reported from experimental models are clearly differentiated from those described in humans. The accelerated decline in pulmonary function that appears in patients with cystic fibrosis with related abnormalities of glucose tolerance and diabetes is considered as an example to further investigate the relationship between T2D and the lung...
September 4, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938444/lack-of-lrp5-signaling-in-osteoblasts-sensitizes-male-mice-to-diet-induced-disturbances-in-glucose-metabolism
#2
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Brian C Goh, Ryan C Riddle
Wnt signaling through the Lrp5 co-receptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation and mice rendered deficient for this co-receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels, but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In this study, we challenged Lrp5 mutant mice with a high fat diet to determine if they are more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938434/fgf21-is-an-insulin-dependent-postprandial-hormone-in-adult-humans
#3
Ricardo J Samms, Jo E Lewis, Luke Norton, Francis B Stephens, Christopher J Gaffney, Tony Butterfield, Dennis Smith, Christine Cheng, James W Perfield, Andrew C Adams, Francis J P Ebling, Kostas Tsintzas
Context: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) secretion has been shown to respond directly to carbohydrate consumption, with glucose, fructose and sucrose all reported to increase plasma levels of FGF21 in rodents and humans. However, carbohydrate consumption also results in secretion of insulin. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the combined and independent effects of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on total and bioactive FGF21 in the postprandial period in humans, and determine whether this effect is attenuated in conditions of altered insulin secretion and action...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938429/effect-of-preconception-impaired-glucose-tolerance-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Daimin Wei, Bo Zhang, Yuhua Shi, Lin Zhang, Shigang Zhao, Yanzhi Du, Lizhen Xu, Richard S Legro, Heping Zhang, Zi-Jiang Chen
Context: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) commonly have intrinsic insulin resistance and are recommended to undergo an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for diabetes screening. However, the effect of preconception impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) on pregnancy is still unclear. Objective: To prospectively assess the effect of preconception IGT on pregnancy outcomes. Design, Setting, Patients, Intervention(s) and Main Outcome Measure(s): This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial in 1508 women with PCOS comparing live birth and obstetric complications between fresh and frozen embryo transfer...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938412/renal-metabolic-programming-is-linked-to-the-dynamic-regulation-of-a-leptin-klf15-axis-and-akt-ampk%C3%AE-signaling-in-male-offspring-of-obese-dams
#5
Philipp Kasper, Christina Vohlen, Katharina Dinger, Jasmine Mohr, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Ruth Janoschek, Jessica Köth, Jan Matthes, Sarah Appel, Jörg Dötsch, Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar
Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. We therefore studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity female mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) or standard diet (SD, Co) prior to mating, during gestation and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac)...
July 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937612/houttuynia-cordata-facilitates-metformin-on-ameliorating-insulin-resistance-associated-with-gut-microbiota-alteration-in-oletf-rats
#6
Jing-Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Soo-Kyoung Lim, AbuZar Ansari, Young-Won Chin, Han Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))-the same as metformin alone...
September 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937442/orally-active-epoxyeicosatrienoic-acid-analogs
#7
William B Campbell, John D Imig, James M Schmitz, John R Falck
Biologically active epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) regioisomers are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases of endothelial, myocardial, and renal tubular cells. EETs relax vascular smooth muscle and decrease inflammatory cell adhesion and cytokine release. Renal EETs promote sodium excretion and vasodilation to decrease hypertension. Cardiac EETs reduce infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion injury and decrease fibrosis and inflammation in heart failure. In diabetes, EETs improve insulin sensitivity, increase glucose tolerance, and reduce the renal injury...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935478/development-and-validation-of-a-cell-based-assay-for-the-detection-of-neutralizing-antibodies-against-recombinant-insulins
#8
Sanjukta Chatterjee, Laxmikant Vashishta, Vinit S Waichale, Vivek G Nayak, Ramakrishnan Melarkode, Charles M Donnelly, Patrick T Vallano, Narendra Chirmule, Nilanjan Sengupta
Recombinant biopharmaceuticals can induce generation of anti-drug antibodies, which could potentially neutralize therapeutic drug activity. In this report, we describe development and validation of a cell-based assay for detection of neutralizing antibodies (Nab) against insulin and insulin analogues. In order to achieve clinically meaningful sensitivity the method used an early signalling event, insulin induced insulin receptor phosphorylation as the endpoint. Percentage insulin receptor phosphorylation in cell lysates was measured using ECL based ELISA...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935388/%C3%AE-cell-function-over-time-in-adolescents-with-new-type-2-diabetes-and-obese-adolescents-without-diabetes
#9
Deborah A Elder, Lindsey N Hornung, Jane C Khoury, David A D'Alessio
PURPOSE: The progression of β-cell function in newly diagnosed adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is not well documented. We hypothesized that at the time of diagnosis with T2DM, adolescents would have impaired β-cell function as demonstrated by the disposition index (calculated as: insulin secretion adjusted for insulin sensitivity), and this would be followed by a rapid decline of function despite standard medical management. METHODS: Thirty-nine adolescents with recently diagnosed T2DM and 32 obese adolescent controls with normal glucose tolerance had acute insulin response to glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and disposition index measured serially over 2 years...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935000/effect-of-early-life-gut-mucosal-compromise-on-disease-progression-in-nod-mice
#10
Katja M Bendtsen, Camilla Hf Hansen, Lukasz Krych, Karsten Buschard, Helene Farlov, Axel K Hansen
Disease expression in spontaneous nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice depends on environmental stimuli such as stress, diet, and gut microbiota composition. We evaluated a brief, early-life gut intervention in which pups were weaned to low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). We hypothesized that the mucus-reducing effect of this compound and subsequent increased host-bacterial contact would delay disease onset and decrease insulitis due to enhanced oral tolerance. However, disease incidence did not differ between groups, although median survival (time point when 50% of the mice are still alive) of the control group was 184 d compared with 205 d for DSS-treated mice...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934926/irs-1-py612-and-akt-1-pkb-pt308-phosphorylation-and-antiinflammatory-effect-of-diindolylmethane-in-adipocytes-cocultured-with-macrophages
#11
Lopez-Vazquez Alfonso, Garcia B J Javier, Gonzalez G A Sofía, Urzua L P Ernesto, Del T A Susana, Bueno T M Ruth, Sanchez E Sergio, Munoz V J Francisco, Jave S L Felipe, Armendariz B J Socorro, Bastidas R B Estela
BACKGROUND: 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a condensation product of indole-3-carbinol, a glucosinolate naturally occurring in Brassica genus vegetables. The antiinflammatory properties of DIM through the inhibition of NF-κB, as well as its ameliorating effects on glucose tolerance and hyperglicemic states, have been described. A subclinical proinflammatory profile resultant from the interaction of adipocytes and macrophages have been reported in obesity, affecting the insulin signaling pathway, contributing to insulin resistance...
September 21, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934640/continuous-longitudinal-infusion-of-rhigf-1-rhigfbp-3-in-extremely-preterm-infants-evaluation-of-feasibility-in-a-phase-ii-study
#12
Ingrid Hansen-Pupp, Ann Hellström, Mohamed Hamdani, Adina Tocoian, Nerissa C Kreher, David Ley, Boubou Hallberg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of continuous longitudinal intravenous infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1/recombinant human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) for prevention of retinopathy of prematurity and other complications in extremely preterm infants (<28weeks' gestational age), based on initial sections of a phase II randomized controlled trial. DESIGN: The phase II trial was designed in four sections (A-D); we report pharmacokinetic and adverse events (AEs) data pooled for Sections B and C...
August 31, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933767/hemin-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-lipid-metabolism-in-cultured-hepatocytes-and-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#13
Yi Luan, Fang Zhang, Yalan Cheng, Jun Liu, Rui Huang, Menghong Yan, Yuangao Wang, Zhishui He, Hejin Lai, Hui Wang, Hao Ying, Feifan Guo, Qiwei Zhai
Hemin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin. It has been reported that the injection of hemin improves lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in various genetic models. However, the effect of hemin supplementation in food on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity is still unclear, and whether hemin directly affects cellular insulin sensitivity is yet to be elucidated. Here we show that hemin enhances insulin-induced phosphorylation of insulin receptors, Akt, Gsk3β, FoxO1 and cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO1 in cultured primary hepatocytes under insulin-resistant conditions...
July 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932650/gene-editing-gene-therapy-and-cell-xenotransplantation-cell-transplantation-across-species
#14
REVIEW
Nizar I Mourad, Pierre Gianello
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cell xenotransplantation has the potential to provide a safe, ethically acceptable, unlimited source for cell replacement therapies. This review focuses on genetic modification strategies aimed to overcome remaining hurdles standing in the way of clinical porcine islet transplantation and to develop neural cell xenotransplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to previously described genetic modifications aimed to mitigate hyperacute rejection, instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, and cell-mediated rejection, new data showing the possibility of increasing porcine islet insulin secretion by transgenesis is an interesting addition to the array of genetically modified pigs available for xenotransplantation...
2017: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929327/possible-long-term-efficacy-of-sitagliptin-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-for-slowly-progressive-type-1-diabetes-spiddm-in-the-stage-of-non-insulin-dependency-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial-span-s
#15
Takuya Awata, Akira Shimada, Taro Maruyama, Yoichi Oikawa, Nobuyuki Yasukawa, Susumu Kurihara, Yumi Miyashita, Masako Hatano, Yuichi Ikegami, Masafumi Matsuda, Masataka Niwa, Youichiro Kazama, Shoichiro Tanaka, Tetsuro Kobayashi
INTRODUCTION: We tested the hypothesis that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are effective in preserving the β-cell function for long-term periods in patients with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes (SPIDDM) or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). METHODS: In the present open-label, randomized, controlled trial, 14 non-insulin-requiring diabetic patients with glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADAb) were randomly assigned to receive either sitagliptin (S group) or pioglitazone (P group)...
September 19, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929278/effect-and-mechanisms-of-diabetes-resolution-according-to-the-range-of-gastric-resection-and-the-length-of-anastomosis-in-animal-models-implication-for-gastric-cancer-surgery-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Yeon-Ju Huh, Young-Gil Son, Tae-Han Kim, Ji-Ho Park, Tae-Jung Oh, Boram Choi, Jimin Min, Young Min Cho, Han-Kwang Yang, Hyuk-Joon Lee
BACKGROUND: To examine the effect and mechanism of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on the improvement of diabetes according to the length of anastomosis and the gastric pouch volume in an animal model. METHODS: Glucose intolerance was induced with a high-fat diet for 3 months in Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were subjected to conventional RYGB (cRYGB; 5% gastric pouch with 15-cm Roux limb, 40-cm biliopancreatic limb; n = 9), short-limb RYGB (sRYGB; 5%, 8, 4 cm; n = 9), fundus-sparing RYGB (fRYGB; 30%, 8, 4 cm; n = 9), or sham operation (n = 9)...
September 19, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927798/effect-of-charcoal-dextran-stripped-fetal-bovine-serum-on-in-vitro-development-of-bovine-embryos
#17
Ayman Mesalam, Rami Kong, Imran Khan, Mmr Chowdhury, Byung-Hyun Choi, Sung Woo Kim, Kyu-Woan Cho, Jong-In Jin, Il-Keun Kong
This study investigated the ability of charcoal:dextran stripped fetal bovine serum (CDS FBS) and heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (HI FBS) to support in vitro development of bovine embryos. The developmental ability and quality of bovine embryos were determined by assessing their cell number, lipid content, mitochondrial activity, gene expression, and cryo-tolerance. The percentage of embryos that formed a blastocyst was significantly (P<0.05) higher in medium containing CDS FBS than in medium containing HI FBS (42...
September 16, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926107/fenofibrate-reverses-changes-induced-by-high-fat-diet-on-metabolism-in-mice-muscle-and-visceral-adipocytes
#18
Flávia de Toledo Frias, Karina Cunha E Rocha, Mariana de Mendonça, Gilson Massahiro Murata, Hygor Nunes Araujo, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de Sousa, Érica de Souza, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Nayara de Carvalho Leite, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Rui Curi, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Alice Cristina Rodrigues
The effect of fenofibrate on the metabolism of skeletal muscle and visceral white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice was investigated. C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for eight weeks. Fenofibrate (50 mg/Kg b.w., daily) was administered by oral gavage during the last two weeks of the experimental period. Insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in soleus muscles, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, indirect calorimetry, lipolysis of visceral white adipose tissue, expression of miR-103-3p in adipose tissue and miR-1a, miR-133a/b, miR-206, let7b-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-29-3p, miR-143-3p in soleus muscle, genes related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and soleus muscle, and proteins (phospho-AMPKα2, Pgc1α, Cpt1b), intramuscular lipid staining, and activities of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in skeletal muscle were investigated...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924374/no-association-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-with-fasting-or-postload-glycaemia-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease-a-cross-sectional-retrospective-study
#19
Olga Kruszelnicka, Marcin Kuźma, Iwona Z Pena, Ian B Perera, Bernadeta Chyrchel, Ewa Wieczorek-Surdacka, Andrzej Surdacki
Background: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use was reportedly associated with an excess of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events, thus making their systemic effects relevant to public health. PPIs reduce gastric acid secretion, causing increased gastrin release. Gastrin stimulates β-cell neogenesis and enhances insulin release, exerting an incretin-like effect. Our aim was to assess, if PPI usage is associated with altered glycaemia in patients with CV disease. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 102 subjects (80 with ischemic heart disease) who underwent a routine oral glucose tolerance test while hospitalized in a cardiology department...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924091/the-long-term-safety-of-d-allulose-administration-in-healthy-dogs
#20
Naohito Nishii, Satoshi Takashima, Yui Kobatake, Masaaki Tokuda, Hitoshi Kitagawa
The safety and biological effects of a long-term dose of D-allulose were evaluated in healthy dogs. For 12 weeks, the dogs were administered D-allulose (0.2 g/kg) or placebo daily. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the D-allulose group were significantly lower than those in the control group at and after week 2 (P<0.05). D-Allulose administration did not cause clinical signs or changes in hematological and biochemical levels, except for lipids. D-Allulose administration also did not influence body weight...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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