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Insulin tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346917/endocrine-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-optic-pathway-glioma%C3%A2
#1
Ilaria Sani, Assunta Albanese
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Children with optic pathway glioma (OPG) face sequelae related to tumour location and treatment modalities. We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunctions in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and OPG who did not receive radiotherapy or surgical resection. The causative role of tumour location on endocrinopathy development is investigated. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study of 40 children with NF1 and OPG evaluated between August 1996 and May 2015 was undertaken...
March 27, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346411/the-cold-induced-lipokine-12-13-dihome-promotes-fatty-acid-transport-into-brown-adipose-tissue
#2
Matthew D Lynes, Luiz O Leiria, Morten Lundh, Alexander Bartelt, Farnaz Shamsi, Tian Lian Huang, Hirokazu Takahashi, Michael F Hirshman, Christian Schlein, Alexandra Lee, Lisa A Baer, Francis J May, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Emily Y Chen, Michael A Kiebish, Aaron M Cypess, Matthias Blüher, Laurie J Goodyear, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Kristin I Stanford, Yu-Hua Tseng
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue combust fuels for heat production in adult humans, and so constitute an appealing target for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Cold exposure can enhance energy expenditure by activating BAT, and it has been shown to improve nutrient metabolism. These therapies, however, are time consuming and uncomfortable, demonstrating the need for pharmacological interventions. Recently, lipids have been identified that are released from tissues and act locally or systemically to promote insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; as a class, these lipids are referred to as 'lipokines'...
March 27, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345543/use-of-first-phase-insulin-secretion-in-early-diagnosis-of-thyroid-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Li-Heng Meng, Yao Huang, Jia Zhou, Xing-Huan Liang, Jing Xian, Li Li, Ying-Fen Qin
BACKGROUND: A relationship between hyperthyroidism and insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported. Therefore, this study explored the use of first-phase insulin secretion in the differential diagnosis of thyroid diabetes (TDM) and T2DM. METHODS: In total, 101 patients with hyperthyroidism were divided into hyperthyroidism with normal glucose tolerance (TNGT), hyperthyroidism with impaired glucose regulation (TIGR), and diabetes (TDM) groups...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345162/reduction-of-postprandial-glucose-by-lixisenatide-versus-sitagliptin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-on-background-insulin-glargine-a-randomised-phase-4-study
#4
Yuichiro Yamada, Masayuki Senda, Yusuke Naito, Masahiro Tamura, Daisuke Watanabe, Yujin Shuto, Yoshihisa Urita
AIM: To evaluate the pharmacodynamics of adjunctive lixisenatide once daily versus sitagliptin once daily in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin glargine U100. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, phase 4 study (NCT02200991) randomly assigned 136 patients to either lixisenatide once-daily subcutaneous injection (10 µg initially increased weekly by 5 µg up to 20 µg) or once-daily oral sitagliptin (50 mg dose). The primary endpoint was the change in postprandial glucose (PPG) exposure 4 hours after a standardized breakfast (PPG area under the plasma glucose concentration-time curve [AUC0:00-4:00h ]) from baseline to Day 29...
March 26, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344112/efficacy-and-safety-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-versus-once-daily-insulin-glargine-as-add-on-to-metformin-with-or-without-sulfonylureas-in-insulin-naive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-sustain-4-a-randomised-open-label-parallel-group-multicentre-multinational
#5
Vanita R Aroda, Stephen C Bain, Bertrand Cariou, Milivoj Piletič, Ludger Rose, Mads Axelsen, Everton Rowe, J Hans DeVries
BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological treatment options are available for type 2 diabetes; however, many patients do not achieve optimum glycaemic control and therefore new therapies are necessary. We assessed the efficacy and safety of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue in clinical development, compared with insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes who were inadequately controlled with metformin (with or without sulfonylureas). METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, parallel-group, multicentre, multinational, phase 3a trial (SUSTAIN 4) at 196 sites in 14 countries...
March 23, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343998/carnosic-acid-ca-attenuates-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-db-db-mice-via-inflammation-suppression-by-regulating-ros-dependent-p38-pathway
#6
Guangtao Xia, Xia Wang, Hongsheng Sun, Yuhong Qin, Min Fu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease, characterized by inflammation of synovial joints. Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene isolated from Rosmarinus officinails, playing a central role in cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress and inflammation response. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of CA on RA progression in diabetic animals. Carnosic acid (CA) was used to treat collagen-induced arthritis (CIA)-induced db/db mice. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were investigated to explore insulin resistance...
March 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339345/alanine-aminotransferase-is-a-marker-of-lipotoxicity-consequences-and-hyperandrogenemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
Matea Belan, Chloé Pelletier, Jean-Patrice Baillargeon
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported higher levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with control subjects. Plasma ALT levels are considered a marker of hepatic lipotoxicity because of their significant associations with different hepatic metabolic dysfunctions, such as hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. METHODS: Retrospective chart review aiming to assess, in PCOS women, the relationship between ALT levels and measures of lipotoxicity consequences that are available clinically, both during fasting and using the oral glucose tolerance test...
April 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338397/clove-and-its-active-compound-attenuate-free-fatty-acid-mediated-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle-cells-and-in-mice
#8
Safina Ghaffar, Shabbir Khan Afridi, Meha Fatima Aftab, Munazza Murtaza, Rahman M Hafizur, Sara Sara, Sabira Begum, Rizwana Sanaullah Waraich
Several reports indicate anti-hyperglycemic effects of Syzygium aromaticum. In the present study, we report for the first time that clove extract (SAM) and its compound nigricin (NGC) decreases free fatty acid-mediated insulin resistance in mouse myoblasts. In addition, NGC was able to diminish insulin resistance in a diabetic mouse model. We observed that SAM and its compound NGC exhibited significant antioxidant activity in murine skeletal muscle cells. They also modulated stress signaling by reducing p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337562/bace2-suppression-promotes-%C3%AE-cell-survival-and-function-in-a-model-of-type-2-diabetes-induced-by-human-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-overexpression
#9
Gema Alcarraz-Vizán, Carlos Castaño, Montse Visa, Joel Montane, Joan-Marc Servitja, Anna Novials
BACE2 (β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2) is a protease expressed in the brain, but also in the pancreas, where it seems to play a physiological role. Amyloidogenic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D), share the accumulation of abnormally folded and insoluble proteins that interfere with cell function. In T2D, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) deposits have been shown to be a pathogenic key feature of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of BACE2 modulation on β-cell alterations in a mouse model of T2D induced by IAPP overexpression...
March 23, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336764/anti-hyperglycemic-activity-of-moringa-oleifera-is-partly-mediated-by-carbohydrase-inhibition-and-glucose-fiber-binding
#10
Sohel Bin Azad, Prawej Ansari, Shermin Akter, Saad Mosharraf Hossain, Shofiul Azam, Fahima Faroque Archi, Mahmudul Hasan, Jma Hannan
Background:Moringa oleifera has potential anti-hyperglycemic effects that is reported earlier by different scientific group using animal diabetic models. We aimed to explore the possible mechanism of action of M. oleifera extract through different method. Methods : Primarily we measured Fasting Blood Glucose and performed Glucose Tolerance Test, in type 2 diabetic rats. Further we studied the effect of extracts on pancreatic insulin concentration. Extracts effect on carbohydrate break down was assayed using α-amylase inhibition assays and assay of GI tracts six different segments...
March 23, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334990/insulin-resistance-and-exendin-4-treatment-for-multiple-system-atrophy
#11
Fares Bassil, Marie-Hélène Canron, Anne Vital, Erwan Bezard, Yazhou Li, Nigel H Greig, Seema Gulyani, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Wassilios G Meissner
Multiple system atrophy is a fatal sporadic adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with no symptomatic or disease-modifying treatment available. The cytopathological hallmark of multiple system atrophy is the accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates in oligodendrocytes, forming glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Impaired insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signalling (IGF-1) and insulin resistance (i.e. decreased insulin/IGF-1) have been reported in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Increasing evidence also suggests impaired insulin/IGF-1 signalling in multiple system atrophy, as corroborated by increased insulin and IGF-1 plasma concentrations in multiple system atrophy patients and reduced IGF-1 brain levels in a transgenic mouse model of multiple system atrophy...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334911/mertk-rs4374383-variant-predicts-incident-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-role-of-mononuclear-cell-activation-and-adipokine-response-to-dietary-fat
#12
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Daria Bongiovanni, Luciana Framarin, Mara Berrutti, Nicola Leone, Stefania Corvisieri, Renato Parente, Federica Molinaro, Antonio Sircana, Bo Simona, Roberto Gambino
The loss-of-function rs4374383 G>A variant in Myeloid-epithelial-reproductive Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) gene has been linked to hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. MERTK is expressed by immune and non-immune cells involved in inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. We assessed the impact of MERTK rs4374383 G>A variant on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and severity and on glucose and lipid metabolism.We followed-up 305 healthy nonobese nondiabetic, metabolic syndrome-free insulin sensitive participants in a population-based study, characterized for MERTK G>A polymorphism, adipokine profile and inflammatory markers...
March 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332771/prenatal-high-fat-diet-alters-placental-morphology-nutrient-transporter-expression-and-mtorc1-signaling-in-rat
#13
Lin Song, Bo Sun, Gretha J Boersma, Zachary A Cordner, Jianqun Yan, Timothy H Moran, Kellie L K Tamashiro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine how the rat placenta and fetus respond to maternal high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and to identify the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow (13.5% fat) or HF (60% fat) diet during gestation. Placentas were collected on gestation day 21. RESULTS: HF dams had greater fat mass, higher plasma leptin, lower plasma adiponectin, and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332577/absence-of-role-of-dietary-protein-sensing-in-the-metabolic-benefits-of-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-in-the-mouse
#14
Aude Barataud, Daisy Goncalves, Jennifer Vinera, Carine Zitoun, Adeline Duchampt, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Gilles Mithieux
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces remission or substantial improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) but underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The beneficial effects of dietary proteins on energy and glucose homeostasis are mediated by the antagonist effects of peptides toward mu-opioid receptors (MORs), which are highly expressed in the distal gut. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of RYGB could depend at least in part on the interaction of peptides from food with intestinal MORs. Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) was performed in obese and lean wild-type (WT) or MOR deficient (MOR(-/-)) mice...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331372/a-glucokinase-gene-mutation-in-a-young-boy-with-diabetes-mellitus-hyperinsulinemia-and-insulin-resistance
#15
Andrey O Emelyanov, Elena Sechko, Ekaterina Koksharova, Igor Sklyanik, Tamara Kuraeva, Alexander Mayorov, Valentina Peterkova, Ivan Dedov
We report the case of a 12-year-old boy with a glucokinase (GCK) mutation, and diabetes with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. For 4 years, the patient intermittently received insulin medications Actrapid HM and Protaphane HM (total dose 5 U/day), with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels of 6.6%-7.0%. After extensive screening the patient was found to carry a heterozygous mutation (p.E256K) in GCK (MIM #138079, reference sequence NM_000162.3). Insulin therapy was replaced by metformin at 1,700 mg/day...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331351/long-term-management-of-type-2-diabetes-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists
#16
REVIEW
Hamish Courtney, Rahul Nayar, Chinnadorai Rajeswaran, Ravi Jandhyala
Continuously reducing excess blood glucose is a primary goal for the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most patients with T2D require glucose-lowering medications to achieve and maintain adequate glycemic control; however, treatment failure may occur, limiting treatment options. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are an emerging therapeutic class that can be prescribed for patients instead of basal insulin after the failure of oral therapies. Recent studies have focused on the durability and tolerability of long-term GLP-1RA therapy...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329436/prospective-evaluation-of-a-week-one-overnight-metyrapone-test-with-subsequent-dynamic-assessments-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-after-pituitary-surgery
#17
Katherine English, Warrick J Inder, Zara Weedon, Goce Dimeski, Jane Sorbello, Anthony W Russell, Emma L Duncan, Ross Cuneo
OBJECTIVE: To determine if an overnight metyrapone test (OMT) within the first week post pituitary surgery can definitively assess the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, compared with subsequent dynamic tests and glucocorticoid requirement at 6 months. DESIGN: Prospective study measuring morning cortisol levels on day 3 and 4 post-operatively, OMT day 5-7 and week 6, 250μg short Synacthen test (SST) week 6 and insulin tolerance test (ITT) week 7. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Forty participants who underwent pituitary surgery at a single centre (Cushing's disease excluded) and were followed for at least 6 months...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329397/resveratrol-improves-vascular-function-and-mitochondrial-number-but-not-glucose-metabolism-in-older-adults
#18
Rena M Pollack, Nir Barzilai, Valentin Anghel, Ameya S Kulkarni, Aaron Golden, Pilib O'Broin, David A Sinclair, Michael S Bonkowski, Alexander J Coleville, Danielle Powell, Sharon Kim, Ruin Moaddel, Daniel Stein, Kehao Zhang, Meredith Hawkins, Jill P Crandall
Background: Resveratrol, a plant-derived polyphenol, has been reported to improve glucose metabolism and vascular function and to extend life span in animal models, but studies in humans have been inconclusive. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, we treated older glucose-intolerant adults (n = 30) with resveratrol (2-3 g/daily) or placebo, each for 6 weeks. A standard mixed-meal test was used to assess insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) and secretion (C-peptide deconvolution) and vascular function by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry...
March 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328533/plasma-but-not-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-concentration-is-decreased-by-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-induced-hyperglycemia-in-children
#19
Shunsuke Araki, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Reiko Saito, Aoi Kawakita, Mami Eguchi, Motohide Goto, Kazuyasu Kubo, Rinko Kawagoe, Yasusada Kawada, Koichi Kusuhara
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding the relationships among circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and glucose or insulin in children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to investigate whether circulating BDNF levels would change during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: We performed the OGTT and measured the serial changes in BDNF levels in both plasma and serum. RESULTS: There were 22 subjects in the normal type (N) group and 20 in the borderline/diabetic type (B/D) group, defined by the results of the OGTT...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327709/fish-oil-supplementation-inhibits-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-improves-insulin-resistance-involvement-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase
#20
Wenqi Yang, Xu Chen, Ming Chen, Yanping Li, Qing Li, Xinwei Jiang, Yan Yang, Wenhua Ling
The beneficial effects of fish oil consumption on glucose metabolism have been generally reported. However, the mechanism underlying the fish oil-induced protective effects against insulin resistance remains unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is recognized as an important contributor to insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether fish oil supplementation reduces ER stress and ameliorates insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice, and to investigate the molecular mechanism of fish oil-induced benefits on ER stress...
March 22, 2017: Food & Function
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