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Insulin tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231072/total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation-resolves-pain-in-young-children-with-severe-chronic-pancreatitis
#1
Melena D Bellin, Gregory P Forlenza, Kaustav Majumder, Megan Berger, Martin L Freeman, Gregory J Beilman, Ty B Dunn, Timothy L Pruett, Michael Murati, Joshua J Wilhelm, Marie Cook, David E R Sutherland, Sarah J Schwarzenberg, Srinath Chinnakotla
OBJECTIVES: Fear of diabetes and major surgery may prohibit referral of young children severely affected by pancreatitis for total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplant (TPIAT). We evaluated outcomes in our youngest TPIAT recipients, 3 to 8 years of age at surgery. METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for 17 children (9 girls) ages 8 years or younger undergoing TPIAT from 2000 to 2014. Most (14/17) had genetic risk factors for pancreatitis. Since 2006, TPIAT recipients were followed prospectively with health questionnaires including assessments of pain and narcotic use, and scheduled hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and mixed-meal tolerance tests (6 mL/kg Boost HP) before surgery, and at regular intervals after...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229385/early-pregnancy-biochemical-predictors-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#2
REVIEW
Camille E Powe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Universal oral glucose tolerance-based screening is employed to identify pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as treatment of this condition decreases the risk of associated complications. A simple and accurate blood test which identifies women at low or high risk for GDM in the first trimester would have the potential to decrease costs and improve outcomes through prevention or treatment. This review summarizes published data on early pregnancy biomarkers which have been tested as predictors of GDM...
February 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228748/chromogranin-a-regulation-of-obesity-and-peripheral-insulin-sensitivity
#3
REVIEW
Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and granulogenic factor in endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, as well as in neurons, and has a regulated secretory pathway. The intracellular functions of CgA include the initiation and regulation of dense-core granule biogenesis and sequestration of hormones in neuroendocrine cells. This protein is co-stored and co-released with secreted hormones. The extracellular functions of CgA include the generation of bioactive peptides, such as pancreastatin (PST), vasostatin, WE14, catestatin (CST), and serpinin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228317/short-term-therapy-with-combination-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-saxagliptin-metformin-extended-release-xr-is-superior-to-saxagliptin-or-metformin-xr-monotherapy-in-prediabetic-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-single-blind-randomized-pilot-study
#4
Karen E Elkind-Hirsch, Martha S Paterson, Ericka L Seidemann, Hanh C Gutowski
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor saxagliptin (SAXA), metformin extended release (MET), and combination (SAXA-MET) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and impaired glucose regulation. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, single-blind drug study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENT(S): Patients (n = 38) with PCOS (aged 18-42 years) and prediabetic hyperglycemia determined by a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test...
January 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227704/comparing-glucose-and-insulin-data-from-the-two-hour-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-in-metabolic-syndrome-subjects-and-marathon-runners
#5
Miguel Altuve, Gilberto Perpinan, Erika Severeyn, Sara Wong, Miguel Altuve, Gilberto Perpinan, Erika Severeyn, Sara Wong, Sara Wong, Gilberto Perpinan, Erika Severeyn
Glucose is the main energy source of the body's cells and is essential for normal metabolism. Two pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, are involved in glucose home-ostasis. Alteration in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations could lead to distinct symptoms and diseases, ranging from mental function impairment to coma and even death. Type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are typical examples of abnormal glucose metabolism that increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227268/estimation-of-second-phase-insulin-secretion-in-the-zucker-fatty-rat
#6
Micaela Morettini, Francesco Di Nardo, Carla E Cogo, Emanuela Faelli, Sandro Fioretti, Laura Burattini, Piero Ruggeri, Micaela Morettini, Francesco Di Nardo, Carla E Cogo, Emanuela Faelli, Sandro Fioretti, Laura Burattini, Piero Ruggeri, Emanuela Faelli, Sandro Fioretti, Micaela Morettini, Piero Ruggeri, Laura Burattini, Francesco Di Nardo, Carla E Cogo
The purpose of the present study was to test the efficacy of the empiric index SPIR (Second-phase Insulin Release) in the quantification of second-phase insulin secretion in the Zucker Fatty Rat. SPIR index is defined as the area under the curve of insulin between 8 and 90 min after an Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT). The validation of such index was performed against the second-phase β-cell responsiveness index (Φ2) provided by C-peptide minimal model. To this aim, Φ2 and SPIR were simultaneously computed from IVGTT data, measured in six Zucker fatty rats (ZFR), 7-to-9week-old, and seven age-matched Zucker lean rats (ZLR)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225835/mulberry-extract-improves-glucose-tolerance-and-decreases-insulin-concentrations-in-normoglycaemic-adults-results-of-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#7
Mark Lown, Richard Fuller, Helen Lightowler, Ann Fraser, Andrew Gallagher, Beth Stuart, Christopher Byrne, George Lewith
BACKGROUND: High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME), may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut. METHODS: A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224315/modeling-of-free-fatty-acid-dynamics-insulin-and-nicotinic-acid-resistance-under-acute-and-chronic-treatments
#8
Robert Andersson, Tobias Kroon, Joachim Almquist, Mats Jirstrand, Nicholas D Oakes, Neil D Evans, Michael J Chappel, Johan Gabrielsson
Nicotinic acid (NiAc) is a potent inhibitor of adipose tissue lipolysis. Acute administration results in a rapid reduction of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Sustained NiAc exposure is associated with tolerance development (drug resistance) and complete adaptation (FFA returning to pretreatment levels). We conducted a meta-analysis on a rich pre-clinical data set of the NiAc-FFA interaction to establish the acute and chronic exposure-response relations from a macro perspective. The data were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed-effects framework...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223777/phloretin-exerts-hypoglycemic-effect-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-and-improves-insulin-resistance-in-vitro
#9
Xin Shen, Nan Zhou, Le Mi, Zishuo Hu, Libin Wang, Xueying Liu, Shengyong Zhang
The present study investigated the possible antiobesity and hypoglycemic effects of phloretin (Ph). In an attempt to discover the hypoglycemic effect and potential mechanism of Ph, we used the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and (L6) myotubes. Daily oral treatment with Ph for 4 weeks significantly (P<0.05) reduced postprandial blood glucose and improved islet injury and lipid metabolism. Glucose consumption and glucose tolerance were improved by Ph via GOD-POD method. Western blot results revealed that the expression of Akt, PI3K, IRS-1, and GLUT4 were upregulated in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes (T2D) rats and in L6 myotubes by Ph...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223503/mitochondrial-energy-deficiency-leads-to-hyperproliferation-of-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-and-enhanced-insulin-sensitivity
#10
Ryan M Morrow, Martin Picard, Olga Derbeneva, Jeremy Leipzig, Meagan J McManus, Gilles Gouspillou, Sébastien Barbat-Artigas, Carlos Dos Santos, Russell T Hepple, Deborah G Murdock, Douglas C Wallace
Diabetes is associated with impaired glucose metabolism in the presence of excess insulin. Glucose and fatty acids provide reducing equivalents to mitochondria to generate energy, and studies have reported mitochondrial dysfunction in type II diabetes patients. If mitochondrial dysfunction can cause diabetes, then we hypothesized that increased mitochondrial metabolism should render animals resistant to diabetes. This was confirmed in mice in which the heart-muscle-brain adenine nucleotide translocator isoform 1 (ANT1) was inactivated...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223344/an-intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-ceramide-signaling-axis-modulates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-in-mice
#11
Cen Xie, Changtao Jiang, Jingmin Shi, Xiaoxia Gao, Dongxue Sun, Lulu Sun, Ting Wang, Shogo Takahashi, Mallappa Anitha, Kristopher W Krausz, Andrew D Patterson, Frank J Gonzalez
Increasing evidence supports the view that intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is involved in glucose tolerance and that FXR signaling can be profoundly impacted by the gut microbiota. Selective manipulation of the gut microbiota-FXR signaling axis was reported to significantly impact glucose intolerance, but the precise molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an over-the-counter dietary supplement and an inhibitor of bacterial bile salt hydrolase, increased levels of intestinal tauro-β-muricholic acid, which selectively suppresses intestinal FXR signaling...
March 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223291/ctrp7-deletion-attenuates-obesity-linked-glucose-intolerance-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-hepatic-stress
#12
Pia S Petersen, Xia Lei, Risa M Wolf, Susana Rodriguez, Stefanie Y Tan, Hannah C Little, Michael A Schweitzer, Thomas H Magnuson, Kimberley E Steele, G William Wong
Chronic low-grade inflammation and cellular stress are important contributors to obesity-linked metabolic dysfunction. Here, we uncover an immune-metabolic role for C1q/TNF-related protein 7 (CTRP7), a secretory protein of the C1q family with previously unknown function. In obese humans, circulating CTRP7 levels were markedly elevated and positively correlated with BMI, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance index, hemoglobin A1c, and triglyceride levels. Expression of CTRP7 in liver was also significantly upregulated in obese humans and positively correlated with gluconeogenic genes...
February 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218490/comparative-effects-of-energy-restriction-and-resveratrol-intake-on-glycemic-control-improvement
#13
I Milton-Laskibar, L Aguirre, M T Macarulla, U Etxeberria, F I Milagro, J A Martínez, J Contreras, M P Portillo
Resveratrol (RSV) has been proposed as an energy restriction mimetic. This study aimed to compare the effects of RSV and energy restriction on insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Any additive effect of both treatments was also analyzed. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks. They were then distributed in four experimental groups which were either fed a standard control diet (C), or treated with RSV (30 mg/kg/d), or submitted to energy restriction (R, 15%), or treated with RSV and submitted to energy restriction (RR)...
February 20, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217809/-generation-and-phenotype-analysis-of-zebrafish-mutations-of-obesity-related-genes-lepr-and-mc4r
#14
Fei Fei, Shao-Yang Sun, Yu-Xiao Yao, Xu Wang
Obesity has become a severe public health problem across the world, and seriously affects the health and life quality of human beings. Here we generated lepr and mc4r mutant zebrafish via the CRISPR/Cas9 technique, and performed morphological and functional characterizations of those mutants. We observed that there was no significant phenotypic difference between homozygous mutants and wild-type controls before 2.5 months post-fertilization (mpf). However, the adult lepr(-/-) and mc4r(-/-) individuals displayed increased food intake, heavier weight, and higher body fat percentage, the characteristics of obesity phenotypes...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217522/a-review-of-clinical-efficacy-and-safety-of-canagliflozin-300-mg-in-the-management-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
REVIEW
K M Prasanna Kumar, Sujoy Ghosh, William Canovatchel, Nishant Garodia, Sujith Rajashekar
Currently available antihyperglycemic agents, despite being effective, provide inadequate glycemic control and/or are associated with side effects or nonadherence. Canagliflozin, a widely used orally active inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), is a new addition to the therapeutic armamentarium of glucose-lowering drugs. This review summarizes findings from different clinical and observational studies of canagliflozin 300 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). By inhibiting SGLT2, canagliflozin reduces reabsorption of filtered glucose, thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion in patients with T2DM...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216543/circulating-mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-is-increased-in-newly-diagnosed-prediabetic-and-diabetic-patients-and-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#16
Tong Wu, Fang Zhang, Qiu Yang, Yuwei Zhang, Qinhui Liu, Wei Jiang, Hongyi Cao, Daigang Li, Shugui Xie, Nanwei Tong, Jinhan He
Evidence has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was involved in the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and development of insulin resistance. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a novel secreted protein upregulated by ER stress. This study aimed to assess serum level of MANF in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) participants and newly diagnosed prediabetic and T2DM patients. A total of 257 participants with NGT, newly diagnosed prediabetes or T2DM were recruited from Yinchao and Hangtian communities of Chengdu, Sichuan, China...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215313/low-molecular-fraction-of-wheat-protein-hydrolysate-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-in-an-enteroendocrine-l-cell-line-and-improves-glucose-tolerance-in-rats
#17
Masaki Kato, Takenori Nakanishi, Tsubasa Tani, Takanori Tsuda
The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by enteroendocrine L cells. Stimulating endogenous GLP-1 secretion by dietary factors is a promising strategy to increase GLP-1 action. Several studies have examined the specific physiological function of wheat protein hydrolysate. Some reports suggested that intake of wheat protein ameliorates hyperglycemia. We hypothesized that wheat protein hydrolysate reduces blood glucose concentration via stimulation of GLP-1 secretion. In this study, we investigated whether wheat protein hydrolysate stimulates GLP-1 secretion and its molecular mechanism in an enteroendocrine L cell line (GLUTag cells), and we examined the effect on glucose tolerance via stimulation of GLP-1 secretion followed by induction of insulin secretion in rats...
January 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214879/thiamine-deprivation-produces-a-liver-atp-deficit-and-metabolic-and-genomic-effects-in-mice-findings-are-parallel-to-those-of-biotin-deficiency-and-have-implications-for-energy-disorders
#18
Alain de J Hernandez-Vazquez, Josue Andres Garcia-Sanchez, Elizabeth Moreno-Arriola, Ana Salvador-Adriano, Daniel Ortega-Cuellar, Antonio Velazquez-Arellano
Thiamine is one of several essential cofactors for ATP generation. Its deficiency, like in beriberi and in the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, has been studied for many decades. However, its mechanism of action is still not completely understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Since it acts as a coenzyme for dehydrogenases of pyruvate, branched-chain keto acids, and ketoglutarate, its nutritional privation is partly a phenocopy of inborn errors of metabolism, among them maple syrup urine disease. In the present paper, we report metabolic and genomic findings in mice deprived of thiamine...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213107/hypoglycemic-effect-of-the-polyphenols-rich-extract-from-rose-rugosa-thunb-on-high-fat-diet-and-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#19
Liu Liu, Dan Tang, Haiqing Zhao, Xuelei Xin, Haji Akber Aisa
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rosa rugosa Thunb is traditional Uygur medicine, it is widely used for regulating blood condition, nourishing liver and gallbladder in Uygur ancient prescription. But the mechanism of Rosa rugosa Thunb on diabetes is still unclear. In here, we studied the hypoglycemic effect and explained one probable pathway of polyphenols rich extract from Rosa rugosa Thunb (RPE) on diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro, the effect of RPE on α-glucosidase inhibition was finished, and the antioxidant activity of RPE was evaluated by ABTS and DPPH assay...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211608/preclinical-characterisation-of-55p0251-a-novel-compound-that-amplifies-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-and-counteracts-hyperglycaemia-in-rodents
#20
Karin Stadlbauer, Barbara Brunmair, Zsuzsanna Lehner, Immanuel Adorjan, Thomas Scherer, Anton Luger, Leonhardt Bauer, Clemens Fürnsinn
AIMS: 55P0251 is a novel compound with blood glucose lowering activity in mice, which has been developed from a molecular backbone structure found in herbal remedies. We here report its basic pharmacological attributes and initial progress in unmasking the mode of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetic properties of 55P0251 were portrayed in several species. First efforts to elucidate the glucose lowering mechanism in rodents included numerous experimental protocols dealing with glucose tolerance, insulin secretion from isolated pancreatic islets, and comparison to established drugs...
February 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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