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Insulin tolerance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526921/glp-1-signalling-compensates-for-impaired-insulin-signalling-in-regulating-beta-cell-proliferation-in-%C3%AE-irko-mice
#1
Dan Kawamori, Jun Shirakawa, Chong Wee Liew, Jiang Hu, Tomoaki Morioka, Alokesh Duttaroy, Bryan Burkey, Rohit N Kulkarni
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate potential interactions between insulin and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 signalling pathways in the regulation of beta cell-cycle dynamics in vivo, in the context of the therapeutic potential of GLP-1 to modulate impaired beta cell function. METHODS: Beta cell-specific insulin receptor knockout (βIRKO) mice, which exhibit beta cell dysfunction and an age-dependent decrease in beta cell mass, were treated with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin...
May 20, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526920/effects-of-semaglutide-on-beta-cell-function-and-glycaemic-control-in-participants-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#2
Christoph Kapitza, Kirsten Dahl, Jacob B Jacobsen, Mads B Axelsen, Anne Flint
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Its effects on first- and second-phase insulin secretion and other measures of beta cell function and glycaemic control were assessed. METHODS: In this single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, conducted at the Profil Institut für Stoffwechselforschung, Germany, 75 adult (aged 18-64 years) participants with type 2 diabetes (eligibility: HbA1c of 6...
May 19, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525364/ogtt-1h-serum-c-peptide-to-plasma-glucose-concentration-ratio-is-more-related-to-beta-cell-function-and-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Hongmei Zhang, Bingxian Bian, Fan Hu, Qing Su
Objective To clarify the association between C-peptide index and pancreatic beta cell function and diabetes.Materials and methods We carried out a retrospective analysis of 1021 patients aged 27 to 80 without diabetes from January 2012 to January 2016. All subjects underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the glucose load. Plasma glucose concentrations, serum insulin levels, C-peptide levels, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and other biochemical indicators were determined...
February 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523482/an-rct-investigating-patient-driven-versus-physician-driven-titration-of-biasp-30-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-uncontrolled-using-nph-insulin
#4
Abdelmjid Chraibi, Shoorook Al-Herz, Bich Dao Nguyen, Djoko W Soeatmadji, Anil Shinde, Balasubramanian Lakshmivenkataraman, Samir H Assaad-Khalil
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to confirm the efficacy of patient-driven titration of BIAsp 30 in terms of glycemic control, by comparing it to physician-driven titration of BIAsp 30, in patients with type 2 diabetes in North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. METHODS: A 20-week, open-label, randomized, two-armed, parallel-group, multicenter study in Egypt, Indonesia, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, and Vietnam. Patients (n = 155) with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled using neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin were randomized to either patient-driven or physician-driven BIAsp 30 titration...
May 18, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523459/plasma-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-levels-are-increased-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-associated-with-the-first-phase-of-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-function-of-%C3%AE-cell
#5
J Wu, H Wei, H Qu, Z Feng, J Long, Q Ge, H Deng
PURPOSE: To detect plasma vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) in individuals with different glucose tolerance and investigate the relationship between plasma VEGF-B levels and the first phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 37 patients with impaired glucose regulation (IGR), and 39 Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects, all of whom underwent intravenous glucose tolerance test...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521878/combining-a-nontargeted-and-targeted-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-metabolic-pathways-significantly-altered-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#6
Alice Y Chang, Antigoni Z Lalia, Gregory D Jenkins, Tumpa Dutta, Rickey E Carter, Ravinder J Singh, K Sreekumaran Nair
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition of androgen excess and chronic anovulation frequently associated with insulin resistance. We combined a nontargeted and targeted metabolomics approach to identify pathways and metabolites that distinguished PCOS from metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Twenty obese women with PCOS were compared with 18 obese women without PCOS. Both groups met criteria for MetS but could not have diabetes mellitus or take medications that treat PCOS or affect lipids or insulin sensitivity...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516806/is-bisphenol-a-exposure-associated-with-the-development-of-glucose-intolerance-and-increased-insulin-resistance-in-thais
#7
La-Or Chailurkit, Pechngam Tengpraettanakorn, Suwannee Chanprasertyotin, Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul
Bisphenol A (BPA), the monomeric component of polycarbonate plastics, reportedly possesses endocrine-disrupting effects. Exposure to low levels of BPA during more vulnerable periods leads to abnormalities related to sexual development in experimental animals. Moreover, recently a few epidemiological studies in Caucasians have demonstrated the association of BPA exposure with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, in the present study we examined the association of BPA exposure and abnormal glucose tolerance in Thais. This is a cross-sectional study of 240 participants aged at least 50 years, randomly selected by computer-generated random numbers within each glucose tolerance status from an oral glucose tolerance study of 661 participants...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516218/a-high-fat-diet-can-affect-bone-healing-in-growing-rats
#8
Jéssica Suzuki Yamanaka, Gabriela Rezende Yanagihara, Bruna Leonel Carlos, Júnia Ramos, Brígida Batista Brancaleon, Ana Paula Macedo, João Paulo Mardegan Issa, Antônio Carlos Shimano
A high-fat diet (HFD) can have a negative effect on bone quality in young and old people. Although bone healing in children is normally efficient, there is no evidence that children who have a diet rich in fat have compromised bone fracture regeneration compared with children with recommended dietary fat levels. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of an HFD on bone healing in growing female rats. Twenty-six postweaning female Wistar rats were divided into two groups (13 animals per group): a standard diet (SD) group and an HFD (with 60% of energy from fat) group...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514281/acute-hyperinsulinemia-effects-on-systemic-markers-of-immune-activation-in-hiv
#9
Timothy K O'malley, Tricia H Burdo, Jake A Robinson, Kathleen V Fitch, Steven K Grinspoon, Suman Srinivasa
: The well-treated HIV population remains at risk for insulin resistance and chronic immune activation. We tested the effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on inflammation in HIV. Twenty HIV-infected and 10 non-HIV-infected individuals well-matched for BMI underwent oral glucose tolerance testing to stimulate insulin secretion and assess for changes in circulating sCD163, sCD14, and MCP-1. sCD14 decreased significantly after stimulation of hyperinsulinemia and no significant changes in sCD163 or MCP-1 were demonstrated in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected groups...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513455/glucose-tolerance-disorders-during-treatment-with-glucocorticoids-in-patients-with-inflammatory-diseases-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-based-on-the-analysis-of-data-from-the-literature-and-own-research-results
#10
Piotr Dąbrowski, Maria Majdan
Glucocorticoids are among the most frequently used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. They are widely used in the treatment of numerous autoimmune disorders. However, the treatment with glucocorticoids is connected with the risk of a number of side effects. Among them, glucose tolerance disorders play an important role. The results of meta-analyses show that the risk of diabetes is from 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in the case of treated patients in comparison to the general population. Glucocorticoids can directly impair pancreatic β-cell secretion...
May 4, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513068/a-randomized-controlled-trial-branched-chain-amino-acid-levels-and-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-obesity-and-sleep-apnea
#11
Antonia Barceló, Daniel Morell-Garcia, Neus Salord, Cristina Esquinas, Gerardo Pérez, Antonio Pérez, Carmen Monasterio, Merce Gasa, Ana Maria Fortuna, Josep Maria Montserrat, Mercedes Mayos
There is evidence that changes in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels may correlate with the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for affecting improvement in metabolic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) could mediate in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective randomized controlled trial of OSA patients with morbid obesity was conducted...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513004/effects-of-encapsulated-porcine-islets-on-glucose-and-c-peptide-concentrations-in-diabetic-nude-mice-6%C3%A2-months-after%C3%A2-intraperitoneal-transplantation
#12
Masuhiro Nishimura, Naho Iizuka, Yasutaka Fujita, Osamu Sawamoto, Shinichi Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: In patients with type 1 diabetes, allogeneic islet transplantation can provide normal HbA1c concentrations, but it requires immunosuppression. Transplanting encapsulated islets into the peritoneal cavity could reduce or eliminate the need for immunosuppression. One of the uncertain features of intraperitoneal islet transplantation is the difficulty of measuring C-peptide concentrations in peripheral blood, which is often used for the marker of islet function. We hypothesized that secreted C-peptide from intraperitoneally transplanted islets was mostly consumed in the peritoneal cavity, which resulted in low C-peptide concentrations in peripheral blood...
May 16, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512155/functional-high-intensity-training-improves-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Stephan Nieuwoudt, Ciarán E Fealy, Julie A Foucher, Amanda R Scelsi, Steven K Malin, Mangesh R Pagadala, Michael Rocco, Bartolome Burguera, John P Kirwan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by reductions in β-cell function and insulin secretion on the background of elevated insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve β-cell function, despite a subset of T2D patients displaying "exercise resistance". Further investigations into the effectiveness of alternate forms of exercise on β-cell function in the T2D patient population are needed. We examined the effect of a novel 6-week CrossFit™ Functional High Intensity Training (F-HIT) intervention on β-cell function in 12 sedentary adults with clinically diagnosed T2D (54±2 years, 166±16 mg/dL fasting glucose)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511905/hemorheological-alterations-in-adults-with-prediabetes-identified-by-hemoglobin-a1c-levels
#14
M A Marini, T V Fiorentino, F Andreozzi, G C Mannino, E Succurro, A Sciacqua, F Perticone, G Sesti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes has been previously reported. Herein, we investigated the association of blood viscosity with prediabetes, identified by glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) according to the new American Diabetes Association criteria, and subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study cohort includes 1136 non-diabetic adults submitted to anthropometrical evaluation, an oral glucose tolerance test and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT)...
April 21, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508276/effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-serum-12%C3%AE-hydroxylated-bile-acids-in-a-diabetic-rat-model
#15
Minggang Wang, Qunzheng Wu, Haibin Xie, Yi Shao, Mingwei Zhong, Xiang Zhang, Shaozhuang Liu, Xiao He, Sanyuan Hu, Guangyong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a prevalent disease that endangers human health. Bariatric surgery can effectively relieve insulin resistance with elevated serum bile acids (BAs). 12α-Hydroxylated BAs were previously reported to be associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in 12α-hydroxylated BA composition and possible associated mechanisms in diabetic rats following sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS: SG and sham operations were performed in diabetic rats induced by high-fat diet feeding and streptozotocin...
May 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507819/radix-stellariae-extract-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-c57bl-6-mice-by-accelerating-energy-metabolism
#16
Yin Li, Xin Liu, Yu Fan, Baican Yang, Cheng Huang
Stellaria dichotoma L. is widely distributed in Ningxia and surrounding areas in northwestern China. Its root, Radix Stellariae (RS), has been used in herbal formulae for treating asthenic-fever, infection, malaria, dyspepsia in children and several other symptoms. This study investigated whether the RS extract (RSE) alleviates metabolic disorders. The results indicated that RSE significantly inhibited body weight gain in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed C57BL/6 mice, reduced fasting glucose levels, and improved insulin tolerance...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507444/antibodies-against-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-and-indices-of-insulin-resistance-and-insulin-secretion-in-nondiabetic-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#17
Carlos O Mendivil, Freddy Jk Toloza, Maria L Ricardo-Silgado, Martha C Morales-Álvarez, Jose O Mantilla-Rivas, Jairo A Pinzón-Cortés, Hernán N Lemus
BACKGROUND: Autoimmunity against insulin-producing beta cells from pancreatic islets is a common phenomenon in type 1 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Some reports have also related beta-cell autoimmunity to insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which autoimmunity against components of beta cells is present and relates to IR and insulin secretion in nondiabetic adults is uncertain. AIM: To explore the association between antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), a major antigen from beta cells, and indices of whole-body IR and beta-cell capacity/insulin secretion in adults who do not have diabetes...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507343/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-vascular-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-are-exacerbated-by-trail-deletion-in-mice
#18
Siân P Cartland, Hanis H Harith, Scott W Genner, Lei Dang, Victoria C Cogger, Melissa Vellozzi, Belinda A Di Bartolo, Shane R Thomas, Leon A Adams, Mary M Kavurma
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates steatosis, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) and liver cirrhosis, associating with diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is protective of CVD. We aimed to determine whether TRAIL protects against insulin resistance, NAFLD and vascular injury. Twelve-week high fat diet (HFD)-fed Trail (-/-) mice had increased plasma cholesterol, insulin and glucose compared to wildtype. Insulin tolerance was impaired with TRAIL-deletion, with reduced p-Akt, GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505543/chronic-administration-of-apple-polyphenols-ameliorates-hyperglycaemia-in-high-normal-and-borderline-subjects-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Toshihiko Shoji, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Tomisato Miura, Kazuaki Nagashima, Kasane Ogura, Nobuya Inagaki, Mari Maeda-Yamamoto
AIMS: We previously reported that apple polyphenols (AP) and their major active components, procyanidins, had beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and diabetes in diabetic ob/ob mice. The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of chronic AP administration on glucose tolerance in high-normal and borderline human subjects. METHODS: Subjects (n=65) with a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of 100-125mg/dL determined during a recent health check-up were randomised to receive tablets containing AP (600mg/day) or placebo tablets for 12weeks in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial...
May 2, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505362/lipidomic-profiling-reveals-distinct-differences-in-plasma-lipid-composition-in-healthy-prediabetic-and-type-2-diabetic-individuals
#20
Huanzi Zhong, Chao Fang, Yanqun Fan, Yan Lu, Bo Wen, Huahui Ren, Guixue Hou, Fangming Yang, Hailiang Xie, Zhuye Jie, Ye Peng, Zhiqiang Ye, Jiegen Wu, Jin Zi, Guoqing Zhao, Jiayu Chen, Xiao Bao, Yihe Hu, Yan Gao, Jun Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Chuanming Ni, Junhua Li, Siqi Liu
Background: The relationship between dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) has been extensively reported, but the global lipid profiles, especially in the East Asia population, associated with the development of T2D remain to be characterized. Results: Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect the global lipidome in the fasting plasma of 293 Chinese individuals, including 114 T2D patients, 81 prediabetic subjects and 98 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT)...
May 15, 2017: GigaScience
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