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Artificial sweetner

Yukari Horio, Yongkun Sun, Chuang Liu, Takeshi Saito, Masaaki Kurasaki
Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR...
January 2014: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Rajendrakumar M Patel, Rakesh Sarma, Edwin Grimsley
Sucralose (trichlorogalactosucrose, or better known as Splenda) is an artificial sweetener from native sucrose that was approved by the FDA on April 1, 1998 (April Fool's Day). This observation of a potential causal relationship between sucralose and migraines may be important for physicians to remember this can be a possible trigger during dietary history taking. Identifying further triggers for migraine headaches, in this case sucralose, may help alleviate some of the cost burden (through expensive medical therapy or missed work opportunity) as well as provide relief to migraineurs...
September 2006: Headache
Sameer Sharma, N K Jain, S K Kulkarni
The purpose of the present study was to investigate analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of aspartame, an artificial sweetner and its combination with various opioids and NSAIDs for a possible synergistic response. The oral administration of aspartame (2-16mg/kg, po) significantly increased the pain threshold against acetic acid-induced writhes in mice. Co-administration of aspartame (2mg/kg, po) with nimesulide (2 mg/kg, po) and naproxen (5 mg/kg, po) significantly reduced acetic acid-induced writhes as compared to effects per se of individual drugs...
June 2005: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
T A Houpt, S P Frankmann, R Berlin
Electrophysiological and biochemical evidence suggests that cAMP mediates sweet taste transduction. Neural recordings from anesthetized rats and in vitro preparations demonstrate that membrane-per-meable cAMP analogues mimic the effects of sucrose and artificial sweetners. We presented solutions of sodium 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3'-5'-cyclic monophosphate (8cpt-cAMP), a water-soluble, membrane-permeable cAMP analogue to freely behaving rats in short-term lickometer tests. Rats licked significantly less to 8cpt-cAMP than to sucrose or palatable saccharin solutions...
March 1996: Physiology & Behavior
G G Birch, S Z Dziedzic, R S Shallenberger, M G Lindley
The relative sweetness, onset times, and durations of response of D-glucose, D-xylose, D-quinovose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, and D-fucose were determined at four temperatures. The results can be interpreted by simple concepts of intramolecular hydrogen bonding which indicate that the so-called gamma-function of the tripartite AH,B, gamma sweet pharmacophore plays little or no part in sugar sweetness. Probably the Lemieux effect (intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the hydroxymethyl substituent and the 4-hydroxy group) is of overriding importance in determining sugar sweetness, and the separate features of intensity and time of response indicate distinct functions of chemoreception...
March 1981: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
R A Wiley, D A Pearson, V Schmidt, S B Wesche, J J Roxon
Sodium cyclamate is an effective artificial sweetner, which has been banned from the U.SD. market because of alleged carcinogenic properties. It appears that cyclohexylamine, liberated from cyclamate as a result of bacterial mtabolism, is the proximate carcinogen. In an effort to elucidate the extent to which analogues of cyclamate would enter into the bacterial metabolic pathway, as well as any stereochemical requirements which might exist, several 2-alkaly analogues of sodium cyclamate were prepared. It was found that trans-N-(2-methylcyclohexyl)sulfamate (trans-2a) and trans-N-(2-ethylcyclohexyl)sulfamate were hydrolyzed by freshly collected fecal suspensions from rats fed cyclamate, but not from control rats, at the same rate as cyclamate itself...
July 1983: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
I Momas, J P Daures, F Gremy
A case-control investigation about bladder cancer was carried out in Herault department with 219 incident cases from January 1987 to May 1989 and two control groups: 196 hospital controls randomized from hospital admission lists and 794 population controls randomized from census data. According to the comparison for those two groups, there are few socio-demographic differences; but hospital controls are more exposed to smoking, coffee, alcohol, artificial sweetners. So, the odds ratios with those hospital controls are under-estimated...
1991: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
G R Howe, J D Burch, A B Miller, B Morrison, P Gordon, L Weldon, L W Chambers, G Fodor, G M Winsor
A positive association between the use of artificial sweetners, particularly saccharin, and risk of bladder cancer in males has been observed in a case-control study of 480 men and 152 women in three Provinces in Canada. The risk ratio for ever versus never used is 1-6 for males (P=0-009, one-tailed test), and a significant dose-response relationship was obtained for both duration and frequency of use. The population attributable risk for males is estimated at 7%, though for diabetics, who have a similar risk ratio for artificial sweetner use as non-diabetics, the attributable risk is 33%...
September 17, 1977: Lancet
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