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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903148/obesity-and-energy-balance-in-gi-cancer
#1
Justin C Brown, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt
The prevalence of overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) have increased dramatically in the United States. Because increasing BMI is associated with the development of multiple different cancer types, including most GI cancers, providers will frequently encounter patients with GI cancer who are overweight or obese. Mounting evidence associates overweight and/or obesity with worsened prognosis in multiple GI cancers, including esophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900103/muscle-wasting-associated-with-the-long-term-use-of-mtor-inhibitors
#2
Bishal Gyawali, Tomoya Shimokata, Kazunori Honda, Chihiro Kondoh, Naomi Hayashi, Yasushi Yoshino, Naoto Sassa, Yasuyuki Nakano, Momokazu Gotoh, Yuichi Ando
Some targeted therapies alter muscle mass due to interference with pathways of muscle metabolism. The effects of mammalian target of ra pamycin (mTOR) inhibitors on muscle mass have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the computerized tomography (CT) scans of patients receiving mTOR inhibitors for at least 6 months taken at baseline and post-therapy were retrospectively retrieved, and body composition analyses were performed using the software, sliceOmatic version 5.0 (TomoVision, Inc., Magog, QC, Canada)...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897430/validation-of-the-sarqol%C3%A2-a-specific-health-related-quality-of-life-questionnaire-for-sarcopenia
#3
Charlotte Beaudart, Emmanuel Biver, Jean-Yves Reginster, René Rizzoli, Yves Rolland, Ivan Bautmans, Jean Petermans, Sophie Gillain, Fanny Buckinx, Nadia Dardenne, Olivier Bruyère
BACKGROUND: A specific self-administrated health-related quality of life questionnaire for sarcopenia, the Sarcopenia and Quality Of Life (SarQoL®), has been recently developed. This questionnaire is composed of 55 items translated into 22 questions and organized into seven domains of quality of life. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the psychometric properties (discriminative power, validity, reliability, floor and ceiling effects) of the SarQoL® questionnaire. METHODS: Sarcopenic subjects were recruited in an outpatient clinic in Liège, Belgium and were diagnosed according to the algorithm developed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896949/sarcopenia-predicts-readmission-and-mortality-in-elderly-patients-in-acute-care-wards-a-prospective-study
#4
Ming Yang, Xiaoyi Hu, Haozhong Wang, Lei Zhang, Qiukui Hao, Birong Dong
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate the associations between sarcopenia and long-term mortality and readmission in a population of elderly inpatients in acute care wards. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in the acute care wards of a teaching hospital in western China. The muscle mass was estimated according to a previously validated anthropometric equation. Handgrip strength was measured with a handheld dynamometer, and physical performance was measured via a 4 m walking test...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890486/towards-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-understand-and-manage-obesity-and-related-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Stephan C Bischoff, Yves Boirie, Tommy Cederholm, Michael Chourdakis, Cristina Cuerda, Nathalie M Delzenne, Nicolaas E Deutz, Denis Fouque, Laurence Genton, Carmen Gil, Berthold Koletzko, Miguel Leon-Sanz, Raanan Shamir, Joelle Singer, Pierre Singer, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop, Anders Thorell, Arved Weimann, Rocco Barazzoni
Overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle result in overweight or obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, over 50% of both men and women in the WHO European Region were overweight, and approximately 23% of women and 20% of men were obese. Comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should include nutritional treatment to favor the best metabolic and nutritional outcome, as well as to induce potential disease-specific benefits from selected nutritional regimens...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885226/association-between-the-nutritional-status-and-the-severity-of-sarcopenia-among-community-dwelling-elderly-japanese-people
#6
Satsuki Komai, Yutaka Watanabe, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Hunkyung Kim, Ayako Edahiro, Hisashi Kawai, Hideyo Yoshida, Shuichi Obuchi, Yayoi Tanaka, Hirohiko Hirano
AIM: To investigate the association between nutritional evaluation indices (body mass index, albumin, and weight loss) and sarcopenia severity among community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 758 community-dwelling elderly people ≥65 years of age, categorized into two groups by based on Operation of long life medical care system (medical care system for elderly in the latter stage of life), the cut-off value for age used was 75...
2016: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883321/body-size-and-outcomes-in-dialysis-and-transplant-patients-does-it-matter
#7
Mehmet Sukru Sever
The terminologies of "body size", "body mass index (BMI)", "body weight", "large BMI" and "obesity" are controversial for defining the effects of "adiposity" or "fat excess" on the outcomes of dialysis and transplant patients. However, probably these terminologies will be continued to be used in the future as well, because of being older and simpler terminologies. In the general population obesity is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, while, it conferred a survival advantage to dialysis patients...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879307/unusual-cause-of-profound-weight-loss-in-a-young-woman
#8
Ashu Rastogi, Pavan Uppula, Kanchan Kumar Mukherjee, Anil Bhansali
A 27-year-old woman presented with anorexia, weight loss and psychiatric symptoms for the past 4 years. She did not have history of headache, visual disturbances or symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. She was sarcopenic with body mass index of 10.16 kg/m(2)Her systemic examination was normal except for temporal hemianopia suggesting a sellar/suprasellar lesion. Hormonal evaluation revealed pan-hypopituitarism with central diabetes insipidus. Subsequent neuroimaging revealed sellar-suprasellar mass lesion with intense contrast enhancement and leptomeningeal metastases...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876469/sarcopenic-obesity-definitions-by-body-composition-and-mortality-in-the-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Rakesh Malhotra, Serpil M Deger, Huzaifah Salat, Aihua Bian, Thomas G Stewart, Cindy Booker, Andrew Vincz, Brianna Pouliot, T Alp Ikizler
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenic obesity (SO), a combination of low muscle mass and high fat mass, is considered as risk factor for mortality in general population. It is unclear if SO affects mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. In this study, we aimed to determine whether body composition as assessed by currently available SO definitions is related to all-cause mortality in MHD subjects. We also examined the impact of applying different definitions on the prevalence of SO in our MHD database...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870708/sarcopenia-in-advanced-serous-ovarian-cancer
#10
Holger Bronger, Philipp Hederich, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Stephan Metz, Peter B Noël, Marion Kiechle, Barbara Schmalfeldt
OBJECTIVE: Cancer cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome comprising involuntary weight loss and muscle depletion (sarcopenia). Although weight loss has been associated with poor clinical outcome, there is only limited information on the prevalence and prognostic impact of sarcopenia in ovarian cancer so far. METHODS: Total skeletal muscle mass was determined by computed tomography image analysis of the third lumbar skeletal muscle cross-sectional area in 128 patients with advanced serous ovarian cancer...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865369/feasibility-of-using-head-and-neck-ct-imaging-to-assess-skeletal-muscle-mass-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#11
Justin E Swartz, Ajit J Pothen, Inge Wegner, Ernst J Smid, Karin M A Swart, Remco de Bree, Loek P H Leenen, Wilko Grolman
OBJECTIVES: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have a higher risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which is associated with adverse clinical outcome. As abdominal CT-imaging is often used to detect sarcopenia, such scans are rarely available in HNC patients, possibly explaining why no studies investigate the effect of sarcopenia in this population. We correlated skeletal muscle mass assessed on head and neck CT-scans with abdominal CT-imaging. METHODS: Head and neck, and abdominal CT-scans of trauma (n=51) and HNC-patients (n=52) were retrospectively analyzed...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864687/omega-3-fatty-acid-epa-improves-regenerative-capacity-of-mouse-skeletal-muscle-cells-exposed-to-saturated-fat-and-inflammation
#12
Amarjit Saini, Adam P Sharples, Nasser Al-Shanti, Claire E Stewart
Sarcopenic obesity is characterised by high fat mass, low muscle mass and an elevated inflammatory environmental milieu. We therefore investigated the effects of elevated inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (aging/obesity) and saturated fatty acid, palmitate (obesity) on skeletal muscle cells in the presence/absence of EPA, a-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with proposed anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity activities. In the present study we show that palmitate was lipotoxic, inducing high levels of cell death and blocking myotube formation...
November 18, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855417/testosterone-deficiency-and-testosterone-treatment-in-older-men
#13
Farid Saad, Gabriele Röhrig, Stephan von Haehling, Abdulmaged Traish
Frailty is a clinical condition related to changes in metabolism, to sarcopenia, and to decline in muscle mass and strength, bone mineral density, and physical function with aging. The pathophysiology of frailty is multifactorial and associated with comorbidities. Testosterone is implicated in regulating metabolic functions, maintenance of muscle and bone, and inhibition of adipogenesis. In older individuals, reduced testosterone is thought to contribute to an altered state of metabolism, loss of muscle and bone, and increased fat, leading to sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and frailty...
November 18, 2016: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829949/exercise-intervention-for-anti-sarcopenia-in-community-dwelling-older-people
#14
REVIEW
Ryo Miyazaki, Taro Takeshima, Kazuhiko Kotani
Sarcopenia is an age-related health problem in general communities. Effective exercise programs against sarcopenia remain necessary for community-dwelling older people. In order to summarize the available knowledge on this subject, we collected English articles from a MEDLINE/Pubmed database examining the effects of exercise interventions on sarcopenia-related outcome measures in community-dwelling older people. When nine articles, including eight randomized controlled trials, were reviewed, most studies demonstrated significant improvements in some outcome measures...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824658/influences-of-resistance-training-on-physical-function-in-older-obese-men-and-women-with-sarcopenia
#15
Katja Stoever, Anke Heber, Sabine Eichberg, Klara Brixius
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sarcopenic obesity is associated with disability, gait problems, and falls. Activities of daily living such as walking and climbing stairs are physically difficult or impossible for the individual with severe obesity. These aspects also limit participation in recreational activities or exercise programs. However, good muscle function is crucial to maintain functional independence. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of resistance training on physical function in older, obese persons with sarcopenia...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816756/sarcopenia-is-risk-factor-for-development-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-after-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-placement
#16
Silvia Nardelli, Barbara Lattanzi, Sabrina Torrisi, Francesca Greco, Alessio Farcomeni, Stefania Gioia, Manuela Merli, Oliviero Riggio
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an important complication in patients with cirrhosis who received transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). We investigated whether a decrease in muscle mass was associated independently with the occurrence of HE after TIPS. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 46 consecutive patients with cirrhosis (mean age, 58.6 ± 9.1 y; mean model for end-stage liver disease score, 11.3 ± 3.3; mean Child-Pugh score, 7...
November 2, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814937/skeletal-muscle-depletion-correlates-with-disease-activity-in-ulcerative-colitis-and-is-reversed-after-colectomy
#17
Tenghui Zhang, Chao Ding, Tingbin Xie, Jianbo Yang, Xujie Dai, Tengfei Lv, Yi Li, Lili Gu, Yao Wei, Jianfeng Gong, Weiming Zhu, Ning Li, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The body composition of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unclear. This study evaluated body composition in adult patients with UC and the associations of body composition with disease activity and surgical intervention. METHODS: This study included 99 patients with UC, 105 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 60 controls. Skeletal muscle area (SMA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) of the third lumbar vertebrae were evaluated by abdominal computed tomography...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810702/low-muscle-attenuation-is-a-prognostic-factor-for-survival-in-metastatic-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-first-line-palliative-chemotherapy
#18
Hánah N Rier, Agnes Jager, Stefan Sleijfer, Joost van Rosmalen, Marc C J M Kock, Mark-David Levin
BACKGROUND: Low muscle mass (LMM) and low muscle attenuation (LMA) reflect low muscle quantity and low muscle quality, respectively. Both are associated with a poor outcome in several types of solid malignancies. This study determined the association of skeletal muscle measures with overall survival (OS) and time to next treatment (TNT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A skeletal muscle index (SMI) in cm(2)/m(2) and muscle attenuation (MA) in Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using abdominal CT-images of 166 patients before start of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer...
October 27, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809450/sarcopenia-and-sarcopenic-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Kyung Mook Choi
Sarcopenia is an age-associated loss of muscle mass and decline in muscle strength; it is common in older adults and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite its prevalence, there is currently no universally adopted definition of sarcopenia. In addition to low muscle mass measurements, recent research has recognized the importance of muscle strength and physical performance. Aging induces changes in body composition, such as an increase in visceral fat and reduced muscle mass. Recently, the new concept of sarcopenic obesity has emerged, reflecting a combination of sarcopenia and obesity...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801546/defying-geometric-similarity-shape-centralization-in-male-uk-offshore-workers
#20
Arthur D Stewart, Robert J Ledingham, Graham Furnace, Hector Williams, Alan M Nevill
OBJECTIVES: Applying geometric similarity predictions of body dimensions to specific occupational groups has the potential to reveal useful ergonomic and health implications. This study assessed a representative sample of the male UK offshore workforce, and examined how body dimensions from sites typifying musculoskeletal development or fat accumulation, differed from predicted values. METHODS: A cross sectional sample was obtained across seven weight categories using quota sampling, to match the wider workforce...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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