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Maria Helena Gusmao-Sena, Karine Curvello-Silva, Jairza Maria Barreto-Medeiros, Carla Hilário Da-Cunha-Daltro
INTRODUCTION: The main changes in the body composition refer to the increase of adipose tissue and/or the decrease of muscular mass, and these changes have effect in many clinical outcomes. Sarcopenic obesity (SO) consists of the presence of excessive adipose tissue and deficit of muscular mass simultaneously. People with SO may have synergistic effect due to obesity and sarcopenia, with increases cardiovascular risk more than obesity itself. OBJECTIVE: To describe the findings in the literature about the association between SO and risk factors and/or cardiometabolic disease (CMD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Irene Fleur Kramer, Lex B Verdijk, Henrike M Hamer, Sjors Verlaan, Yvette C Luiking, Imre W K Kouw, Joan M Senden, Janneau van Kranenburg, Annemarie P Gijsen, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon
BACKGROUND: Studying the muscle protein synthetic response to food intake in elderly is important, as it aids the development of interventions to combat sarcopenia. Although sarcopenic elderly are the target group for many of these nutritional interventions, no studies have assessed basal or post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates in this population. OBJECTIVE: To assess the basal and post-prandial muscle protein synthesis rates between healthy and sarcopenic older men...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ma Paz Redondo-Del-Río, Ma Alicia Camina-Martín, Laura Moya-Gago, Sandra de-la-Cruz-Marcos, Vincenzo Malafarina, Beatriz de-Mateo-Silleras
OBJECTIVE: To compare body composition as assessed by conventional and vector bioelectrical impedance analysis according to the nutritional cataloging using body mass index (BMI) in a group of institutionalized elderly. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 38 institutionalized elderly. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedance analysis. Differences in body composition were analyzed using t-test and ANOVA, or their corresponding nonparametric tests. Statistical significance was set at p<0...
October 10, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
David Scott, Markus Seibel, Robert Cumming, Vasi Naganathan, Fiona Blyth, David G Le Couteur, David J Handelsman, Louise M Waite, Vasant Hirani
Body composition and muscle function have important implications for falls and fractures in older adults. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between sarcopenic obesity and its components with bone mineral density (BMD), and incident falls and fractures, in Australian community-dwelling older men. 1,486 men aged ≥70 years from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) study were assessed at baseline (2005-2007), 2 year follow-up (2007-2009; N = 1,238), and 5 year follow-up (2010-2013; N = 861)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
David Weber, Jin Long, Mary B Leonard, Babette Zemel, Joshua F Baker
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that adjustment of measures of lean mass for adiposity improves associations with physical function. Our objective was to develop and test a method to adjust appendicular lean mass for adiposity. METHODS: Whole-body DXA data in 14,850 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to generate sex-, and race-specific standard deviation scores (Z-Scores relative to age and T-scores relative to 25 year-olds) for appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2)...
2016: PloS One
Chorong Oh, Byeong Hwan Jeon, Shaun Nicholas Reid Storm, Sunkug Jho, Jae-Kyung No
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. METHODS: Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. RESULTS: Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights...
June 23, 2016: Nutrition
S Gérard, D Bréchemier, A Lefort, S Lozano, G Abellan Van Kan, T Filleron, L Mourey, C Bernard-Marty, M E Rougé-Bugat, V Soler, B Vellas, M Cesari, Y Rolland, L Balardy
BACKGROUND: The estimation of the risk of poor tolerance and overdose of antineoplastic agents protocols represents a major challenge in oncology, particularly in older patients. We hypothesize that age-related modifications of body composition (i.e. increased fat mass and decreased lean mass) may significantly affect tolerance to chemotherapy. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review for the last 25 years (between 1990 and 2015), using US National library of Medicine Medline electronic bibliographic database and Embase database of cohorts or clinical trials exploring (i) the interactions of body composition (assessed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, Bioelectrical Impedance Analyses, or Computerized Tomography) with pharmacokinetics parameters, (ii) the tolerance to chemotherapy, and (iii) the consequences of chemotherapies or targeted therapies on body composition...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Keisuke Maeda, Miki Takaki, Junji Akagi
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is a known risk factor for malnutrition and pneumonia. Although sarcopenia is hypothesized to cause dysphagia, its causality remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to investigate causality and the risk factors for sarcopenic dysphagia. METHODS: We enrolled 95 hospitalized patients aged 65 years or older who had restricted oral intake without dysphagia. The skeletal muscle index and Functional Oral Intake Scale were used to evaluate muscle mass and swallowing ability, respectively...
October 5, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Alexander Kalinkovich, Gregory Livshits
Sarcopenia, an age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass coupled with functional deterioration, may be exacerbated by obesity leading to higher disability, frailty, morbidity and mortality rates. In the combination of sarcopenia and obesity, the state called sarcopenic obesity (SOB), some key age- and obesity-mediated factors and pathways may aggravate sarcopenia. This review will analyze the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SOB. In obese adipose tissue (AT), adipocytes undergo hypertrophy, hyperplasia and activation resulted in accumulation of pro-inflammatory macrophages and other immune cells as well as dysregulated production of various adipokines that together with senescent cells and the immune cell-released cytokines and chemokines create a local pro-inflammatory status...
October 1, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
Shan-Shan Shen, Jiao-Jiao Chu, Lei Cheng, Xing-Kun Zeng, Ting He, Li-Yu Xu, Jiang-Ru Li, Xu-Jiao Chen
INTRODUCTION: With a rapidly ageing population, sarcopenic obesity, defined as decreased muscle mass and function combined with increased body fat, is a complex health problem. Although sarcopenic obesity contributes to a decline in physical function and exacerbates frailty in older adults, evidence from clinical trials about the effect of exercise and nutrition on this complex syndrome in Chinese older adults is lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We devised a study protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled trial...
September 30, 2016: BMJ Open
N Lou, C-H Chi, X-D Chen, C-J Zhou, S-L Wang, C-L Zhuang, X Shen
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. This study aims to explore the prevalence of sarcopenia in overweight and obese gastric cancer (GC) patients and figured out the impacts of sarcopenia on the postoperative complication of overweight and obese GC patients. METHODS: According to the recommended body-mass index (BMI) for Asian populations by WHO, we conducted a prospective study of overweight and obese gastric cancer patients (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2)) under curative gastrectomy from August 2014 to December 2015...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Kotomi Sakai, Enri Nakayama, Haruka Tohara, Tomomi Maeda, Motonobu Sugimoto, Takahiro Takehisa, Yozo Takehisa, Koichiro Ueda
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether tongue strength observed in older adult inpatients of a rehabilitation hospital is associated with muscle function, nutritional status, and dysphagia. A total of 174 older adult inpatients aged 65 years and older in rehabilitation (64 men, 110 women; median age, 84 years; interquartile range, 80-89 years) who were suspected of having reduced tongue strength due to sarcopenia were included in this study. Isometric tongue strength was measured using a device fitted with a disposable oral balloon probe...
September 29, 2016: Dysphagia
Danielle K Thomas, Marcus A Quinn, David H Saunders, Carolyn A Greig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical activity and nutritional supplementation interventions may be used to ameliorate age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Previous reviews have demonstrated the beneficial effects of resistance exercise training (RET) combined with protein or essential amino acids (EAA) in younger populations. Whether or not older adults also benefit is unclear. The aim of this review was to determine whether regular dietary supplementation with protein/EAA during a RET regimen augments the effects of RET on skeletal muscle in older adults...
October 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Sarah Lindsey, Kim Astroth, Pankaj Kumar
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic obesity, the dual condition of decreased muscle mass with increased fat mass, can affect morbidity, mortality, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this project was to determine the effects of the use of an educational toolbox on advanced practice nurses' (APNs') confidence in identifying and managing adult cancer survivors at risk for sarcopenic obesity. METHODS: APNs in an outpatient practice who care for adult cancer survivors received an educational toolbox with strategies to identify and manage adult cancer survivors at risk for sarcopenic obesity...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Jasminka Z Ilich, Owen J Kelly, Julia E Inglis
Conditions related to body composition and aging, such as osteopenic obesity, sarcopenia/sarcopenic obesity, and the newly termed osteosarcopenic obesity (triad of bone muscle and adipose tissue impairment), are beginning to gain recognition. However there is still a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria for these conditions. Little is known about the long-term impact of these combined conditions of osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity in older adults. Many may go undiagnosed and progress untreated. Therefore, the objective of this research is to create diagnostic criteria for osteosarcopenic obesity in older women...
2016: Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Asli Tufan, Fatih Tufan, Timur Selcuk Akpinar, Birkan Ilhan, Gulistan Bahat, Mehmet Akif Karan
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to evaluate the association of a decreased glomerular-filtration-rate (GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), estimated using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), creatinine- and cystatin C-based (CKDEPI-CR and CKDEPI-CC) Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations with handgrip strength (HGS). METHODS: Community-dwelling males aged ≥60 years admitted to outpatient clinic were included. We used MDRD, CKDEPI-CR, and CKDEPI-CC formulas for GFR estimation and corrected these for body surface area...
September 20, 2016: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
Toshimi Kaido, Yumiko Tamai, Yuhei Hamaguchi, Shinya Okumura, Atsushi Kobayashi, Hisaya Shirai, Shintaro Yagi, Naoko Kamo, Ahmed Hammad, Nobuya Inagaki, Shinji Uemoto
OBJECTIVE: Sarcopenia is characterized by muscle mass depletion and decrease in muscle power or physical activity. We previously reported that low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is closely involved with posttransplant mortality in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the effects of pretransplant sarcopenia on survival and examine sequential changes in sarcopenic parameters after LDLT. METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined by measuring SMM using a multifrequency body composition analyzer and assessing grip strength (GS) in 72 adults who underwent LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital between January 2013 and October 2015...
July 27, 2016: Nutrition
Alessandra Tramontano, Nicola Veronese, Giuseppe Sergi, Enzo Manzato, Diana Rodriguez-Hurtado, Stefania Maggi, Caterina Trevisan, Francesca De Zaiacomo, Valter Giantin
AIM: To assess the prevalence of sarcopenia and associated factors in a population of older people living in a rural area of the Peruvian Andes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study concerned 222 people aged ≥65 years. Sarcopenia was diagnosed on the basis of skeletal muscle mass, measured using bioimpedance analysis, and gait speed, measured with the 4-m walking test, as recommended by the International Working Group on sarcopenia. Self-reported physical activity, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the Six-Minute Walking Test also contributed information on participants' physical performance status...
September 12, 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Sunelle A Barnard, Marlien Pieters, Cornelie Nienaber-Rousseau, Herculina S Kruger
INTRODUCTION: Although the relationship of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with obesity has been well established, the relationship of PAI-1 with different body fat distribution patterns is less clear particularly in non-white ethnicities. METHODS: We investigated the cross-sectional association of PAI-1act with body fat % and two different body fat distribution patterns, namely sarcopenic obesity (SO) and visceral (VAT) compared to subcutaneous (SCAT) abdominal obesity, in 246 healthy African women by creating sub-groups according to different body fat distribution patterns...
October 2016: Thrombosis Research
Shinya Ishii, Chang Chang, Tomoki Tanaka, Aki Kuroda, Tetsuo Tsuji, Masahiro Akishita, Katsuya Iijima
The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women) randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed...
2016: PloS One
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