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Consolacion Garcia-Contreras, Marta Vazquez-Gomez, Laura Torres-Rovira, Jorge Gonzalez, Esteban Porrini, Magali Gonzalez-Colaço, Beatriz Isabel, Susana Astiz, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity are currently considered major global threats for health and well-being. However, there is a lack of adequate preclinical models for their study. The present trial evaluated the suitability of aged swine by determining changes in adiposity, fatty acids composition, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation, development of metabolic disturbances and structural changes in tissues and organs. Iberian sows with clinical evidence of aging-related sarcopenia were fed a standard diet fulfilling their maintenance requirements or an obesogenic diet for 100 days...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ru Wang, Peijie Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sabrina Rossi, Vincenzo Di Noia, Laura Tonetti, Antonia Strippoli, Michele Basso, Giovanni Schinzari, Alessandra Cassano, Antonio Leone, Carlo Barone, Ettore D'Argento
AIM: To evaluate gefitinib outcomes in EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring EGFR mutations, according to their sarcopenia status. PATIENTS & METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 33 patients with advanced NSCLC and EGFR mutations (exon 19 or 21), dividing them into sarcopenic patients, with low skeletal muscle index ≤39 cm2 /m2 for women and ≤55 cm2 /m2 for men, and nonsarcopenic patients. RESULTS: Sarcopenia does not affect response to gefitinib treatment in EGFR mutated NSCLC patients, even if it is a bad prognostic indicator for overall survival (p = 0...
March 12, 2018: Future Oncology
M Piasecki, A Ireland, J Piasecki, D W Stashuk, A Swiecicka, M K Rutter, D A Jones, J S McPhee
Sarcopenia results from the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and reduced function in older age. It is likely to be associated with the well-documented reduction of motor unit numbers innervating limb muscles and the increase in size of surviving motor units via reinnervation of denervated fibres. However no evidence currently exists to confirm the extent of motor unit remodelling in sarcopenic individuals. The aim of the present study was to compare motor unit size and number between young (n = 48), non-sarcopenic old (n = 13), pre-sarcopenic (n = 53) and sarcopenic (n = 29) men...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Masaki Mogi, Katsuhiko Kohara, Yasuharu Tabara, Kana Tsukuda, Michiya Igase, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Our previous report indicated that sarcopenia is associated with arterial stiffness and cardiovascular death. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease and its activation may be correlated with sarcopenia according to basic research. However, few clinical studies have assessed the correlation between skeletal muscle loss and RAS component concentrations in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the excretion of angiotensinogen (AGT) and aldosterone (Ald) in 24-h urine samples and clinical and sarcopenic indices...
March 9, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Wolfgang Kemmler, Matthias Kohl, Ellen Freiberger, Cornel Sieber, Simon von Stengel
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is characterized by low lean and high fat mass; i.e. from a functional aspect a disproportion between engine (muscle) and mass to be moved (fat). At present, most research focuses on the engine, but the close "cross talk" between age-associated adipose and skeletal muscle tissue inflammation calls for comprehensive interventions that affect both components alike. Protein and exercise are likely candidates, however with respect to the latter, the enthusiasm for intense and frequent exercise is rather low, especially in functionally limited older people...
March 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Roman Mayr, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Florian Zeman, Marieke Reiffen, Leopold Siebertz, Christoph Niessen, Armin Pycha, Bas W G van Rhijn, Maximilian Burger, Michael Gierth
PURPOSE: A single-center study was conducted to investigate the impact of sarcopenia as a predictor for 90-day mortality (90 dM) and complications within 90 days after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. METHODS: In total, 327 patients with preoperative available digital computed tomography (CT) scans of the abdomen and pelvis were identified. The lumbar skeletal muscle index was measured using preoperative abdominal CT to assess sarcopenia. Complications were recorded and graded according to Clavien-Dindo (CD)...
March 8, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Kyle Edmunds, Magnús Gíslason, Sigurður Sigurðsson, Vilmundur Guðnason, Tamara Harris, Ugo Carraro, Paolo Gargiulo
Sarcopenic muscular degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for mortality in aging populations. Recent investigations have realized the quantitative potential of computed tomography (CT) image analysis to describe skeletal muscle volume and composition; however, the optimum approach to assessing these data remains debated. Current literature reports average Hounsfield unit (HU) values and/or segmented soft tissue cross-sectional areas to investigate muscle quality. However, standardized methods for CT analyses and their utility as a comorbidity index remain undefined, and no existing studies compare these methods to the assessment of entire radiodensitometric distributions...
2018: PloS One
Heilok Cheng, Jielan Kong, Catherine Underwood, Peter Petocz, Vasant Hirani, Beryl Dawson, Fiona O'Leary
The loss of lean body mass, muscle strength and physical function causes significant problems in older adults. Protein and amino acid supplements can preserve muscle strength but the effect on function is variable. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of protein and amino acid supplementation on fat-free mass, muscle strength and physical function in malnourished, frail, sarcopenic, dependent or elderly with acute or chronic conditions, with or without rehabilitation exercise...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
V E Baracos, L Arribas
Body composition, defined as the proportions and distribution of lean and fat tissues in the human body, is an emergent theme in clinical oncology. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) is most easily overlooked in obese patients; the advent of secondary analysis of oncologic images provides a precise and specific assessment of sarcopenia. Here, we review the definitions, prevalence and clinical implications of sarcopenic obesity (SO) in medical and surgical oncology. Reported prevalence of SO varies due to the heterogeneity in the definitions and the variability in the cut points used to define low muscle mass and high fat mass...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Chih-Horng Wu, Ming-Chu Chang, Vladimir K Lyadov, Po-Chin Liang, Chyi-Mong Chen, Tiffany Ting-Fang Shih, Yu-Ting Chang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sarcopenia and cachexia are associated with pancreatic cancer and serve as important adverse prognostic factors. Body composition can be analyzed by routine computed tomography (CT) for cancer staging and has been used to study many types of cancer. The CT measurements are robust, but the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia vary among different studies. Age, sex and race are important factors that affect muscle and fat masses. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different sarcopenia diagnostic criteria on the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Katerina Trajanoska, Josje D Schoufour, Sirwan Kl Darweesh, Elizabeth Benz I, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Louise Jm Alfernik, Lies Lahousse, Guy Brusselle, Bruno Stricker, Sarwa Darwish Murad, M Carola Zillikens, Andre G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira
Sarcopenia, a complex multifactorial condition, is characterized by loss of muscle mass and function, which increases progressively with age. The existence of different definitions has contributed to the large variation in the prevalence estimates of sarcopenia. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general population using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) proposed definition and compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics between the non-sarcopenia, pre-sarcopenia, and sarcopenia individuals, with particular emphasis on the overlap with osteoporosis and fracture risk...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Martin Gaillard, Hadrien Tranchart, Sophie Maitre, Gabriel Perlemuter, Panagiotis Lainas, Ibrahim Dagher
BACKGROUND: Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become the primary procedure for many bariatric teams and staple-line leak represents its most feared complication. Sarcopenic obesity combines the risks of obesity and depleted lean mass leading possibly to an inferior surgical outcome after abdominal surgery. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of a potential link between radiologically determined sarcopenic obesity and staple-line leak risk after SG...
March 2, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Y Zhang, Q Hao, M Ge, B Dong
To our knowledge, no comprehensive meta-analysis has examined the association between sarcopenia and the risk of fractures. This systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies aims to summarize whether sarcopenia is a risk factor for fractures among community-dwelling older adults. We searched four electronic literature databases (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed) for relevant publications from inception to December 2017, using relevant keywords...
March 2, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Carla Van Aller, Jose Lara, Blossom C M Stephan, Lorenzo Maria Donini, Steven Heymsfield, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Jonathan C K Wells, Carla M Prado, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus on the definition of sarcopenic obesity (SO), resulting in inconsistent associations of SO with mortality risk. We aim to evaluate association of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) SO models with mortality risk in a US adult population (≥50 years). SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study population consisted of 3577 participants aged 50 years and older from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey with mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Verônica Porto de Freitas, Rafael da Silva Passos, Alinne Alves Oliveira, Ícaro J S Ribeiro, Ivna Vidal Freire, Ludmila Schettino, Mauro Fernandes Teles, Cezar Augusto Casotti, Rafael Pereira
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to compare the autonomic heart control parameters from sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic community-dwelling elders. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study including 76 community-dwelling old adults, which was clinically stratified as sarcopenic or non-sarcopenic, according to the current recommendations. They were submitted to 5-min recordings of successive RR intervals. The analysis of the RR intervals variability was carried out in time (mean RR, RMSSD, pNN50, SDNN and triangular index) and frequency domains (LFnu, HFnu and LF/HF ratio), and with nonlinear methods (SD1, SD2, and D2 )...
February 2, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Roman Mayr, Michael Gierth, Florian Zeman, Marieke Reiffen, Philipp Seeger, Felix Wezel, Armin Pycha, Evi Comploj, Matteo Bonatti, Manuel Ritter, Bas W G van Rhijn, Maximilian Burger, Christian Bolenz, Hans-Martin Fritsche, Thomas Martini
OBJECTIVE: A multicentre study was conducted to investigate the impact of sarcopenia as an independent predictor of oncological outcome after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. METHODS: In total, 500 patients with available digital computed tomography scans of the abdomen obtained within 90 days before surgery were identified. The lumbar skeletal muscle index was measured using pre-operative computed tomography. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Jingjie Xiao, Angelina Cain, Sarah A Purcell, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert J Contreras, Jeong-Su Kim, Robert Thornberry, Dawn Springs, M Cristina Gonzalez, Carla M Prado
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity (SO) and its association with health outcomes in patients seeking weight loss treatment from a bariatric center. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients [≥18 years old, body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 ] from the Tallahassee Memorial Bariatric Center and with baseline body composition assessment by bioelectrical impedance analysis were included. Fat mass index (FMI = fat mass/height2 ) and fat-free mass index (FFMI = fat free mass/height2 ) were calculated...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Francesco Bellanti, Antonino D Romano, Aurelio Lo Buglio, Valeria Castriotta, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Antonio Greco, Gaetano Serviddio, Gianluigi Vendemiale
OBJECTIVES: To define whether circulating markers of oxidative stress correlate with sarcopenia in terms of glutathione balance and oxidative protein damage, and whether these biomarkers are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. 115 out of 347 elderly subjects were classified as non-sarcopenic non-obese (NS-NO), sarcopenic non-obese (S-NO), non-sarcopenic obese (NS-O), and sarcopenic obese (S-O)...
March 2018: Maturitas
M Locquet, C Beaudart, O Bruyère, J A Kanis, L Delandsheere, J-Y Reginster
This study investigated the relationship between muscle and bone status in elderly individuals. Our results suggested links between sarcopenia and osteoporosis; impairment in muscle status (i.e., muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance) is associated with deterioration in bone mass and texture subsequently leading to an increased risk of fracture. INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence has shown associations between sarcopenia and osteoporosis, but existing studies face inconsistencies in the clinical definition of both conditions...
February 14, 2018: Osteoporosis International
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