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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319311/zinc-regulates-chemical-transmitter-storage-in-nanometer-vesicles-and-exocytosis-dynamics-as-measured-by-amperometry
#1
Lin Ren, Masoumeh Dowlatshahi Pour, Soodabeh Majdi, Xianchan Li, Per Malmberg, Andrew G Ewing
We applied electrochemical techniques with nano-tip electrodes to show that micromolar concentrations of zinc not only trigger changes in the dynamics of exocytosis, but also vesicle content in a model cell line. The vesicle catecholamine content in PC12 cells is significantly decreased after 100 μm zinc treatment, but, catecholamine release during exocytosis remains nearly the same. This contrasts with the number of molecules stored in the exocytosis vesicles, which decreases, and we find that the amount of catecholamine released from zinc-treated cells reaches nearly 100 % content expelled...
March 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318674/organ-donor-management-eight-common-recommendations-and-actions-that-deserve-reflection
#2
C Chamorro-Jambrina, M R Muñoz-Ramírez, J L Martínez-Melgar, M S Pérez-Cornejo
Despite major advances in our understanding of the physiopathology of brain death (BD), there are important controversies as to which protocol is the most appropriate for organ donor management. Many recent reviews on this subject offer recommendations that are sometimes contradictory and in some cases are not applied to other critically ill patients. This article offers a review of the publications (many of them recent) with an impact upon these controversial measures and which can help to confirm, refute or open new areas of research into the most appropriate measures for the management of organ donors in BD, and which should contribute to discard certain established recommendations based on preconceived ideas, that lead to actions lacking a physiopathological basis...
March 16, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314673/can-we-perform-rotational-atherectomy-in-patients-with-severe-aortic-stenosis-substudy-from-the-ocean-tavi-registry
#3
Toru Naganuma, Hiroyoshi Kawamoto, Kensuke Takagi, Hiroto Yabushita, Satoru Mitomo, Yusuke Watanabe, Shinichi Shirai, Motoharu Araki, Norio Tada, Futoshi Yamanaka, Masanori Yamamoto, Hirokazu Onishi, Sunao Nakamura, Akihiro Higashimori, Minoru Tabata, Kazuki Mizutani, Hiroshi Ueno, Kentaro Hayashida
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report the safety of coronary rotational atherectomy (RA) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). RA in the clinical setting seems challenging because coronary slow flow leads to hemodynamic instability. METHODS: Between October 2013 and May 2016, 1401 patients in the Optimized transCathEter vAlvular iNtervention (OCEAN) registry in Japan underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The primary study endpoint was procedural success, defined as residual stenosis <20% with final Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow 3...
February 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314177/gintonin-attenuates-depressive-like-behaviors-associated-with-alcohol-withdrawal-in-mice
#4
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Ra Mi Lee, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer extracts have been used to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression. However, little is known about the extracts' active ingredients and the molecular mechanisms underlying their reported anti-depressive effects. METHODS: Gintonin is an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand isolated from P. ginseng. BON cells, an enterochromaffin cell line, and C57BL/6 mice were used to investigate whether gintonin stimulates serotonin release...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303919/eosinophils-are-key-regulators-of-perivascular-adipose-tissue-and-vascular-functionality
#5
Sarah B Withers, Ruth Forman, Selene Meza-Perez, Daniel Sorobetea, Kasia Sitnik, Thomas Hopwood, Catherine B Lawrence, William W Agace, Kathryn J Else, Anthony M Heagerty, Marcus Svensson-Frej, Sheena M Cruickshank
Obesity impairs the relaxant capacity of adipose tissue surrounding the vasculature (PVAT) and has been implicated in resultant obesity-related hypertension and impaired glucose intolerance. Resident immune cells are thought to regulate adipocyte activity. We investigated the role of eosinophils in mediating normal PVAT function. Healthy PVAT elicits an anti-contractile effect, which was lost in mice deficient in eosinophils, mimicking the obese phenotype, and was restored upon eosinophil reconstitution. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that the loss of PVAT function was due to reduced bioavailability of adiponectin and adipocyte-derived nitric oxide, which was restored after eosinophil reconstitution...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300536/hydroxylation-of-4-hydroxyphenylethylamine-derivatives-by-r263-variants-of-the-oxygenase-component-of-p-hydroxyphenylacetate-3-hydroxylase
#6
Pirom Chenprakhon, Taweesak Dhammaraj, Rattikan Chantiwas, Pimchai Chaiyen
p-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase from Acinetobacter baumannii catalyzes the hydroxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA) to yield 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate (DHPA). In this study, we investigated whether variants of the oxygenase component (C2) could catalyze hydroxylation of 4-hydroxyphenylethylamines to synthesize catecholamine derivatives. Single turnover product analysis showed that the R263D variant can catalyze hydroxylation of tyramine to form dopamine with the highest yield (57%). The enzyme was also found to have dual substrate charge specificity because it can also maintain reasonable hydroxylation efficiency of HPA (86%)...
March 11, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299791/prospective-pilot-study-of-the-mastering-each-new-direction-psychosocial-family-systems-program-for-pediatric-chronic-illness
#7
Brian Distelberg, Daniel Tapanes, Natacha D Emerson, Whitney N Brown, Deepti Vaswani, Jackie Williams-Reade, Ara M Anspikian, Susanne Montgomery
Psychosocial interventions for pediatric chronic illness (CI) have been shown to support health management. Interventions that include a family systems approach offer potentially stronger and more sustainable improvements. This study explores the biopsychosocial benefits of a novel family systems psychosocial intervention (MEND: Mastering Each New Direction). Forty-five families participated in a 21-session intensive outpatient family systems-based program for pediatric CI. Within this single arm design, families were measured on five domains of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) self-report measures; Stress, Cognitive Functioning, Mental Health, Child HRQL, Family Functioning...
March 15, 2017: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298759/effect-of-magnesium-sulfate-and-clonidine-in-attenuating-hemodynamic-response-to-pneumoperitoneum-in-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#8
Shruthi P Kamble, Yatish Bevinaguddaiah, Dinesh Chillkunda Nagaraja, Vinayak S Pujar, Tejesh C Anandaswamy
BACKGROUND: Pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic procedures is associated with hemodynamic response, due to the release of catecholamines and vasopressin. Magnesium and clonidine have been used to attenuate such hemodynamic responses by inhibiting release of these mediators. We conducted this randomized, double-blinded study to assess which of the two attenuates hemodynamic response better. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists health status Classes I and II patients posted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into three groups of thirty patients each...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291572/noradrenaline-transporter-blockade-increases-fronto-parietal-functional-connectivity-relevant-for-working-memory
#9
Dennis Hernaus, Marta Ma Casales Santa, Jan Stefan Offermann, Thérèse Van Amelsvoort
Experimental animal work has demonstrated that dopamine and noradrenaline play an essential role in modulating prefrontal cortex-mediated networks underlying working memory performance. Studies of functional connectivity have been instrumental in extending such notions to humans but, so far, have almost exclusively focussed on pharmacological agents with a predominant dopaminergic mechanism of action. Here, we investigate the effect of a single dose of atomoxetine 60mg, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor, on working memory performance and associated functional connectivity during an n-back task in 19 healthy male volunteers...
March 10, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288667/dual-inhibition-of-thrombin-and-activated-factor-x-attenuates-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-and-protects-organ-function-in-a-baboon-model-of-severe-gram-negative-sepsis
#10
Herbert Schöchl, Martijn van Griensven, Stefan Heitmeier, Volker Laux, Ulrike Kipman, Jan Roodt, Soheyl Bahrami, Heinz Redl
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of procoagulant pathways may improve outcome in sepsis. We examined whether a dual short-acting thrombin (factor II) and factor X (FX)a inhibitor (SATI) ameliorates sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and is organ-protective. METHODS: Escherichia coli were infused for 2 h in 22 anesthetized baboons. The control (CO) group (n = 8) received sterile isotonic solution only. In the treatment groups, SATI was administered starting 15 minutes after the end of the bacterial exposure...
March 13, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288194/the-aromatic-amino-acid-hydroxylase-genes-aah1-and-aah2-in-toxoplasma-gondii-contribute-to-transmission-in-the-cat
#11
Zi T Wang, Shiv K Verma, Jitender P Dubey, L David Sibley
The Toxoplasma gondii genome contains two aromatic amino acid hydroxylase genes, AAH1 and AAH2, which encode proteins that produce L-DOPA, which can serve as a precursor of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that this pathway elevates host dopamine levels thus making infected rodents less fearful of their definitive Felidae hosts. However, L-DOPA is also a structural precursor of melanins, secondary quinones, and dityrosine protein crosslinks, which are produced by many species. For example, dityrosine crosslinks are abundant in the oocyst walls of Eimeria and T...
March 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288148/natriuretic-peptide-c-receptor-in-the-developing-sheep-lung-role-in-perinatal-transition
#12
Bobby Mathew, Christopher A D'Angelis, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Peter A Nickerson, June J Sokolowski, Vasantha H S Kumar, Huamei Wang, Karen A Wynn, Bruce A Holm, Rita M Ryan
BACKGROUND: At birth, the release of surfactant from Alveolar Type II (ATII) cells is stimulated by increased activity of the beta-adrenergic/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP- signaling cascade. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) stimulates surfactant secretion through Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A). ANP inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity through its binding to NPR-C. We wished to further understand the role of the NPR-C in perinatal transition. METHODS: We studied fetal and newborn sheep ATII expression of NPR-C and surfactant secretion in isolated ATIIs by measuring (3)[H] choline release into the media...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288049/catecholamine-induced-chest-pain-mimicking-infarction-due-to-an-mibg-negative-and-dopa-positive-succinate-dehydrogenase-syndrome-subunit-b-related-pheochromocytoma
#13
Alberto Mazza, Alice Ferretti, Antonella Paola Sacco, Domenico Rubello, Patrick M Colletti
This 16-year-old boy presented with acute retrosternal pain possibly representing acute myocardial infarction. Cardiac enzymes were within reference ranges. There were marked increases in metanephrine to 3299 μg/24 h (reference, <400 μg/24 h), normetanephrine to 1309 μg/24 h (reference, 0-390 μg/24 h), and chromogranin A to 1605 ng/mL (reference, 0-150 μg/24 h). An incidental left adrenal mass was found during CTPA performed to exclude pulmonary embolism. I-MIBG scintigraphy was negative, and genetic screening detected SDHB (succinate dehydrogenase syndrome subunit B) gene mutation...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287127/novel-enhancement-mechanism-of-tyrosine-hydroxylase-enzymatic-activity-by-nitric-oxide-through-s-nitrosylation
#14
Yuanyuan Wang, Chun Chau Sung, Kenny K K Chung
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a rate-limiting step enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines. Catecholamines function both as hormone and neurotransmitters in the peripheral and central nervous systems, therefore TH's expression and enzymatic activity is tightly regulated by various mechanisms. Several post-translational modifications have been shown to regulate TH's enzymatic activity such as phosphorylation, nitration and S-glutathionylation. While phosphorylation at N-terminal of TH can activate its enzymatic activity, nitration and S-glutathionylation can inactivate TH...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286852/acute-myocardial-infarction-following-naltrexone-consumption-a-case-report
#15
Bita Dadpour, Arash Gholoobi, Shahrad Tajoddini, Amir Habibi
Cardiovascular effects of opioid withdrawal have long been studied. It was reported that patients with underlying ischemic heart disease and atherosclerotic vessels may be complicated by a sudden physical and emotional stress due to withdrawal syndrome. But some other believes sudden increase in catecholamine level as a sympathetic overflow might effect on heart with and without underlying ischemia. In the current study, a patient on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) who experienced myocardial infarction (MI) after taking naltrexone was described...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286090/surgical-revascularisation-in-the-early-phase-of-st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-haemodynamic-status-is-more-important-than-the-timing-of-the-operation
#16
Vilem Rohn, Tomas Grus, Jan Belohlavek, Jan Horak
BACKGROUND: Surgical revascularisation in patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST-Segment Elevation (STEMI) is usually considered as a second choice when direct angioplasty/stent fails. However, improvements in surgical technique and postoperative care may justify coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in STEMI. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered data of 135 patients with acute STEMI, treated with CABG in our department from February 2008 to December 2012...
February 28, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285811/-composite-pheochromocytoma-a-rare-adrenal-tumor
#17
Gwladys Robinet, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Andréa Manunta, Romain Mathieu, Frédérique Tissier, Benoit Peyronnet, Solène-Florence Kammerer-Jacquet
INTRODUCTION: Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla composed of pheochromocytoma and neuroblastic tumor. We report the case of a composite pheochromocytoma detected in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. CASE REPORT: A 61-year-old male patient presented occasional sweats with palpitation and moderate high blood pressure. Urinary catecholamine level was increased. CT scan showed a heterogeneous tumor limited to the adrenal gland. Histologically, the tumor showed two components: pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma and was diagnosed as a composite pheochromocytoma...
March 9, 2017: Annales de Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283550/the-effects-of-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-drugs-on-embryonic-ventricular-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-and-their-impact-on-donor-cell-transplantation
#18
Tiam Feridooni, Adam Hotchkiss, Mark Baguma-Nibasheka, Feixiong Zhang, Brittney Allen, Sarita Chinni, Kishore B S Pasumarthi
The beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and catecholamines are present in rodents as early as embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5). However, it is not known whether β-AR signaling plays any role in proliferation and differentiation of ventricular cells in the embryonic heart. Here, we characterized the expression profiles of β-AR subtypes and established dose response curves for a nonselective β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) in the developing mouse ventricular cells. Further, we investigated the effects of ISO on cell cycle activity and differentiation of cultured E11...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282374/depletion-of-cardiac-catecholamine-stores-impairs-cardiac-norepinephrine-re-uptake-by-downregulation-of-the-norepinephrine-transporter
#19
Michael M Kreusser, Lorenz H Lehmann, Markus Haass, Sebastian J Buss, Hugo A Katus, Dirk Lossnitzer
In heart failure (HF), a disturbed cardiac norepinephrine (NE) homeostasis is characterized by depleted cardiac NE stores, impairment of the cardiac NE re-uptake by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter (NET) and enhanced cardiac NE net release. Reduced cardiac NE content appears to be caused by enhanced cardiac NE net release from sympathetic neurons in HF, triggered by neurohumoral activation. However, it remains unclear whether reduced NE itself has an impact on cardiac NE re-uptake, independent of neurohumoral activation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275618/extracorporeal-life-support-for-refractory-ventricular-tachycardia
#20
REVIEW
Sujatha P Bhandary, Nicholas Joseph, James P Hofmann, Theodosios Saranteas, Thomas J Papadimos
Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a very effective bridging therapy in patients with refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) associated with cardiogenic shock. A moribund patient in extremis, is not amenable to optimization by standard ACC/AHA guidelines. New approaches and novel salvage techniques are necessary to improve outcomes in patients with refractory clinical settings such as malignant ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary failure until further management options are explored...
February 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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