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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155315/individualizing-optimal-dosing-of-anti-thymocyte-globulin-in-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#1
Shahrukh Hashmi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151264/renal-protection-strategies-after-heart-transplantation
#2
REVIEW
Daniel Reichart, Hermann Reichenspurner, Markus Johannes Barten
Renal dysfunction caused by calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity occurs often and contributes significantly to late mortality after heart transplantation (HTx). Over the last decades, this has prompted many clinical studies in an effort to develop kidney-protecting immunosuppressive strategies including delayed CNI start, minimization, withdrawal or even de-novo CNI avoidance. In the past, these strategies often failed due to the lack of efficacy. Since 2009, novel CNI-reducing strategies are under investigation...
November 19, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142309/hypercholesterolemia-enhances-t-cell-receptor-signaling-and-increases-the-regulatory-t-cell-population
#3
Reiner K W Mailer, Anton Gisterå, Konstantinos A Polyzos, Daniel F J Ketelhuth, Göran K Hansson
Hypercholesterolemia promotes the inflammation against lipoproteins in atherosclerosis. Development of atherosclerosis is affected by the balance between pro-inflammatory effector T cells and anti-inflammatory regulatory T (Treg) cells. However, phenotype and function of T cell subpopulations in hypercholesterolemia remain to be investigated. Here, we found that cholesterol-containing diet increased the expression of the Treg cell lineage-defining transcription factor FoxP3 among thymocytes and splenocytes...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142275/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-protects-nkt-cells-from-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-1-induced-death
#4
Amrendra Kumar, Laura E Gordy, Jelena S Bezbradica, Aleksandar K Stanic, Timothy M Hill, Mark R Boothby, Luc Van Kaer, Sebastian Joyce
Semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes with immunoregulatory properties. NKT cell survival during development requires signal processing by activated RelA/NF-κB. Nonetheless, the upstream signal(s) integrated by NF-κB in developing NKT cells remains incompletely defined. We show that the introgression of Bcl-xL-coding Bcl2l1 transgene into NF-κB signalling-deficient IκBΔN transgenic mouse rescues NKT cell development and differentiation in this mouse model. We reasoned that NF-κB activation was protecting developing NKT cells from death signals emanating either from high affinity agonist recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) or from a death receptor, such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) or Fas...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127678/allogeneic-matched-related-transplantation-for-%C3%AE-thalassemia-and-sickle-cell-anemia
#5
Françoise Bernaudin, Corinne Pondarré, Claire Galambrun, Isabelle Thuret
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can cure single gene disorders such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia (SCA). These non-malignant diseases have in common severe hemolytic anemia and high proliferative bone marrow, requiring frequent transfusions. The risk of rejection is high and graft-vs-host disease is not desirable. Important progress has been made in the management of these diseases, including leukocyte depletion of blood products, and chelation therapy, for both diseases, and erythrocytapheresis and hydroxycarbamide for SCA...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117183/capacity-of-ttreg-generation-is-not-impaired-in-the-atrophied-thymus
#6
Jiyoung Oh, Weikan Wang, Rachel Thomas, Dong-Ming Su
Postnatal thymic epithelial cell (TEC) homeostatic defect- or natural aging-induced thymic atrophy results in a decline in central T-cell tolerance establishment, which is constituted by thymocyte negative selection and cluster of differentiation (CD) 4+ thymic regulatory T (tTreg) cell generation. Emerging evidence shows this decline mainly results from defects in negative selection, but there is insufficient evidence regarding whether tTreg cell generation is also impaired. We mechanistically studied tTreg cell generation in the atrophied thymus by utilizing both postnatal TEC-defective (resulting from FoxN1-floxed conditional knockout [cKO]) and naturally aged mouse models...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105157/reduced-numbers-of-mature-medullary-thymic-epithelial-cells-in-skg-mice
#7
Robby Engelmann, Andra Biemelt, Anja Johl, Daniela Kuthning, Brigitte Müller-Hilke
Attenuated T cell receptor (TCR) signaling contributes to the susceptibility for autoimmunity as shown via mutants of PTPN22 and Zap70 genes. We here set out to investigate the effect of an attenuated TCR signal on the composition of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) compartment. To that extent, we combined flow cytometry and histology and compared the TEC subpopulations of Zap70 wild type with SKG mutant mice. We found an increased cortical TEC compartment in SKG thymi at the expense of reduced numbers of mature medullary TECs and a 4...
November 3, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101311/mode-of-tolerance-induction-and-requirement-for-aire-are-governed-by-the-cell-types-that-express-self-antigen-and-those-that-present-antigen
#8
Yasuhiro Mouri, Yoshihiro Ueda, Tomoyoshi Yamano, Minoru Matsumoto, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tatsuo Kinashi, Mitsuru Matsumoto
Aire controls the fate of autoreactive thymocytes (i.e., clonal deletion or development into regulatory T cells [Tregs]) through transcriptional control of the expression of tissue-restricted self-antigens (TRAs) from medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and bone marrow (BM)-derived cells. Although TRAs expressed by mTECs and BM-derived cells are suggested to complement each other to generate a full spectrum of TRAs, little is known about the relative contribution of TRAs from each component for establishment of self-tolerance...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101227/nmr-directed-design-of-pretcr%C3%AE-and-pmhc-molecules-implies-a-distinct-geometry-for-pretcr-relative-to-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-tcr-recognition-of-pmhc
#9
Robert J Mallis, Haribabu Arthanari, Matthew John Lang, Ellis L Reinherz, Gerhard Wagner
The pre-T cell receptor (preTCR) guides early thymocytes through maturation processes within the thymus via interaction with self ligands displayed on thymic epithelial cells. The preTCR is a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed of an invariant preTα (pTα) subunit and a variable β subunit, the latter of which is incorporated into the mature T cell receptor (TCR) in subsequent developmental progression. This interaction of preTCR with peptide-major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC) has recently been shown to drive robust preTCR signaling and thymocyte maturation...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099628/murine-cd8-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-are-negatively-selected-by-cd1d-expressed-on-thymic-epithelial-cells-and-dendritic-cells
#10
Sejin Oh, Hyunji Lee, Jung Hoon Shin, Changwan Hong, Se-Ho Park
BACKGROUND: CD1d-dependent invariant natural killer (iNKT) cells are found as either CD4 single positive (SP) or CD4/CD8 double negative (DN) cells in mice. The size of the CD8(+) iNKT population is extremely small. It is known that CD1d expression on developing thymocytes is sufficient for iNKT development and co-receptor choice, which is driven by Th-POK expression. This study aimed to examine the factors involved in the CD4/CD8 co-receptor choice of iNKT cells in addition to Th-POK-driven silencing of CD8 expression...
November 3, 2017: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099279/mtor-signaling-is-essential-for-the-development-of-thymic-epithelial-cells-and-the-induction-of-central-immune-tolerance
#11
Zhanfeng Liang, Lianjun Zhang, Huiting Su, Rong Luan, Ning Na, Lina Sun, Yang Zhao, Xiaodong Zhang, Qian Zhang, Juan Li, Lianfeng Zhang, Yong Zhao
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are critical for the establishment and maintenance of appropriate microenvironment for the positive and negative selection of thymocytes and the induction of central immune tolerance. Yet, little about the molecular regulatory network on TEC development and function is understood. Here, we demonstrate that MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]) is essential for proper development and functional maturation of TECs. Pharmacological inhibition of MTOR activity by rapamycin (RPM) causes severe thymic atrophy and reduction of TECs...
November 3, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084202/role-of-thymoglobulin-in-matched-sibling-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-busulfan-and-fludarabine-conditioning-in-myeloid-malignanicies
#12
D-Y Shin, J-H Lee, S Park, J-O Lee, J-H Moon, J-S Ahn, Y Choi, I-C Song, H-J Shin, W S Lee, H S Lee, S-S Yoon
In vivo T-cell depletion using anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is widely used in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for prophylaxis of GvHD. We investigated the influence of thymoglobulin dose (an ATG) on GvHD following matched sibling donor (MSD) HSCT with a busulfan and fludarabine preparative regimen. Medical records of 180 patients who received MSD HSCT with a conditioning regimen of busulfan, fludarabine, and ATG (BuFluATG) were reviewed retrospectively. The median age was 53 years (range 18-68)...
October 30, 2017: Bone Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078804/nuclear-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-protein-co-regulates-t-cell-factor-1-mediated-transcription-in-t-cells
#13
Nikolai V Kuznetsov, Bader Almuzzaini, Joanna S Kritikou, Marisa A P Baptista, Mariana M S Oliveira, Marton Keszei, Scott B Snapper, Piergiorgio Percipalle, Lisa S Westerberg
BACKGROUND: The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family of actin-nucleating factors are present in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. The role of nuclear WASp for T cell development remains incompletely defined. METHODS: We performed WASp chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) in thymocytes and spleen CD4(+) T cells. RESULTS: WASp was enriched at genic and intergenic regions and associated with the transcription start sites of protein-coding genes...
October 27, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062003/maternal-glucocorticoid-elevation-and-associated-fetal-thymocyte-apoptosis-are-involved-in-immune-disorders-of-prenatal-caffeine-exposed-offspring-mice
#14
Han-Xiao Liu, Ting Chen, Xiao Wen, Wen Qu, Sha Liu, Hui-Yi Yan, Li-Fang Hou, Jie Ping
Our previous study showed that prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and glucocorticoid elevation in the fetus. Researchers suggested that IUGR is a risk factor for T helper cell (Th)1/Th2 deviation. However, whether PCE can induce these immune disorders and the underlying mechanisms of that induction remain unknown. This study aimed to observe the effects of PCE on the Th1/Th2 balance in offspring and further explore the developmental origin mechanisms from the perspective of glucocorticoid overexposure-induced thymocyte apoptosis...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061531/outcomes-of-unrelated-donor-stem-cell-transplant-with-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-for-graft-versus-host-disease-prophylaxis-in-patients-with-severe-sickle-cell-disease
#15
Hemalatha G Rangarajan, Rolla Abu-Arja, Vinita Pai, Gregory M T Guilcher, Sandeep Soni
Unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with a high incidence of rejection and graft versus host disease. We report on first four patients with severe SCD who underwent URD HCT using a novel myeloablative and immunosuppressive regimen comprising of busulfan, fludarabine and anti-thymocyte globulin with a single dose of post-transplant cyclophosphamide along with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for graft versus host disease prophylaxis...
October 20, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057561/pre-clinical-results-in-pig-to-non-human-primate-islet-xenotransplantation-using-anti-cd40-antibody-2c10r4-based-immunosuppression
#16
Jun-Seop Shin, Jong-Min Kim, Byoung-Hoon Min, Il Hee Yoon, Hyun Je Kim, Jung-Sik Kim, Yong-Hee Kim, Seong-Jun Kang, Jiyeon Kim, Hee-Jung Kang, Dong-Gyun Lim, Eung-Soo Hwang, Jongwon Ha, Sang-Joon Kim, Wan Beom Park, Chung-Gyu Park
BACKGROUND: Islet transplantation is an effective therapy for selected patients with type 1 diabetes with labile glycemic control and hypoglycemic unawareness, but donor organs are limited. Islet xenotransplantation using porcine islets will potentially solve this problem. Although successful proof of concept studies using clinically inapplicable anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in pig-to-non-human primate (NHP) islet xenotransplantation has been demonstrated by several groups worldwide, potentially clinically applicable anti-CD40 (2C10R4) mAb-based studies have not been reported...
October 22, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050936/t%C3%AE-riii-is-induced-by-tcr-signaling-and-downregulated-in-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells
#17
Sandra Ortega-Francisco, Marisol de la Fuente-Granada, Evelyn K Alvarez Salazar, Lizbeth Airais Bolaños-Castro, Gabriela Fonseca-Camarillo, Roxana Olguin-Alor, Germán R Alemán-Muench, Fernando López-Casillas, Chander Raman, Eduardo A García-Zepeda, Gloria Soldevila
TGF-β type III receptor (TβRIII) is a co-receptor for TGFβ family members required for high-affinity binding of these ligands to their receptors, potentiating their cellular functions. TGF-βs, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP2/4) and Inhibins/Activins regulate different checkpoints during T cell differentiation. We have previously reported that TβRIII modulates T cell development by protecting developing thymocytes from apoptosis, however the role of this co-receptor in peripheral lymphocytes still remains elusive...
December 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038463/ncor1-restrains-thymic-negative-selection-by-repressing-bim-expression-to-spare-thymocytes-undergoing-positive-selection
#18
Jianrong Wang, Nanhai He, Na Zhang, Dexian Quan, Shuo Zhang, Caroline Zhang, Ruth T Yu, Annette R Atkins, Ruihong Zhu, Chunhui Yang, Ying Cui, Christopher Liddle, Michael Downes, Hui Xiao, Ye Zheng, Johan Auwerx, Ronald M Evans, Qibin Leng
Thymocytes must pass both positive and negative selections to become mature T cells. Negative selection purges thymocytes whose T-cell receptors (TCR) exhibit high affinity to self-peptide MHC complexes (self pMHC) to avoid autoimmune diseases, while positive selection ensures the survival and maturation of thymocytes whose TCRs display intermediate affinity to self pMHCs for effective immunity, but whether transcriptional regulation helps conserve positively selected thymocytes from being purged by negative selection remains unclear...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037372/effects-of-in-vitro-heat-shock-on-immune-cells-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#19
Eka Fujimoto, Atsuko Imai, Masanori Utsuyama, Kazuto Sato
Obesity has been associated with impaired immune responses and inflammation. The mechanisms underlying these immune disturbances in obesity are not yet clarified. This study investigated the effects of in vitro heat shock (HS) on immune cells from the point of view of thymocyte apoptosis and T-cell mitogen-stimulated splenocyte cytokine production as well as the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) protein levels in diet-induced obese mice to explore a possible association between the disturbance of T cell immunity and HS response in obesity...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032684/effect-of-boron-on-thymic-cytokine-expression-hormone-secretion-antioxidant-functions-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-potential-via-the-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#20
Erhui Jin, Man Ren, Wenwen Liu, Shuang Liang, Qianqian Hu, Youfang Gu, Shenghe Li
Boron is an essential trace element in animals. Appropriate boron supplementation can promote thymus development; however, a high dose of boron can lead to adverse effects and cause toxicity. The influencing mechanism of boron on the animal body remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of boron on cytokine expression, thymosin and thymopoietin secretion, antioxidant function, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the ERK1/2 pathway in the thymus of rats. We found that supplementation with 10 and 20 mg/L of boron to the drinking water significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and thymosin α1 in the thymus of rats (P < 0...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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