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Thymocyte

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318017/thymic-crosstalk-restrains-the-pool-of-cortical-thymic-epithelial-cells-with-progenitor-properties
#1
Catarina Meireles, Ana R Ribeiro, Rute D Pinto, Catarina Leitão, Pedro M Rodrigues, Nuno L Alves
Cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) thymic epithelial cells establish key microenvironments for T-cell differentiation and arise from thymic epithelial cell progenitors (TEP). However, the nature of TEPs and the mechanism controlling their stemness in the postnatal thymus remain poorly defined. Using TEC clonogenic assays as a surrogate to survey TEP activity, we found that a fraction of cTECs generates specialized clonal-derived colonies, which contain cells with sustained colony-forming capacity (ClonoTECs)...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314856/ubc9-is-required-for-positive-selection-and-late-stage-maturation-of-thymocytes
#2
Aibo Wang, Xiao Ding, Maud Demarque, Xindong Liu, Deng Pan, Huawei Xin, Bo Zhong, Xiaohu Wang, Anne Dejean, Wei Jin, Chen Dong
SUMOylation is an important posttranslational modification that regulates protein function in diverse biological processes. However, its role in early T cell development has not been genetically studied. UBC9 is the only E2 enzyme for all SUMOylation. In this study, by selectively deleting Ubc9 gene in T cells, we have investigated the functional roles of SUMOylation in T cell development. Loss of Ubc9 results in a significant reduction of CD4 and CD8 single-positive lymphocytes in both thymus and periphery...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303135/a-human-lin-cd123-cd127-low-population-endowed-with-ilc-features-and-migratory-capabilities-contributes-to-immunopathological-hallmarks-of-psoriasis
#3
Luz María Mora-Velandia, Octavio Castro-Escamilla, Andrés González Méndez, Cristina Aguilar-Flores, Martha Velázquez-Avila, María Isabel Tussié-Luna, Juan Téllez-Sosa, César Maldonado-García, Fermín Jurado-Santacruz, Eduardo Ferat-Osorio, Jesus Martínez-Barnetche, Rosana Pelayo, Laura C Bonifaz
Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are members of a heterogeneous family with a lymphoid origin that mimics the T helper (Th) cytokine profile. ILC are involved in early effector cytokine-mediated responses during infections in peripheral tissues. ILC also play an important role in chronic skin inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. Although classical ILC express CD127, it has been recently reported that the presence of non-classical CD127(-) ILC populations and an early ILC precursor (EILP) CD127(low). ILC development has predominately been investigated in mouse models...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301594/daxx-plays-a-novel-role-in-t-cell-survival-but-is-dispensable-in-fas-induced-apoptosis
#4
Jinghe Li, Liangyue Qian, John P Dowling, Christine Curcione, Drishya Kurup, Jianke Zhang
Daxx was originally isolated as a Fas-binding protein. However, the in vivo function of Daxx in Fas-induced apoptosis has remained enigmatic. Fas plays an important role in homeostasis in the immune system. Fas gene mutations lead to autoimmune-lymphoproliferation (lpr) diseases characterized by hyperplasia of secondary lymphoid organs. It is well established that the FADD adaptor binds to Fas, and recruits/activates caspase 8. However, additional proteins including Daxx have also been indicated to associate with Fas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289717/retinoic-acid-orphan-receptor-c-inhibition-suppresses-th17-cells-and-induces-thymic-aberrations
#5
Christine Guntermann, Alessandro Piaia, Marie-Laure Hamel, Diethilde Theil, Tina Rubic-Schneider, Alberto Del Rio-Espinola, Linda Dong, Andreas Billich, Klemens Kaupmann, Janet Dawson, Klemens Hoegenauer, David Orain, Samuel Hintermann, Rowan Stringer, Dhavalkumar D Patel, Arno Doelemeyer, Mark Deurinck, Jens Schümann
Retinoic-acid-orphan-receptor-C (RORC) is a master regulator of Th17 cells, which are pathogenic in several autoimmune diseases. Genetic Rorc deficiency in mice, while preventing autoimmunity, causes early lethality due to metastatic thymic T cell lymphomas. We sought to determine whether pharmacological RORC inhibition could be an effective and safe therapy for autoimmune diseases by evaluating its effects on Th17 cell functions and intrathymic T cell development. RORC inhibitors effectively inhibited Th17 differentiation and IL-17A production, and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286230/role-of-thymic-b-cells-in-the-development-of-thymus-derived-regulatory-t-cell-in-vitro
#6
Haider H Muhammed Ali, Adnan H Muhammed Ali, Nadzieja Drela
The thymus contains a low frequency of B cells, about 0.1-0.5% of total population of thymocytes that were shown to contribute in thymic negative selection. The fact that B cells in the periphery have been contributed in the generation of the T regulatory cell compartment emerged the idea that this process may indeed be initiated firstly within the thymus. The results of this study revealed that activated thymic B cells maintained the high percentage of nTreg generation or counteracted the decrease of this percentage observed in non-activated culture, and both activators (LPS and IMQ) have the same effect in the process of nTreg generation by B cells...
March 9, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282713/treatment-of-an-early-kaposi-s-sarcoma-case-post-kidney-transplantation-by-sirolimus-a-case-report
#7
Farzaneh Najafi, Parichehr Kafaie, Hossein Neamatzadeh
Kaposi᾽s sarcoma (KS) can develop in 0.06% to 4.1% of kidney transplant recipients. Here we describe a case of 50-year-old man who developed KS a few months after kidney transplantation. After transplantation, he had delayed graft function and was managed by anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) for five days. At the discharge, his immunosuppressive therapy was prednisolone 20 mg/day, tTacrolimus (Pprograf®) 4 mg/day, and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) 2 gr/day, while he also took Vvalcyte and diltiazem. Once diagnosed with KS, the Prograf® (tacrolimus)  was replaced by prednisolone (5 mg/day) and sirolimus (2 mg/day)...
February 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282643/nab2-maintains-thymus-cellularity-with-aging-and-stress
#8
K Taraszka Hastings, Diana Elizalde, Leela Muppana, Sarah Levine, Christy M Kamel, Wendy M Ingram, Jennifer T Kirkpatrick, Chengcheng Hu, Matthew P Rausch, Amelia L Gallitano
Thymic cellularity is influenced by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as age and stress; however, little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms that regulate this process. Immediate early genes of the Early growth response (Egr) family have critical roles in immune function and response to environmental stress. The transcription factors, Egr1, Egr2 and Egr3, play roles in the thymus and in peripheral T-cell activation. Nab2, which binds Egrs 1, 2, and 3 as a co-regulator of transcription, also regulates peripheral T-cell activation...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279199/cd117-cd44-stem-t-cells-develop-in-the-thymus-and-potently-suppress-t-cell-proliferation-by-modulating-the-ctla-4-pathway
#9
Yang Wei, Zhansheng Hu, Wen Gu, Gang Liu, Bingyin Shi, Enqi Liu, Tie Liu
BACKGROUND: CD117 is expressed on double-negative (DN; CD4(-)CD8(-)) cells (Nat Rev Immunol 14:529-545; 2014), but whether it is expressed in other stages and its subsequent functions are unclear. We used an improved method of flow cytometry to analyze different populations of thymocytes (Sci Rep 4:5781; 2014). The expression of CD117 and CTLA-4 were directly assayed in the early stage of thymocytes. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to analyze different populations of thymocytes, and T-cell proliferation assays, RT-PCR, and real-time RT-PCR were used to characterize the stem cells and examine the function of CD44(+)CD117(+) cells...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272325/c-myc-induced%C3%A2-survivin%C3%A2-is%C3%A2-essential%C3%A2-for%C3%A2-promoting%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-notch-dependent%C3%A2-t%C3%A2-cell%C3%A2-differentiation%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-hematopoietic%C3%A2-stem%C3%A2-cells
#10
Rizwanul Haque, Jianyong Song, Mohammad Haque, Fengyang Lei, Praneet Sandhu, Bing Ni, Songguo Zheng, Deyu Fang, Jin-Ming Yang, Jianxun Song
Notch is indispensable for T cell lineage commitment, and is needed for thymocyte differentiation at early phases. During early stages of T cell development, active Notch prevents other lineage potentials including B cell lineage and myeloid cell (e.g., dendritic cell) lineage. Nevertheless, the precise intracellular signaling pathways by which Notch promotes T cell differentiation remain unclear. Here we report that the transcription factor c-Myc is a key mediator of the Notch signaling-regulated T cell differentiation...
March 6, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270163/t-all-and-thymocytes-a-message-of-noncoding-rnas
#11
REVIEW
Annelynn Wallaert, Kaat Durinck, Tom Taghon, Pieter Van Vlierberghe, Frank Speleman
In the last decade, the role for noncoding RNAs in disease was clearly established, starting with microRNAs and later expanded towards long noncoding RNAs. This was also the case for T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which is a malignant blood disorder arising from oncogenic events during normal T cell development in the thymus. By studying the transcriptomic profile of protein-coding genes, several oncogenic events leading to T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) could be identified. In recent years, it became apparent that several of these oncogenes function via microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264997/generation-of-peptides-that-promote-positive-selection-in-the-thymus
#12
REVIEW
Kensuke Takada, Kenta Kondo, Yousuke Takahama
To establish an immunocompetent TCR repertoire that is useful yet harmless to the body, a de novo thymocyte repertoire generated through the rearrangement of genes that encode TCR is shaped in the thymus through positive and negative selection. The affinity between TCRs and self-peptides associated with MHC molecules determines the fate of developing thymocytes. Low-affinity TCR engagement with self-peptide-MHC complexes mediates positive selection, a process that primarily occurs in the thymic cortex. Massive efforts exerted by many laboratories have led to the characterization of peptides that can induce positive selection...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262533/acyclovir-resistant-herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-early-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-with-t-cell-depletion
#13
Yu Akahoshi, Junya Kanda, Ayumu Ohno, Yusuke Komiya, Ayumi Gomyo, Jin Hayakawa, Naonori Harada, Kazuaki Kameda, Tomotaka Ugai, Hidenori Wada, Yuko Ishihara, Koji Kawamura, Kana Sakamoto, Miki Sato, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Shun-Ichi Kimura, Misato Kikuchi, Hideki Nakasone, Shinichi Kako, Kimiyasu Shiraki, Yoshinobu Kanda
We previously reported that oral low-dose acyclovir (200 mg/day) for the prevention of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is effective without the emergence of acyclovir-resistant HSV infections. However, HSV infections are of significant concern because the number of allogeneic HSCT with T-cell depletion, which is a risk factor of the emergence of drug-resistant HSV infections, has been increasing. We experienced a 25-year-old female who received allogenic HSCT from an unrelated donor with 1-antigen mismatch using anti-thymocyte globulin...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258823/small-molecule-ror%C3%AE-t-antagonists-one-stone-kills-two-birds
#14
Chao Zhong, Jinfang Zhu
Although small-molecule thymus-specific isoform of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor γ (RORγt) antagonists suppressing interleukin (IL)-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells are widely reported, the effect of these molecules on other RORγt-expressing cells is unknown. However, a new study reports that RORγt inhibition in CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes resulted in skewed T cell repertoire, contributing to a reduction in the frequency of self-reactive T cells and resistance to autoimmunity.
February 28, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257953/zinc-related-actions-of-sublethal-levels-of-benzalkonium-chloride-potentiation-of-benzalkonium-cytotoxicity-by-zinc
#15
Tsuyoshi Mitani, Ahmed Ibrahim Elhossany Elmarhomy, Luvsandorj Dulamjav, Enkhtumur Anu, Shohei Saitoh, Shiro Ishida, Yasuo Oyama
Benzalkonium chloride (BZK) is a common preservative used in pharmaceutical and personal care products. ZnCl2 was recently reported to significantly potentiate the cytotoxicity of some biocidal compounds. In the present study, therefore, we compared the cytotoxic potency of BZK and then further studied the Zn(2+)-related actions of the most cytotoxic agent among BZK, using flow cytometric techniques with appropriate fluorescent probes in rat thymocytes. Cytotoxicity of benzylcetyldimethylammonium (BZK-C16) was more potent that those of benzyldodecyldimethylammonium and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium...
February 28, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257450/differential-depletion-of-total-t-cells-and-regulatory-t-cells-and-prolonged-allotransplant-survival-in-cd3%C3%A6-humanized-mice-treated-with-polyclonal-anti-human-thymocyte-globulin
#16
Maja Buszko, Benno Cardini, Rupert Oberhuber, Lukas Oberhuber, Bojana Jakic, Anja Beierfuss, Georg Wick, Giuseppe Cappellano
Thymoglobulin (ATG) is a polyclonal rabbit antibody against human thymocytes used as a T cell-depleting agent to prevent or treat allotransplant rejection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of low dose ATG treatment exclusively on T cells using a humanized BALB/c human CD3Ɛ transgenic mouse model expressing both human and murine T cell receptors (TCR). Mice received a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of ATG. Blood and peripheral lymphoid organs were obtained after different time points...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255019/a-risk-factor-analysis-of-outcomes-after-unrelated-cord-blood-transplantation-for-children-with-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome
#17
Zhanna Shekhovtsova, Carmem Bonfim, Annalisa Ruggeri, Samantha Nichele, Kristin Page, Amal AlSeraihy, Francisco Barriga, José Sánchez de Toledo Codina, Paul Veys, Jaap Jan Boelens, Karin Mellgren, Henrique Bittencourt, Tracey O' Brien, Peter J Shaw, Alicja Chybicka, Fernanda Volt, Federica Giannotti, Eliane Gluckman, Joanne Kurtzberg, Andrew R Gennery, Vanderson Rocha
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a severe X-linked recessive immune deficiency disorder. A scoring system of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome severity (0.5-5) distinguishes 2 phenotypes: X-linked thrombocytopenia and classic Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Hematopoietic cell transplantation is curative for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, however the use of unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation has seldom been described. We analyzed umbilical cord blood transplantation outcomes for 90 patients. Median age at umbilical cord blood transplantation was 1...
March 2, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250777/an-avoidable-cause-of-thymoglobulin-anaphylaxis
#18
S Brabant, A Facon, F Provôt, M Labalette, B Wallaert, C Chenivesse
BACKGROUND: Thymoglobulin® (anti-thymocyte globulin [rabbit]) is a purified pasteurised, gamma immune globulin obtained by immunisation of rabbits with human thymocytes. Anaphylactic allergic reactions to a first injection of thymoglobulin are rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of serious anaphylactic reaction occurring after a first intraoperative injection of thymoglobulin during renal transplantation in a patient with undiagnosed respiratory allergy to rabbit allergens...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250424/themis-enhances-tcr-signaling-and-enables-positive-selection-by-selective-inhibition-of-the-phosphatase-shp-1
#19
Seeyoung Choi, Claude Warzecha, Ekaterina Zvezdova, Jan Lee, Jérémy Argenty, Renaud Lesourne, L Aravind, Paul E Love
THEMIS, a T cell-specific protein with high expression in CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes, has a crucial role in positive selection and T cell development. THEMIS lacks defined catalytic domains but contains two tandem repeats of a distinctive module of unknown function (CABIT). Here we found that THEMIS directly regulated the catalytic activity of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. This action was mediated by the CABIT modules, which bound to the phosphatase domain of SHP-1 and promoted or stabilized oxidation of SHP-1's catalytic cysteine residue, which inhibited the tyrosine-phosphatase activity of SHP-1...
April 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245460/endocrine-immunology-of-chagas-disease
#20
Wilson Savino
The concept of immunoendocrine interactions, existing in normal and pathological conditions, is relatively recent. Accordingly, cells from the immune system and from endocrine glands share common receptors for cytokines and hormones, allowing systemic and local regulatory mechanisms. In this context, lymphoid organs are under physiological hormonal control. Disturbances in these systems, as those caused by pathogens changes the physiological profile of these interactions, with the release of proinflammatory cytokines and hormones, and one example is the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
2017: Frontiers of Hormone Research
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