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Claire Braboszcz, B Rael Cahn, Jonathan Levy, Manuel Fernandez, Arnaud Delorme
Despite decades of research, effects of different types of meditation on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity are still being defined. We compared practitioners of three different meditation traditions (Vipassana, Himalayan Yoga and Isha Shoonya) with a control group during a meditative and instructed mind-wandering (IMW) block. All meditators showed higher parieto-occipital 60-110 Hz gamma amplitude than control subjects as a trait effect observed during meditation and when considering meditation and IMW periods together...
2017: PloS One
Jesus Montero-Marin, Marta Puebla-Guedea, Paola Herrera-Mercadal, Ausias Cebolla, Joaquim Soler, Marcelo Demarzo, Carmelo Vazquez, Fernando Rodríguez-Bornaetxea, Javier García-Campayo
Background: There are few studies devoted to assessing the impact of meditation-intensive retreats on the well-being, positive psychology, and personality of experienced meditators. We aimed to assess whether a 1-month Vipassana retreat: (a) would increase mindfulness and well-being; (b) would increase prosocial personality traits; and (c) whether psychological changes would be mediated and/or moderated by non-attachment. Method: A controlled, non-randomized, pre-post-intervention trial was used. The intervention group was a convenience sample (n = 19) of experienced meditators who participated in a 1-month Vipassana meditation retreat...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Nirmala Maruthai, Ravindra P Nagendra, Arun Sasidharan, Sulekha Srikumar, Karuna Datta, Sunao Uchida, Bindu M Kutty
Abstract/Summary The present study is aimed to ascertain whether differences in meditation proficiency alter rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) as well as the overall sleep-organization. Whole-night polysomnography was carried out using 32-channel digital EEG system. 20 senior Vipassana meditators, 16 novice Vipassana meditators and 19 non-meditating control subjects participated in the study. The REM sleep characteristics were analyzed from the sleep-architecture of participants with a sleep efficiency index >85%...
June 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Yuichi Kasai, Toshihiko Sakakibara, Thein Aung Kyaw, Zaw Wai Soe, Zaw Min Han, Maung Mg Htwe
BACKGROUND: Meditation is widely used as a therapeutic measure because it can effectively reduce stress, pain, and improve the mental health, but there are many unclear points about the psychological effects of meditation. AIMS: The purpose of this study is to verify the psychological effects of meditation. METHOD: The short version of Profile of Mood States (POMS-SF) and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II) were conducted to compare 97 Myanmar people practicing Vipassana contemplation training with 81 Myanmar nurses who did not have any experience with meditation...
February 2017: Journal of Mental Health
Yochai Ataria, Yair Dor-Ziderman, Aviva Berkovich-Ohana
This paper discusses the phenomenological nature of the sense of boundaries (SB), based on the case of S, who has practiced mindfulness in the Satipathana and Theravada Vipassana traditions for about 40years and accumulated around 20,000h of meditative practice. S's unique abilities enable him to describe his inner lived experience with great precision and clarity. S was asked to shift between three different stages: (a) the default state, (b) the dissolving of the SB, and (c) the disappearance of the SB. Based on his descriptions, we identified seven categories (with some overlap) that alter during the shifts between these stages, including the senses of: (1) internal versus external, (2) time, (3) location, (4) self, (5) agency (control), (6) ownership, and (7) center (first-person-egocentric-bodily perspective)...
December 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
Tim Gard, Maxime Taquet, Rohan Dixit, Britta K Hölzel, Bradford C Dickerson, Sara W Lazar
There has been a growing interest in understanding how contemplative practices affect brain functional organization. However, most studies have restricted their exploration to predefined networks. Furthermore, scientific comparisons of different contemplative traditions are largely lacking. Here we explored differences in whole brain resting state functional connectivity between experienced yoga practitioners, experienced meditators, and matched controls. Analyses were repeated in an independent sample of experienced meditators and matched controls...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Ido Amihai, Maria Kozhevnikov
Based on evidence of parasympathetic activation, early studies defined meditation as a relaxation response. Later research attempted to categorize meditation as either involving focused or distributed attentional systems. Neither of these hypotheses received strong empirical support, and most of the studies investigated Theravada style meditative practices. In this study, we compared neurophysiological (EEG, EKG) and cognitive correlates of meditative practices that are thought to utilize either focused or distributed attention, from both Theravada and Vajrayana traditions...
2014: PloS One
Xianglong Zeng, Mengdan Li, Bo Zhang, Xiangping Liu
Goenka's 10-day Vipassana course is a widespread mindfulness course rooted in traditional Buddhism. Awareness and equanimity are two abilities cultivated in this course that are not featured in modern mindfulness-based psychotherapies and thereby not adequately measured by current mindfulness scales. The present article analyzed the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale (PHLMS; Cardaciotto et al. in Assessment 15(2):204-223, 2008) and revised it into a short version to avoid confusion when measuring awareness and equanimity...
April 2015: Journal of Religion and Health
Roberta A Szekeres, Eleanor H Wertheim
Residential Vipassana meditation courses, which teach mindfulness skills, are widely available globally but under-evaluated. This study examined effects of a standardized, community-based Vipassana course, on subjective stress, well-being, self-kindness and trait mindfulness in a community sample. Participants completed self-report measures of these variables at pre-course and post-course (n = 122), and outcomes were compared to a control group of early enrollers (EEs) (n = 50) who completed measures at parallel time points before course commencement...
December 2015: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
Margherita Melloni, Lucas Sedeño, Blas Couto, Martin Reynoso, Carlos Gelormini, Roberto Favaloro, Andrés Canales-Johnson, Mariano Sigman, Facundo Manes, Agustin Ibanez
BACKGROUND: Interoception refers to the conscious perception of body signals. Mindfulness is a meditation practice that encourages individuals to focus on their internal experiences such as bodily sensations, thoughts, and emotions. In this study, we selected a behavioral measure of interoceptive sensitivity (heartbeat detection task, HBD) to compare the effect of meditation practice on interoceptive sensitivity among long term practitioners (LTP), short term meditators (STM, subjects that completed a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program) and controls (non-meditators)...
2013: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Xianglong Zeng, Tian P S Oei, Yiqing Ye, Xiangping Liu
Goenka's Vipassana meditation (GVM), a widely applied mindfulness training system rooted in Buddhism, is currently widely used. Although the two abilities cultivated in GVM, awareness and equanimity, exhibit certain similarities with the mindfulness cultivated in mindfulness-based psychotherapies (MBTs), they are not major concerns in MBTs. While many mindfulness scales have been created to measure different aspects of mindfulness constructs and certain scales and items can indeed reflect the basic abilities of awareness and equanimity, none of them can adequately capture the way in which those abilities and related ideas are applied in GVM...
April 2015: Journal of Religion and Health
Anthony P Zanesco, Brandon G King, Katherine A Maclean, Clifford D Saron
Various forms of mental training have been shown to improve performance on cognitively demanding tasks. Individuals trained in meditative practices, for example, show generalized improvements on a variety of tasks assessing attentional performance. A central claim of this training, derived from contemplative traditions, posits that improved attentional performance is accompanied by subjective increases in the stability and clarity of concentrative engagement with one's object of focus, as well as reductions in felt cognitive effort as expertise develops...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
A Al-Hussaini, A S Dorvlo, S X Antony, D Chavan, J Dave, V Purecha, S Al-Rahbi, S Al-Adawi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of Vipassana meditation on the physical and psychological health in a multi-ethnic population in the city of Muscat. METHOD: The subjects were participants of a Vipassana meditation course taught in a ten-day residential retreat. Self-assessments of health-related parameters and physical and psychological symptomatology were collected from them before and immediately after the course. A control group was tested for a similar time interval...
October 2001: Journal for Scientific Research. Medical Sciences
Luis Carlos Delgado-Pastor, Pandelis Perakakis, Pailoor Subramanya, Shirley Telles, Jaime Vila
The concept of mindfulness is based on Vipassana, a Buddhist meditation technique. The present study examines the physiological indices of attention and autonomic regulation in experienced Vipassana meditators to test the claim that mindfulness is an effective therapeutic tool due to its effects on increasing awareness of present experience and emotional self-regulation. Ten male experienced Vipassana meditators underwent two assessment sessions, one where they practiced Vipassana meditation and another where they rested with no meditation (random thinking)...
November 2013: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Xianglong Zeng, Tian P S Oei, Xiangping Liu
Awareness is one of the two most important abilities cultivated in Goenka's Vipassana meditation, which refers to sensitivity to subtle bodily sensations and the associated psychological processes. This sensitivity and its derived function of monitoring emotion are not of notable concern in modern mindfulness-based psychotherapies. Evidence supports that Vipassana meditation truly enhances sensitivity to bodily sensations, but further study is required to assess the awareness of psychological processes. The value of monitoring mental processing has been widely accepted in psychology, as has enhanced sensitivity along with the potential dangers to mental health...
December 2014: Journal of Religion and Health
Jonathan R Krygier, James A J Heathers, Sara Shahrestani, Maree Abbott, James J Gross, Andrew H Kemp
Mindfulness meditation has beneficial effects on brain and body, yet the impact of Vipassana, a type of mindfulness meditation, on heart rate variability (HRV) - a psychophysiological marker of mental and physical health - is unknown. We hypothesised increases in measures of well-being and HRV, and decreases in ill-being after training in Vipassana compared to before (time effects), during the meditation task compared to resting baseline (task effects), and a time by task interaction with more pronounced differences between tasks after Vipassana training...
September 2013: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Adam Burke
CONTEXT: A significant number of studies have been published examining the mind-body effects of meditation and its clinical efficacy. There are very few studies, however, which directly compare different meditation methods with each other to explore potentially distinct mechanisms and effects, and no studies comparing individual preferences for different methods. As preference is seen as an important factor in consumer healthcare decision making, greater understanding of this aspect is needed as meditation becomes a more widely used therapeutic modality...
July 2012: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
B Rael Cahn, Arnaud Delorme, John Polich
Long-term Vipassana meditators sat in meditation vs. a control (instructed mind wandering) states for 25 min, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and condition order counterbalanced. For the last 4 min, a three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented during both meditation and control periods through headphones and no task imposed. Time-frequency analysis demonstrated that meditation relative to the control condition evinced decreased evoked delta (2-4 Hz) power to distracter stimuli concomitantly with a greater event-related reduction of late (500-900 ms) alpha-1 (8-10 Hz) activity, which indexed altered dynamics of attentional engagement to distracters...
January 2013: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Ryan Bongseok Joo
One surprising and yet relatively unknown aspect of contemporary Korean Buddhism is the significant influence of American and European Buddhism. Between 1989 and 2009, South Koreans witnessed well-educated “blue-eyed” monastic residents via the Korean media, and the emergence of new bestsellers by authors like Thich Nhat Hahn and Jack Kornfield, written initially for Western audiences but since translated into Korean. The new teachings from the West have inspired a sudden growth of interest in vipassanā meditation as an “alternative” to Kanhwa Sŏn practice, and the emergence of a new academic field: Buddhist psychotherapy...
2011: Journal of the American Academy of Religion
Natti Ronel, Noa Frid, Uri Timor
Positive criminology is a new term for a perspective associated with theories and models that relate to socially inclusive, positively experienced influences that assist individuals in desisting or refraining from criminal and deviant behavior. A qualitative phenomenological study of prisoners who were in recovery from substance dependency and who participated in a Vipassana course in a rehabilitative prison introduces features of positive criminology. A total of 22 male prisoners participated in a 10-day Vipassana course run by volunteers in prison...
February 2013: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
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