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colorectal physiology

Akira Inoue, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Xin Wu, Daisuke Okuzaki, Nanami Kambara, Sho Ishikawa, Jiaqi Wang, Yamin Qian, Haruka Hirose, Yuhki Yokoyama, Ryo Ikeshima, Masayuki Hiraki, Norikatsu Miyoshi, Hidekazu Takahashi, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Taishi Hata, Chu Matsuda, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Hirofumi Yamamoto
We previously demonstrated that miR-29b-3p is a hopeful microRNA (miRNA)-based therapies against colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we aimed to clarify a value of miR-29b-1-5p as a next generation treatment, especially for KRAS mutant CRC. RT-PCR assay showed that expression of miR-29b-3p was high and its partner strand, miR-29b-1-5p level was only negligible in clinical CRC samples. Mimic-miR-29b-1-5p significantly inhibited proliferation of KRAS mutant CRC cell lines DLD1 and SW480 and KRAS wild type HT29 cells...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Qingqing Feng, Wei-Dong Chen, Yan-Dong Wang
The gut microbiota, as the main member in gut microecology, is an essential mediator in health and disease. The gut microbiota interacts with various organs and systems in the body, including brain, lung, liver, bone, cardiovascular system, and others. Microbiota-derived metabolites such as the short chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate are primary signals, which link the gut microbiota and physiology. Recently, the gut microbiota has been identified as the origin of a number of diseases by influencing the related cell signaling pathways such as WNT/beta-catenin pathway in colorectal cancer and T cell receptor signaling in the central nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tatsuya Usui, Masashi Sakurai, Koji Umata, Hideyuki Yamawaki, Takashi Ohama, Koichi Sato
In vitro analysis of intestinal epithelium has been hindered by a lack of suitable culture systems useful for gastrointestinal research. To overcome the problem, an air liquid interface (ALI) method using a collagen gel was established to culture three-dimensional primary cells containing both primary epithelial and mesenchymal components from mouse gastrointestinal tissues. ALI organoids accurately recapitulate organ structures, multilineage differentiation, and physiology. Since ALI organoids from human tissues have not been produced, we modified the previous protocol for mouse ALI organoid culture to establish the culture system of ALI organoids from normal and tumor colorectal tissues of human patients...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Anil Kumar Pulikkathodi, Indu Sarangadharan, Yi-Hong Chen, Geng-Yen Lee, Jen-Inn Chyi, Gwo-Bin Lee, Yu-Lin Wang
In this research, we have designed, fabricated and characterized an electrical double layer (EDL)-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensor array to study the transmembrane potential changes of cells. The sensor array platform is designed to detect and count circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of colorectal cancer (CRC) and investigate cellular bioelectric signals. Using the EDL FET biosensor platform, cellular responses can be studied in physiological salt concentrations, thereby eliminating complex automation...
February 28, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Lily S Cheng, Allan M Goldstein
Constipation is a common childhood problem, but an anatomic or physiologic cause is identified in fewer than 5% of children. By definition, idiopathic constipation is a diagnosis of exclusion. Careful clinical evaluation and thoughtful use of imaging and other testing can help exclude specific causes of constipation and guide therapy. Medical management with laxatives is effective for the majority of constipated children. For those patients unresponsive to medications, however, several surgical options can be employed, including anal procedures, antegrade colonic enemas, colorectal resection, and intestinal diversion...
March 2018: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
Sarah Förster, Stephanie Hehlgans, Franz Rödel, Benjamin Otto, Nils Cordes
Driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations, progression, therapy resistance and metastasis are frequent events in colorectal cancer (CRC). Although often speculated, the function of cell-cell contact for radiochemosensitivity, particularly associated with E-cadherin/catenin complex, warrants further clarification. In this study, we investigated the role of the E-cadherin/catenin complex proteins under more physiological three-dimensional (3D) cell culture conditions in a panel of CRC cell lines. In contrast to floating spheroids and growth in the laminin-rich matrix, collagen type 1 induced the formation of two distinct growth phenotypes, i...
April 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Shaomin Zou, Lekun Fang, Mong-Hong Lee
Gastrointestinal microbiome, containing at least 100 trillion bacteria, resides in the mucosal surface of human intestine. Recent studies show that perturbations in the microbiota may influence physiology and link to a number of diseases, including colon tumorigenesis. Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most common cancer, is the disease resulting from multi-genes and multi-factors, but the mechanistic details between gut microenvironment and CRC remain poorly characterized. Thanks to new technologies such as metagenome sequencing, progress in large-scale analysis of the genetic and metabolic profile of gut microbial has been possible, which has facilitated studies about microbiota composition, taxonomic alterations and host interactions...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Report
Fabio Rondelli, Roberto Santinelli, Paolo Stella, Walter Bugiantella, Graziano Ceccarelli, Ruben Carlo Balzarotti, Michele De Rosa, Nicola Avenia
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the fourth most diffuse cause of death in the world and local recurrence is associated with a reduced long-term life expectancy, with a reduced quality of life. Rectal washout at the anastomosis site leads to a statistically significant reduction of local recurrences. METHODS: We developed the idea of a new laparoscopic stapler with an integrated washout system that could decontaminate the rectal stump before resection, without the need to enlarge the standard surgical incision or even to distort the incision site, closing the rectal stump just below the inferior part of the cancer, and then proceeding with the resection and stapling of the distal part of the tumor...
February 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Priyanka Mishra, Vinit Raj, Archana S Bhadauria, Ashok K Singh, Amit Rai, Pranesh Kumar, Amit K Keshari, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Umesh Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Biswanath Maity, Sneha Nath, Anand Prakash, Kausar M Ansari, Sudipta Saha
In this study, we investigated the in vivo antiproliferative activity of 6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (M1) in dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) using albino Wistar rats. M1 was administered to DMH induced CRC rats at 10 and 25 mg/kg doses for 15 days. Various physiological, oxidative parameters, histopathology, ELISA, gene and protein expression studies were conducted to evaluate the anti-CRC potential of M1. The histopathology and biochemical tests indicated the protective action of M1 in DMH-induced colon cancer...
February 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ikuko Kashino, Shamima Akter, Tetsuya Mizoue, Norie Sawada, Ayaka Kotemori, Keitaro Matsuo, Isao Oze, Hidemi Ito, Mariko Naito, Tomio Nakayama, Yuri Kitamura, Akiko Tamakoshi, Ichiro Tsuji, Yumi Sugawara, Manami Inoue, Chisato Nagata, Atsuko Sadakane, Keitaro Tanaka, Shoichiro Tsugane, Taichi Shimazu
Coffee is a rich source of bioactive compounds that have potential anti-carcinogenic effects. However, it remains unclear whether coffee drinking is associated with colorectal cancer. Also, despite different etiological factors involved in gut physiology, few studies have investigated this association by anatomical site of the lesion. To address these issues, this study examined the association between coffee drinking and colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis from 8 cohort studies conducted in Japan. Among 320,322 participants followed up for 4,503,276 person-years, 6,711 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Gabriele Babini, Jacopo Morini, Sofia Barbieri, Giorgio Baiocco, Giovanni Battista Ivaldi, Marco Liotta, Paola Tabarelli de Fatis, Andrea Ottolenghi
The protocol adopted in this work aims at unraveling how X-rays perturb the functioning of the intestinal barrier, focusing on the interplay between colorectal tumor cells and the immune system. Colorectal carcinoma is among the most common type of cancer, typically treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Advantages of radiotherapy in targeting the tumor are well known. However, even limited exposures of healthy tissues are of great concern, particularly regarding the effects on the intestinal barrier and the immune system...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Roberto Benelli, Roberta Venè, Nicoletta Ferrari
A plentiful literature has linked colorectal cancer (CRC) to inflammation and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS)2 expression. Accordingly, several nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been tested often successfully in CRC chemoprevention despite their different ability to specifically target PTGS2 and the low or null expression of PTGS2 in early colon adenomas. Some observational studies showed an increased survival for patients with CRC assuming NSAIDs after diagnosis, but no clinical trial has yet demonstrated the efficacy of NSAIDs against established CRC, where PTGS2 is expressed at high levels...
February 2, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Tian Tian, Ran Qiu, Xia Qiu
ncRNAs are important regulatory molecules and involve in many physiological cellular processes. Small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) is a host to 8 snoRNAs and is located in 11q12.3 region of the chromosome. It has been reported to be involved in several cancers. However, the role of SNHG1 in the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer is still unknown. In this study, SNHG1 was upregulated in colorectal cancers, and SNHG1 expression was correlated with advanced colorectal cancer stage and tumor recurrence. We found that SNHG1 promoted cell proliferation by acting as a sponge of miR-145, a well known tumor suppressor of colorectal cancer...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Takuya Fujimoto, Nobuaki Suzuki, Shinobu Tomochika, Hironori Tanaka, Hiroto Matsui, Kazuhiko Sakamoto, Shigeru Takeda, Shigeru Yamamoto, Shigefumi Yoshino, Shoichi Hazama, Haruaki Ishibashi, Yutaka Yonemura, Tomio Ueno, Hiroaki Nagano
We report a case of colorectal cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver metastasis that achieved R0 resection by preoperative chemotherapy and CRS plus HIPEC. A 33-year-old man presented with a complaint of abdominal bloating. After further examination, he was diagnosed with transverse colon cancer with peritoneal dissemination and liver metastasis. After 9 courses of preoperative XELOX plus cetuximab and 4 courses of preoperative XELIRI plus bevacizumab, he underwent transverse colon resection, peritoneal resection, and HIPEC(MMC 20mg/4,000mL physiological saline, 40mins)...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Chun Hin Angus Lee, Joseph C Kong, Hilmy Ismail, Bernhard Riedel, Alexander Heriot
BACKGROUND: Gas exchange-derived variables obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing allow objective assessment of functional capacity and hence physiological reserve to withstand the stressors of major surgery. Field walk tests provide an alternate means for objective assessment of functional capacity that may be cheaper and have greater acceptability, in particular, in elderly patients. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review evaluated the predictive value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and field walk tests in surgical outcomes after colorectal surgery...
March 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Patricia Sanmartín-Salinas, María Del Val Toledo Lobo, Fernando Noguerales-Fraguas, Miguel Toro Londoño, Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz, Luis Gonzalez Guijarro
BACKGROUND: Insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS-4) is an adaptor protein for which new evidence suggests plays a role in tumour promotion. METHODS: We described nuclear IRS-4 in RKO colon cancer cell lines in biopsies of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) (n = 20) and in matched adjacent normal colorectal (MANC) tissue (n = 20). RESULTS: Treatment with physiological doses of IGF-1 promoted nuclear influx of IRS-4 from cellular cytosol in RKO cells...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
Yujiro Nishizawa, Masamitsu Konno, Ayumu Asai, Jun Koseki, Koichi Kawamoto, Norikatsu Miyoshi, Hidekazu Takahashi, Naohiro Nishida, Naotsugu Haraguchi, Daisuke Sakai, Toshihiro Kudo, Taishi Hata, Chu Matsuda, Tsunekazu Mizushima, Taroh Satoh, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Hideshi Ishii
Recent studies have indicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in almost all physiological cellular processes, including every stage of cancer development. Given that hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment is involved in the malignant behavior of tumors, such as invasion and metastasis, we investigated the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer cells. A cell culture under hypoxic conditions revealed several lncRNAs, such as LINC00152, whose levels were increased in the cytoplasm of colorectal cancer cells...
February 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Jonadab E Olguín, Itzel Medina-Andrade, Emmanuel Molina, Armando Vázquez, Thalia Pacheco-Fernández, Rafael Saavedra, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia, Yolanda I Chirino, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Luis E Arias-Romero, Emma B Gutierrez-Cirlos, Sonia A León-Cabrera, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Luis I Terrazas
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the third in men in North America and Europe. CRC is associated with inflammatory responses in which intestinal pathology is caused by different cell populations including a T cell dysregulation that concludes in an imbalance between activated T (Tact) and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells are CD4+Foxp3+ cells that actively suppress pathological and physiological immune responses, contributing to the maintenance of immune homeostasis...
2018: Journal of Cancer
S Gaines, C Shao, N Hyman, J C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer recurrence after a curative resection remains poorly understood. A yet-to-be accounted for variable is the composition and function of the microbiome adjacent to the tumour and its influence on the margins of resection following surgery. METHODS: PubMed was searched for historical as well as current manuscripts dated between 1970 and 2017 using the following keywords: 'colorectal cancer recurrence', 'microbiome', 'anastomotic leak', 'anastomotic failure' and 'mechanical bowel preparation'...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Saifei He, Guangdong Wang, Jing Ni, Juhua Zhuang, Suiliang Zhuang, Guoyu Wang, Ying Ye, Wei Xia
Dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) expression is involved in the occurrence and development of colorectal cancer (CRC) through the regulation of various important physiological events. Hence, miRNAs may be used as effective targets for CRC treatment; however, this hypothesis warrants further investigation. MiRNA-511 (miR511) plays vital roles in the progression of different tumour types. However, the expression, exact role and the mechanisms underlying the regulation of colorectal carcinogenesis and progression by miR-511 remain poorly understood...
January 10, 2018: Oncology Research
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