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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913273/the-endocrine-vitamin-d-system-in-the-gut
#1
Antonio Barbáchano, Asunción Fernández-Barral, Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, Alba Costales-Carrera, María Jesús Larriba, Alberto Muñoz
The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has important regulatory actions in the gut through endocrine and probably also intracrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. By activating the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is expressed at a high level in the small intestine and colon, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulates numerous genes that control gut physiology and homeostasis. 1,25(OH)2D3 is a major responsible for epithelial barrier function and calcium and phosphate absorption, and the host's defense against pathogens and the inflammatory response by several types of secretory and immune cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903148/obesity-and-energy-balance-in-gi-cancer
#2
Justin C Brown, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt
The prevalence of overweight (body mass index [BMI], 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) have increased dramatically in the United States. Because increasing BMI is associated with the development of multiple different cancer types, including most GI cancers, providers will frequently encounter patients with GI cancer who are overweight or obese. Mounting evidence associates overweight and/or obesity with worsened prognosis in multiple GI cancers, including esophageal, gastric, hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colorectal...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896654/bowel-preparation-is-associated-with-reduced-morbidity-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-elective-colectomy
#3
Scott C Dolejs, Michael J Guzman, Alyssa D Fajardo, Bruce W Robb, Bryan K Holcomb, Ben L Zarzaur, Joshua A Waters
BACKGROUND: Bowel preparation in elderly patients is associated with physiologic derangements that may result in postoperative complications. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of bowel preparation on postoperative outcomes in elderly patients. METHODS: Patients age 75 years and older who underwent elective colectomy were identified from the 2012-2014 American College of National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP database). Patients were grouped into no bowel preparation, mechanical bowel preparation (MBP), oral antibiotic preparation (OABP), or combined MBP + OABP...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896510/standard-clinical-protocol-for-bidirectional-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-hipec-systemic-leucovorin-5-fluorouracil-and-heated-intraperitoneal-oxaliplatin-in-a-chloride-containing-carrier-solution
#4
Akash M Mehta, Alwin D R Huitema, Jacobus W A Burger, Alexandra R M Brandt-Kerkhof, Sander F van den Heuvel, Victor J Verwaal
BACKGROUND: Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has an established role in the treatment of selected patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases. Oxaliplatin is highly suitable as a chemotherapeutic agent for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), but its use to date has been limited because of the morbidity caused by severe electrolyte and glycemic imbalances associated with 5% glucose as its carrier solution. This report provides an overview of the development, rationale, and application of intraperitoneal chemotherapy and the use of various drugs and carrier solutions...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880939/inhibition-of-the-transcriptional-repressor-complex-bcl-6-bcor-induces-endothelial-sprouting-but-does-not-promote-tumor-growth
#5
Elisabeth Buchberger, Dietmar Payrhuber, Miriam El Harchi, Branislav Zagrapan, Katharina Scheuba, Anna Zommer, Edina Bugyik, Balazs Dome, Julia Barbara Kral, Waltraud Cornelia Schrottmaier, Gernot Schabbauer, Peter Petzelbauer, Marion Gröger, Martin Bilban, Christine Brostjan
The oncogenic potential of the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 (B-cell lymphoma 6) was originally discovered in non-Hodgkin patients and the soluble Bcl-6 inhibitor 79-6 was developed to treat diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with aberrant Bcl-6 expression. Since we found Bcl-6 and its co-repressor BCoR (Bcl-6 interacting co-repressor) to be regulated in human microvascular endothelium by colorectal cancer cells, we investigated their function in sprouting angiogenesis which is central to tumor growth. Based on Bcl-6/BCoR gene silencing we found that the transcriptional repressor complex in fact constitutes an endogenous inhibitor of vascular sprouting by supporting the stalk cell phenotype: control of Notch target genes (HES1, HEY1, DLL4) and cell cycle regulators (cyclin A and B1)...
November 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878243/different-functions-of-akt1-and-akt2-in-molecular-pathways-cell-migration-and-metabolism-in-colon-cancer-cells
#6
Sara Häggblad Sahlberg, Anja C Mortensen, Jakob Haglöf, Mikael K R Engskog, Torbjörn Arvidsson, Curt Pettersson, Bengt Glimelius, Bo Stenerlöw, Marika Nestor
AKT is a central protein in many cellular pathways such as cell survival, proliferation, glucose uptake, metabolism, angiogenesis, as well as radiation and drug response. The three isoforms of AKT (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) are proposed to have different physiological functions, properties and expression patterns in a cell type-dependent manner. As of yet, not much is known about the influence of the different AKT isoforms in the genome and their effects in the metabolism of colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, DLD-1 isogenic AKT1, AKT2 and AKT1/2 knockout colon cancer cell lines were used as a model system in conjunction with the parental cell line in order to further elucidate the differences between the AKT isoforms and how they are involved in various cellular pathways...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874952/nox1-promotes-colon-cancer-cell-metastasis-via-activation-of-the-adam17-pathway
#7
H-P Wang, X Wang, L-F Gong, W-J Chen, Z Hao, S-W Feng, Y-B Wu, T Ye, Y-K Cai
OBJECTIVE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by endogenous metabolic enzymes are involved in a variety of pathology processes, including cancer. In particular, superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), a member of Nox enzyme family, is highly expressed in the colon tissue and has been implicated in physiological and pathophysiological states of colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Nox1 in the regulation of colon cancer progression remains largely unknown...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866630/intracellular-synthesis-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-antioxidant-activity-by-probiotic-lactobacillus-kimchicus-dcy51-t-isolated-from-korean-kimchi
#8
Josua Markus, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Yeon-Ju Kim, Ragavendran Abbai, Priyanka Singh, Sungeun Ahn, Zuly Elizabeth Jimenez Perez, Joon Hurh, Deok Chun Yang
A straightforward synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) is achieved by novel probiotic Lactobacillus kimchicus DCY51(T) isolated from Korean kimchi via an intracellular membrane-bound mechanism. The bioreduction of HAuCl4 into AuNps was verified by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry at ∼540nm. AuNps were spherical with varying sizes of 5-30nm. AuNps maintained an average crystallite size of 13nm and demonstrated long-term stability in physiological buffer and biological media. Furthermore, the protective capping layer consisted of amino acid residues and surface-bound proteins rendered them non-toxic to murine macrophage (RAW264...
December 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822767/colorectal-cancer-prognosis-following-obesity-surgery-in-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Wenjing Tao, Peter Konings, Mark A Hull, Hans-Olov Adami, Fredrik Mattsson, Jesper Lagergren
BACKGROUND: Obesity surgery involves mechanical and physiological changes of the gastrointestinal tract that might promote colorectal cancer progression. Thus, we hypothesised that obesity surgery is associated with poorer prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: This nationwide population-based cohort study included all patients with an obesity diagnosis who subsequently developed colorectal cancer in Sweden from 1980 to 2012. The exposure was obesity surgery, and the main and secondary outcomes were disease-specific mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively...
November 7, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800507/ascorbate-availability-affects-tumor-implantation-take-rate-and-increases-tumor-rejection-in-gulo-mice
#10
Elizabeth J Campbell, Margreet Cm Vissers, Gabi U Dachs
In solid tumors, HIF1 upregulates the expression of hundreds of genes involved in cell survival, tumor growth, and adaptation to the hypoxic microenvironment. HIF1 stabilization and activity are suppressed by prolyl and asparagine hydroxylases, which require oxygen as a substrate and ascorbate as a cofactor. This has led us to hypothesize that intracellular ascorbate availability could modify the hypoxic HIF1 response and influence tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of variable intracellular ascorbate levels on HIF1 induction in cancer cells in vitro, and on tumor-take rate and growth in the Gulo(-/-) mouse...
2016: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783239/risk-scores-as-useful-predictors-of-perioperative-complications-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-who-received-radical-surgery
#11
Hiroshi Miyakita, Sotaro Sadahiro, Gota Saito, Kazutake Okada, Akira Tanaka, Toshiyuki Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer is associated with a higher rate of surgical complications. The ability to predict the risk of complications before treatment would facilitate the design of personalized treatment strategies optimally suited for each patient. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 260 patients with rectal cancer who underwent radical surgery to examine the relations between complications and 5 types of risk scores. RESULTS: Complications developed in 56 patients (21...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783027/eras-protocol-reduces-il-6-secretion-in-colorectal-laparoscopic-surgery-results-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Giulio Mari, Jacopo Crippa, Andrea Costanzi, Michele Mazzola, Michele Rossi, Dario Maggioni
BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program applied to colorectal laparoscopic surgery is well known to reduce hospitalization improving short-terms outcomes. Its goal is to minimize the surgical stress response in order to maintain the physiological homeostasis altered by surgery. However, there is little knowledge about the involved dynamics in the reduction of the surgical stress that these programs allow. The primary aim of this study was to compare the level of immune and nutritional serum investigators across surgery in patients undergoing elective colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS protocol or according to a standard care program...
December 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783025/early-discharge-after-colorectal-resection-the-positive-impact-of-an-enhanced-recovery-program-on-a-rural-colorectal-surgery-service
#13
Giovanni D Tebala, Sean Keane, Abdelsalam Osman, Mina Ip, Abdul Q Khan, Luciano Perrone
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery (ER) programs are policies and protocols meant to improve postoperative recovery after surgery. As a consequence of a smoother recovery, patients can be discharged early. This paper describes the impact of an ER program in colorectal surgery in a rural hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 132 patients had colorectal resection within the ER program. Data were collected prospectively. The ER pathway affects perioperative management in the following ways in order to: (1) improve patient's general condition before surgery, (2) minimize intraoperative surgical trauma by using a laparoscopic approach in all cases, and (3) facilitation of a quicker postoperative return of physiological function...
December 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770205/comparison-of-symptom-clusters-associated-with-fatigue-in-older-and-younger-survivors-of-colorectal-cancer
#14
S C Agasi-Idenburg, M S Y Thong, C J A Punt, M M Stuiver, N K Aaronson
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most frequently reported symptoms in cancer survivors. To be able to optimally treat CRF, knowledge of symptoms that interact with CRF is helpful. During aging, changes occur in body composition with progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes causing a decline of adaptive capacity. Therefore, symptoms caused by cancer and its treatment might coexist in different symptom clusters in older cancer survivors, compared to younger survivors...
October 21, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760098/-the-impact-of-the-consumption-of-vegetables-fruits-coffee-and-tea-on-the-development-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#15
Kuba Marciniak, Mirosław Kiedrowski, Danuta Gajewska, Andrzej Deptała, Dariusz Włodarek
The development of colorectal carcinoma is a multistep process of accumulation of mutations and epigenetic changes associated with DNA repair, proliferation, apoptosis, intra- and extracellular signaling, adhesion and other physiological functions of cells and tissues. A long period of development, high colorectal carcinoma-related mortality as well as significant social and economic costs due to this condition are prerequisites for seeking efficient methods of cancer prevention, including nutritional approach...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743884/peptide-screen-identifies-a-new-nadph-oxidase-inhibitor-impact-on-cell-migration-and-invasion
#16
Mohamed Mousslim, Alessandra Pagano, Nicolas Andreotti, Françoise Garrouste, Sylvie Thuault, Vincent Peyrot, Fabrice Parat, José Luis, Marcel Culcasi, Sophie Thétiot-Laurent, Sylvia Pietri, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Hervé Kovacic
The NADPH oxidase proteins catalyse the formation of superoxide anion which act as signalling molecules in physiological and pathological processes. Nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase is expressed in heart, lung, colon, blood vessels and brain. Different strategies involving Nox1 inhibition based on diphenylene iodonium derivatives are currently tested for colorectal cancer therapy. Here, after peptides screening on Nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase assay in HT-29 cells, we identify a peptide (referred to as NF02), cell-active, that potently block Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species generation...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736304/the-role-of-sema4a-in-angiogenesis-immune-responses-carcinogenesis-and-retinal-systems
#17
Daisuke Ito, Atsushi Kumanogoh
Semaphorins were originally identified as axon guidance cues that regulate the functional activity of axons in the nervous system. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that semaphorins have multiple functions in physiological and pathogenic processes, including vascular development, tumor progression, and immune responses. Sema4A is a semaphorin expressed in immune cells, and is thus termed an "immune semaphorin." Sema4A has four types of receptors: Plexin D family, Plexin B family, Tim-2, and Nrp-1...
October 13, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734399/ccn-detection-of-cancer-tissues-by-immunohistochemistry-staining
#18
Cheng-Chi Chang, Yue-Ju Li, Min-Liang Kuo
CCN family members are involved in many physiologic and pathological functions, and be detected in many different cancer types. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important diagnostic pathology tool to demonstrate protein expression in clinical and research fields. Here, we explain the preparation of sample slides, staining procedure, and the problems that might be met during the time. The differential staining of CCN proteins is shown in breast cancer, oral cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and gastric cancer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702819/molecular-pathways-dietary-regulation-of-stemness-and-tumor-initiation-by-the-ppar-%C3%AE-pathway
#19
Semir Beyaz, Ömer H Yilmaz
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates gene expression during development and disease states, such as cancer. However, the precise role of PPAR-δ during tumorigenesis is not well understood. Recent data suggest that PPAR-δ may have context-specific oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles depending on the tissue, cell-type, or diet-induced physiology in question. For example, in the intestine, pro-obesity diets, such as a high-fat diet (HFD), are associated with increased colorectal cancer incidence...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694308/analyzing-structure-function-relationships-of-artificial-and-cancer-associated-parp1-variants-by-reconstituting-talen-generated-hela-parp1-knock-out-cells
#20
Lisa Rank, Sebastian Veith, Eva C Gwosch, Janine Demgenski, Magdalena Ganz, Marjolijn C Jongmans, Christopher Vogel, Arthur Fischbach, Stefanie Buerger, Jan M F Fischer, Tabea Zubel, Anna Stier, Christina Renner, Michael Schmalz, Sascha Beneke, Marcus Groettrup, Roland P Kuiper, Alexander Bürkle, Elisa Ferrando-May, Aswin Mangerich
Genotoxic stress activates PARP1, resulting in the post-translational modification of proteins with poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). We genetically deleted PARP1 in one of the most widely used human cell systems, i.e. HeLa cells, via TALEN-mediated gene targeting. After comprehensive characterization of these cells during genotoxic stress, we analyzed structure-function relationships of PARP1 by reconstituting PARP1 KO cells with a series of PARP1 variants. Firstly, we verified that the PARP1\E988K mutant exhibits mono-ADP-ribosylation activity and we demonstrate that the PARP1\L713F mutant is constitutively active in cells...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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