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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730759/surgical-treatment-for-colorectal-cancer-in-octogenarians-and-nonagenarians
#1
Young Wan Kim
Advances in surgical techniques and perioperative care have improved cancer-related outcomes. However, there are still concerns regarding the safety of octogenarian and nonagenarian patients during surgery. Clinicians may be reluctant to perform a radical resection for colorectal cancer and administer adjuvant or palliative cytotoxic chemotherapy to octogenarian and nonagenarian patients. In the elderly, setting a primary goal based on multidisciplinary team discussions prior to treatment is important. The overall treatment scheme, risks, and potential benefits should be discussed with elderly patients and their families...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722097/-research-progress-of-the-association-of-hydrogen-sulfide-with-colorectal-cancer-and-its-associated-anti-tumor-drugs
#2
Shanwen Chen, Pengyuan Wang, Yucun Liu
As the third confirmed gaseous transmitters, hydrogen sulfide was found to play a vital role in the eternal milieu both physiologically and pathologically. What's intriguing is that, there exists a debate about the role of hydrogen sulfide in the pathogenesis of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. In this manuscript, progress of the effect of low and high dose hydrogen sulfide on the tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer and research on the antitumor new drugs stemmed from the function of hydrogen sulfide is summarized...
July 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721811/moving-to-the-rhythm-with-clock-circadian-genes-autophagy-mtor-and-sirt1-in-degenerative-disease-and-cancer
#3
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: The mammalian circadian clock and its associated clock genes are increasingly be recognized as critical components for a number of physiological and disease processes that extend beyond hormone release, thermal regulation, and sleep-wake cycles. New evidence suggests that clinical behavior disruptions that involve prolonged shift work and even space travel may negatively impact circadian rhythm and lead to multi-system disease. METHODS: In light of the significant role circadian rhythm can hold over the body's normal physiology as well as disease processes, we examined and discussed the impact circadian rhythm and clock genes hold over lifespan, neurodegenerative disorders, and tumorigenesis...
July 17, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713989/effects-of-proton-beam-irradiation-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-a-human-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#4
Byung Geun Ha, Sung Suk Jung, Yun Hee Shon
Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708826/intestinal-stem-cell-overproliferation-resulting-from-inactivation-of-the-apc-tumor-suppressor-requires-the-transcription-cofactors-earthbound-and-erect-wing
#5
Ai Tian, Hassina Benchabane, Zhenghan Wang, Chloe Zimmerman, Nan Xin, Jessica Perochon, Gabriela Kalna, Owen J Sansom, Chao Cheng, Julia B Cordero, Yashi Ahmed
Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction directs intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation during homeostasis. Hyperactivation of Wnt signaling initiates colorectal cancer, which most frequently results from truncation of the tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). The β-catenin-TCF transcription complex activates both the physiological expression of Wnt target genes in the normal intestinal epithelium and their aberrantly increased expression in colorectal tumors. Whether mechanistic differences in the Wnt transcription machinery drive these distinct levels of target gene activation in physiological versus pathological states remains uncertain, but is relevant for the design of new therapeutic strategies...
July 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684938/sexual-dysfunction-and-intimacy-for-ostomates
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Albaugh, Sandi Tenfelde, Dana M Hayden
Sex and intimacy presents special challenges for the ostomate. Since some colorectal surgery patients will require either temporary or permanent stomas, intimacy and sexuality is a common issue for ostomates. In addition to the stoma, nerve damage, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are often used in conjunction with stoma creation for cancer patients, thereby adding physiological dysfunction to the personal psychological impact of the stoma, leading to sexual dysfunction. The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence, etiology, and the most common types of sexual dysfunction in men and women after colorectal surgery and particularly those patients with stomas...
July 2017: Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643625/microbial-interactions-and-interventions-in-colorectal-cancer
#7
Terence Van Raay, Emma Allen-Vercoe
Recently, several lines of evidence that indicate a strong link between the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and aspects of the gut microbiota have become apparent. However, it remains unclear how changes in the gut microbiota might influence carcinogenesis or how regional organization of the gut might influence the microbiota. In this review, we discuss several leading theories that connect gut microbial dysbiosis with CRC and set this against a backdrop of what is known about proximal-distal gut physiology and the pathways of CRC development and progression...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636998/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-for-predicting-irinotecan-exposure-in-human-body
#8
Yingfang Fan, Najia Mansoor, Tasneem Ahmad, Rafeeq Alam Khan, Martin Czejka, Syed Sharib, Dong-Hua Yang, Mansoor Ahmed
Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Treatment of colorectal cancer remains a challenge to clinicians as well as drug developers. Irinotecan, a Camptothecin derivative, is successfully used for the treatment of this rapidly progressing malignancy and finds its place in the first line of therapeutic agents. Irinotecan is also effective in treating SCLC, malignant glioma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, its adverse effects limit its clinical application...
June 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623901/biomarker-correlation-network-in-colorectal-carcinoma-by-tumor-anatomic-location
#9
Reiko Nishihara, Kimberly Glass, Kosuke Mima, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Jonathan A Nowak, Zhi Rong Qian, Peter Kraft, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Andrew T Chan, John Quackenbush, Shuji Ogino, Jukka-Pekka Onnela
BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma evolves through a multitude of molecular events including somatic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant protein expression, influenced by host immune reactions. One way to interrogate the complex carcinogenic process and interactions between aberrant events is to model a biomarker correlation network. Such a network analysis integrates multidimensional tumor biomarker data to identify key molecular events and pathways that are central to an underlying biological process...
June 17, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599275/dicer-suppresses-cytoskeleton-remodeling-and-tumorigenesis-of-colorectal-epithelium-by-mir-324-5p-mediated-suppression-of-hmgxb3-and-wasf-2
#10
Li Na Sun, Cheng Xing, Zheng Zhi, Yao Liu, Liang-Yan Chen, Tong Shen, Qun Zhou, Yu Hong Liu, Wen Juan Gan, Jing-Ru Wang, Yong Xu, Jian Ming Li
Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs, a class of small and well-conserved noncoding RNAs, participate in many physiological and pathological processes. RNase III endonuclease DICER is one of the key enzymes for microRNA biogenesis. Here, we found that DICER was downregulated in tumor samples of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients at both mRNA and protein levels. Importantly, intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-specific deletion of Dicer mice got more tumors after azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593575/the-role-of-herg1-ion-channels-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-the-capacity-of-riluzole-to-reduce-cisplatin-resistance-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#11
Angelo Fortunato
PURPOSE: The transition of cells from the epithelial to the mesenchymal state (EMT) plays an important role in tumor progression. EMT allows cells to acquire mobility, stem-like behavior and resistance to apoptosis and drug treatment. These features turn EMT into a central process in tumor biology. Ion channels are attractive targets for the treatment of cancer since they play critical roles in controlling a wide range of physiological processes that are frequently deregulated in cancer...
June 7, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588875/management-of-chronic-constipation-in-adults
#12
REVIEW
K Krogh, G Chiarioni, W Whitehead
Chronic constipation (CC) is an extremely common condition with an estimated prevalence of up to 24%. Most patients with CC should be treated in primary care. Changes in lifestyle, including increased intake of dietary fibre, fluid, and exercise, should be attempted in most patients. Osmotic or stimulant laxatives are indicated if there are insufficient effects of lifestyle changes. Prokinetics and secretagogues should be restricted to those not responding to basic treatment. Anorectal physiology tests and assessment of colorectal transit time are indicated if medical treatment fails or if symptoms indicate severely obstructed defecation...
June 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579842/short-and-long-term-health-consequences-of-sleep-disruption
#13
REVIEW
Goran Medic, Micheline Wille, Michiel Eh Hemels
Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560691/role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-in-metastatic-colon-cancer-it-is-finally-time-for-targeted-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Maria Villalba, Stephanie R Evans, Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha, Alfonso Calvo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent tumor types in Western countries. Approximately 20 % of patients show metastasis at the time of diagnosis, with the liver being one of the most affected organs. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) plays a regulatory role not only in the physiology of the normal colon but also in the development of CRC and its metastatic process. In this review, we analyze the molecular mechanisms leading to TGF-β dysregulation in tumor and stroma cells and the modification of the microenvironment that fosters CRC metastasis...
May 30, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546638/effects-of-obesity-on-liver-cytochromes-p450-in-various-animal-models
#15
Veronika Tomankova, Pavel Anzenbacher, Eva Anzenbacherova
The prevalence of obesity and other obesity-related diseases is increasing worldwide. Obesity is a disease characterized by increased body weight, or a condition resulting from excessive accumulation of body fat. Due to increased body fat deposits, obesity has also been associated with increased mortality resulting from higher incidence rates of hypertension, diabetes, or various types of cancer, such as breast, colorectal, cervical and prostate cancer. Physiological changes associated with obesity are likely to result in altered drug biotransformation...
May 25, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538040/interleukin-10-592c-a-but-not-1082a-g-promoter-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-is-associated-with-a-decreased-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-an-ethnic-kashmiri-population-a-case-control-study
#16
Mujeeb Z Banday, Aga S Sameer, Nissar A Chowdri, Ehtishamul Haq
Chronic inflammation influences the development of various cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays a vital role in several homeostatic physiological processes occurring in the human gastrointestinal tract including intestinal inflammation and is a key regulator of several gastrointestinal tract pathophysiological processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases that are associated with an increased predisposition to CRC. Several studies have reported the association of various polymorphisms in the human IL-10 gene including IL-10 -592C/A and IL-10 -1082A/G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with various cancers including CRC, but these SNPs are yet to be studied in a Kashmiri population with respect to CRC risk...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533661/macrophage-inflammatory-protein-2-as-mediator-of-inflammation-in-acute-liver-injury
#17
REVIEW
Chao-Chao Qin, Yan-Ning Liu, Ying Hu, Ying Yang, Zhi Chen
Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 is one of the CXC chemokines and is also known as chemokine CXC ligand (CXCL2). MIP-2 affects neutrophil recruitment and activation through the p38 mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-dependent signaling pathway, by binding to its specific receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. MIP-2 is produced by a variety of cell types, such as macrophages, monocytes, epithelial cells, and hepatocytes, in response to infection or injury. In liver injury, activated Kupffer cells are known as the major source of MIP-2...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498396/diverse-expression-patterns-and-tumorigenic-role-of-neurotensin-signaling-components-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#18
Ji Tae Kim, Heidi L Weiss, B Mark Evers
Colorectal cancer (CRC), which is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation. Neurotensin (NTS), a hormone localized to the gut and central nervous system, mediates its physiological and pathological effects, including growth stimulation for a variety of cancers, through three distinct NTS receptors (NTSRs). Most NTS functions are mediated through the high-affinity receptor NTSR1, and expression of NTSR1 is increased in many cancers including CRC...
May 9, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465216/ros1-protein-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-ros1-fusion-protein-driven-non-small-cell-lung-cancers
#19
REVIEW
Robert Roskoski
ROS1 protein-tyrosine kinase fusion proteins are expressed in 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers. The ROS1 fusion partners include CD74, CCDC6, EZR, FIG, KDELR2, LRIG3, MSN, SDC4, SLC34A2, TMEM106B, TMP3, and TPD52L1. Physiological ROS1 is closely related to the ALK, LTK, and insulin receptor protein-tyrosine kinases. ROS1 is a so-called orphan receptor because the identity of its activating ligand, if any, is unknown. The receptor is expressed during development, but little is expressed in adults and its physiological function is unknown...
April 30, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455963/trkc-promotes-colorectal-cancer-growth-and-metastasis
#20
Min Soo Kim, Kwang Wook Suh, Suntaek Hong, Wook Jin
The current work reveals that TrkC receptor is crucial to many aspects of tumorigenicity and metastasis of cancer. However, with only a few exceptions, such as colorectal cancer (CRC), where suppressing tumorigenic and metastatic ability via expression of TrkC as tumor suppressor have been proposed. These diverse lines of evidence led us to investigate whether TrkC is involved in CRC progression. By using mouse models and molecular biology analyses, we demonstrate that TrkC acts as an activator in tumorigenicity and metastasis of colorectal cancer...
June 20, 2017: Oncotarget
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