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Aubin Moutal, Li Sun, Xiaofang Yang, Wennan Li, Song Cai, Shizhen Luo, Rajesh Khanna
An understudied symptom of the genetic disorder Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is chronic idiopathic pain. We used targeted editing of Nf1 in rats to provide direct evidence of a causal relationship between neurofibromin, the protein product of the Nf1 gene, and pain responses. Our study data identified a protein-interaction network with collapsin response meditator protein 2 (CRMP2) as a node and neurofibromin, syntaxin 1A, and the N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV2.2) channel as interaction edges. Neurofibromin uncouples CRMP2 from syntaxin 1A...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Kevin B Clark
The origin(s) and purpose(s) of consciousness continue to be fervently debated by neuroscientists. A recent unconventional hypothesis put forth by Morsella et al. suggests the primary function of consciousness is the integration, selection, and execution of advantageous lower-level voluntary skeletal muscle behavior on surrounding external environments. However, at main issue is whether more precise, adaptable voluntary skeletal motor action, and therefore the corresponding workings of consciousness, first emerged and evolved in animals to exert control over external environments or internal ones regulated by less flexible autonomic function...
April 10, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Takamasa Ito, Takashi Shiromizu, Shunsuke Ohnishi, Shotaro Suzuki, Katsuhiro Mabe, Akito Hasegawa, Hideyuki Ujiie, Yasuyuki Fujita, Yuichi Sato, Shuji Terai, Mototsugu Kato, Masahiro Asaka, Takeshi Tomonaga, Hiroshi Shimizu, Riichiro Abe
Hypersensitivity to Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium in the stomach, is induced during eradication therapy, resulting in skin manifestations. extracellular vesicles-mediated antigen presentation could play a role in this process.
April 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Fatemeh Torkamani, Alireza Aghayousefi, Ahmad Alipour, Mohammad Nami
OBJECTIVES: Based on existing psychoneuroimmunological insights, the present study aimed at investigating possible effects of a single-session group mantra-meditation on salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and affective states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A controlled pretest-posttest study enrolled 30 healthy women (mean age 44 ± 3 years) through a multi-stage random sampling method from yoga clubs in Shiraz (Feb-Dec, 2016). Subjects were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups...
March 2018: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Eva Livingston, Katreena Collette-Merrill
This article examines the effectiveness of Integrative Restoration (iRest) Yoga Nidra meditation on mindfulness, sleep, and pain in health care workers. As health care workers provide emotional support to patients, it is not uncommon for workers to experience both physical and mental exhaustion. One holistic approach to support employees is mindfulness training. iRest Yoga Nidra is a complementary and integrative health therapy that increases mindfulness. A pre-/postinterveniton descriptive survey design was used...
May 2018: Holistic Nursing Practice
Gunes Sevinc, Britta K Hölzel, Javeria Hashmi, Jonathan Greenberg, Adrienne McCallister, Michael Treadway, Marissa L Schneider, Jeffery A Dusek, James Carmody, Sara W Lazar
OBJECTIVE: We investigated common and dissociable neural and psychological correlates of two widely used meditation-based stress-reduction programs. METHODS: Participants were randomized to the Relaxation Response (RR; n=18; 56% female) or the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; n=16, 56% female) programs. Both programs utilize a 'bodyscan' meditation, however the RR program explicitly emphasizes physical relaxation during this practice, while the MBSR program emphasizes mindful awareness with no explicit relaxation instructions...
April 10, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Myriam Venasse, Thomas Edwards, Lara A Pilutti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been recent interest in the role of lifestyle and wellness-based approaches in the treatment and management of multiple sclerosis (MS). These approaches may be particularly relevant for patients with progressive MS, considering limited therapeutic options currently available. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of wellness-based interventions including exercise training, emotional well-being therapies, and dietary modification in patients with progressive MS...
April 10, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Tiffany C Y Cheung, Karen P Y Liu, Janet Y H Wong, Young-Hyeon Bae, Stanley Sai-Chuen Hui, William W N Tsang, Yoyo T Y Cheng, Shirley S M Fong
This study explored the immediate effects of Tai Chi (TC) training on attention and meditation, perceived stress level, heart rate, oxygen saturation level in blood, and palmar skin temperature in late middle-aged adults. Twenty TC practitioners and 20 nonpractitioners volunteered to join the study. After baseline measurements were taken, the TC group performed TC for 10 minutes while their cognitive states and cardiovascular responses were concurrently monitored. The control group rested for the same duration in a standing position...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
David Young, Brandan Pedre, Daria Ezerina, Barbara De Smet, Aleksandra Lewandowska, Maria-Armineh Tossounian, Nandita Bodra, Jingjing Huang, Leonardo Astolfi Rosado, Frank Van Breusegem, Joris Messens
Decrypting the cellular response to oxidative stress relies on a comprehensive understanding of the redox signaling pathways stimulated under oxidizing conditions. Redox signaling events can be divided into upstream sensing of oxidants, midstream redox signaling of protein function, and downstream transcriptional redox regulation. A more and more accepted theory of hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) signaling is that of a thiol peroxidase redox relay, whereby protein thiols with low reactivity toward H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> are instead oxidized through an oxidative relay with thiol peroxidases...
April 11, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Valerie J Rice, Baoxia Liu, Paul J Schroeder
Mindfulness meditation training has been shown to reduce stress and improve short-term memory for military personnel. However, no studies have investigated the effects of in-person and virtual world (VW) mindfulness training on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In this study, U.S. military active duty service members and veterans were pseudo-randomized into two mindfulness training groups: in-person (IP) and online via a VW, and a wait-list control group...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Paul N Kizakevich, Randall Eckhoff, Janice Brown, Stephen J Tueller, Belinda Weimer, Stacey Bell, Adam Weeks, Laurel L Hourani, James L Spira, Laurel A King
Post-traumatic stress and other problems often occur after combat, deployment, and other military operations. Because techniques such as mindfulness meditation show efficacy in improving mental health, our team developed a mobile application (app) for individuals in the armed forces with subclinical psychological problems as secondary prevention of more significant disease. Based on the Personal Health Intervention Toolkit (PHIT), a mobile app framework for personalized health intervention studies, PHIT for Duty integrates mindfulness-based relaxation, behavioral education in sleep quality and alcohol use, and psychometric and psychophysiological data capture...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Ndidiamaka Amutah-Onukagha, Meena Mahadevan, Ijeoma Opara, Monica Rodriguez, Megan Trusdell, Jessica Kelly
Project THANKS, (Turning HIV/AIDS into Knowledge for Sisters), is an evidence-based intervention that utilizes a community-based participatory and empowerment building approach for African American female substance abusers living with HIV and other chronic diseases. This qualitative study sought to gain insight from women living with HIV on how to improve Project THANKS. African American women living with substance abuse disorders, HIV, and other comorbidities were recruited from three community based health centers in New Jersey (N = 31)...
April 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Bo Kyung Sohn, Yun Kyu Oh, Jung-Seok Choi, Jiyoun Song, Ahyoung Lim, Jung Pyo Lee, Jung Nam An, Hee-Jeong Choi, Jae Yeon Hwang, Hee-Yeon Jung, Jun-Young Lee, Chun Soo Lim
Background: Many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) experience depression. Depression influences patient quality of life (QOL), dialysis compliance, and medical comorbidity. We developed and applied a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program including mindfulness meditation for ESRD patients undergoing HD, and measured changes in QOL, mood, anxiety, perceived stress, and biochemical markers. Methods: We conducted group CBT over a 12-week period with seven ESRD patients undergoing HD and suffering from depression...
March 2018: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Chris Noone, Michael J Hogan
BACKGROUND: Arguments for including mindfulness instruction in higher education have included claims about the benefits of mindfulness practice for critical thinking. While there is theoretical support for this claim, empirical support is limited. The aim of this study was to test this claim by investigating the effects of an online mindfulness intervention on executive function, critical thinking skills and associated thinking dispositions. METHOD: Participants recruited from a university were randomly allocated, following screening, to either a mindfulness meditation group or a sham meditation group...
April 5, 2018: BMC Psychology
Mansoor M Aman, R Jason Yong, Alan David Kaye, Richard D Urman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fibromyalgia (FM) is the second most common rheumatologic pain disorder after osteoarthritis with a multisystem presentation. While the treatment of FM in a clinical setting incorporates both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic modalities, the present investigation reviews evolving literature on cognitive behavioral and complementary medical therapies. The recent medical literature on FM was reviewed between 2012 and 2017 via MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and evidence-based treatment guidelines...
April 4, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Khadijeh Hajimiri, Elham Shakibazadeh, Ali Asghar Haeri Mehrizi, Sakineh Shab-Bidar, Roya Sadeghi
INTRODUCTION: In recent decades, the focuses of health studies were mostly in middle-aged women, and few studies have investigated the lifestyle of women after delivery. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of both self-efficacy and perceived barriers on Iranian women health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) in the first 1 year after childbirth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 310 women at first-year postpartum were surveyed in Zanjan (Iran) in 2016...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
Ami Kapadia
Mindfulness meditation has vast physiologic benefits that can reduce physician burnout and improve physician well-being. Collective meditation and mindfulness practices with organized continuity among physician groups can synergistically elevate the practice of primary care by fostering creativity and innovation needed for sustainable solutions. A cohesive frontline physician voice rooted in higher purpose cultivated by meditation and mindfulness practices in a platform directly linked to quality improvement can lead to meaningful change in primary care for all...
March 16, 2018: Permanente Journal
Joaquim Soler, Matilde Elices, Elisabeth Dominguez-Clavé, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Mayte Navarro-Gil, Javier García-Campayo, Jordi Riba
Background: The therapeutic effects of the Amazonian plant tea ayahuasca may relate to its ability to enhance mindfulness capacities. Ayahuasca induces a modified state of awareness through the combined action of its active principles: the psychedelic N,N- dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and a series of centrally acting β-carbolines, mainly harmine and tetrahydroharmine. To better understand the therapeutic potential of ayahuasca, here we compared the impact on mindfulness capacities induced by two independent interventions: (a) participation in four ayahuasca sessions without any specific purpose related to improving mindfulness capacities; and (b) participation in a standard mindfulness training course: 8 weeks mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), with the specific goal of improving these skills...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Madhuri R Tolahunase, Rajesh Sagar, Muneeb Faiq, Rima Dada
BACKGROUND: Current interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD) are suboptimal, and only one third respond to them on initial treatment. Neuroplasticity theories are the basis for several emerging treatments. Evidence on the impact of yoga, a well-known mind-body intervention, on neuroplasticity in MDD is limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of 12-week yoga- and meditation- based lifestyle intervention (YMLI) on depression severity and systemic biomarkers of neuroplasticity in adult MDD patients on routine drug treatment...
March 25, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Eric G Stefanich, Julie Rae, Siddharth Sukumaran, Jeff Lutman, Annemarie Lekkerkerker, Wenjun Ouyang, Xiaoting Wang, Donna Lee, Dimitry M Danilenko, Lauri Diehl, Kelly M Loyet, Ann Herman
Interleukin (IL)-22 plays protective roles in infections and in inflammatory diseases that have been linked to its meditation of innate immunity via multiple mechanisms. IL-22 binds specifically to its heterodimeric receptor, which is expressed on a variety of epithelial tissues. UTTR1147A is a recombinant fusion protein that links the human cytokine IL-22 with the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin (Ig) G4. Here, we report extensive in vitro and in vivo nonclinical studies that were conducted to characterize the pharmacological activity of UTTR1147A...
March 30, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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