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Hematopoiesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933374/polymorphisms-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-gene-and-the-risk-of-acquired-aplastic-anemia-in-a-chinese-population
#1
Xue-Hong Liang, Liucheng Rong, Guangsheng He, Hailong He, Shengyun Lin, Yan Yang, Yao Xue, Yongjun Fang
Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a hematological disease characterized by failure of bone marrow hematopoiesis resulting in pancytopenia. While immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) plays a central role in the pathophysiology of acquired AA, the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is crucial in adjusting the immune system. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms rs1800469 and rs2317130 in susceptibility to acquired AA. Via the approach of SNaPshot, we genotyped rs1800469 and rs2317130 in 101 patients with acquired AA and 165 controls...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933064/systemic-expression-of-notch-ligand-delta-like-4-during-mycobacterial-infection-alters-the-t-cell-immune-response
#2
Matthew A Schaller, Ronald M Allen, Soichiro Kimura, Cheryl L Day, Steven L Kunkel
The Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4) is known to fine-tune the CD4(+) T cell cytokine response. DLL4 is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in a MyD88-dependent manner. We found that DLL4 expression was upregulated on bone marrow progenitor cells and APCs in mice infected with BCG Mycobacterium. Transfer of DLL4(+) progenitor cells from infected hosts resulted in an increase DLL4(+) myeloid cells in the spleen, indicating that expression of the dll4 gene is propagated throughout hematopoiesis...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929539/sensitivity-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-to-mitochondrial-dysfunction-by-sdhd-gene-deletion
#3
José Antonio Bejarano-García, África Millán-Uclés, Iván V Rosado, Luís Ignacio Sánchez-Abarca, Teresa Caballero-Velázquez, María José Durán-Galván, José Antonio Pérez-Simón, José I Piruat
It is established that hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in the hypoxic bone marrow have adapted their metabolism to oxygen-limiting conditions. This adaptation includes suppression of mitochondrial activity, induction of anerobic glycolysis, and activation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (Hif1α)-dependent gene expression. During progression of hematopoiesis, a metabolic switch towards mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is observed, making this organelle essential for determining cell fate choice in bone marrow...
December 8, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929462/methods-to-examine-the-lymph-gland-and-hemocytes-in-drosophila-larvae
#4
Theresa A Reimels, Cathie M Pfleger
Many parallels exist between the Drosophila and mammalian hematopoietic systems, even though Drosophila lack the lymphoid lineage that characterize mammalian adaptive immunity. Drosophila and mammalian hematopoiesis occur in spatially and temporally distinct phases to produce several blood cell lineages. Both systems maintain reservoirs of blood cell progenitors with which to expand or replace mature lineages. The hematopoietic system allows Drosophila and mammals to respond to and to adapt to immune challenges...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928945/jak-stat-signal-transduction-promising-attractive-targets-for-immune-inflammatory-and-hematopoietic-diseases
#5
Qianwen Gao, Xuewu Liang, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Jie Zang, Wenfang Xu, Yingjie Zhang
JAKs, a key family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases acting as a requisite part in the signaling process of growth factors and cytokines, important for immunity responses and hematopoiesis have become attractive targets for a considerable number of immune, inflammatory and hematopoietic diseases. Moreover, the JAK signal system has drawn significant attention in recent years as therapeutic targets including JAKs, STATs and JAK/STAT signal pathway. Herein, we present a review of the JAK/STAT signal pathway, the structure, biological function, mechanism of the JAKs and STATs along with a summary of the up-to-date clinical or approved JAK inhibitors which are involved in the treatment of various kinds of tumors and other immunity indications...
December 7, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927068/beetroot-beta-vulgaris-rescues-mice-from-%C3%AE-ray-irradiation-by-accelerating-hematopoiesis-and-curtailing-immunosuppression
#6
Jinhee Cho, So Jin Bing, Areum Kim, Nam Ho Lee, Sang-Hee Byeon, Gi-Ok Kim, Youngheun Jee
CONTEXT: Beetroot [Beta vulgaris Linné (Chenopodiaceae)], a vegetable usually consumed as a food or a medicinal plant in Europe, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Since the lymphohematopoietic system is the most sensitive tissue to ionizing radiation, protecting it from radiation damage is one of the best ways to decrease detrimental effects from radiation exposure. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the radio-protective effects of beetroot in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923827/preclinical-evidence-that-3-deoxy-3-18f-fluorothymidine-pet-can-visualize-recovery-of-hematopoiesis-after-gemcitabine-chemotherapy
#7
Sonja Schelhaas, Annelena Held, Nicole Bäumer, Thomas Viel, Sven Hermann, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Andreas H Jacobs
Molecular imaging with the PET tracer 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) allows assessment of the proliferative state of organs in vivo Although used primarily in the oncology clinic, it can also shed light on the proliferation of other tissues, as demonstrated here for monitoring hematopoietic organs that recover after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In the NMRI nude mouse model, we observed up to a 4.5-fold increase in [(18)F]FLT uptake in bone marrow and spleen on days 2, 3, and 5 after treatment with gemcitabine, a chemotherapeutic agent that is powerfully myelosuppressive in the model...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923195/aplastic-anemia-and-mds-international-foundation-aamdsif-bone-marrow-failure-disease-scientific-symposium-2016
#8
Amer M Zeidan, Minoo Battiwalla, Deborah Berlyne, Thomas Winkler
Patients with acquired and inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) have ineffective hematopoiesis due to impairments of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Common manifestations of BMFS include varying degrees of peripheral blood cytopenias and, sometimes, progression to acute myelogenous leukemia. Research efforts have been made all over the world to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases and their clinical implications. The Aplastic Anemia and MDS International Foundation (AAMDSIF) is an independent nonprofit organization whose mission is to help patients and family members cope with BMFS...
November 24, 2016: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918575/high-serum-adiponectin-level-is-a-risk-factor-for-anemia-in-japanese-men-a-prospective-observational-study-of-1-029-japanese-subjects
#9
Kei Kohno, Hiroto Narimatsu, Yosuke Shiono, Ikuko Suzuki, Yuichi Kato, Ri Sho, Katsumi Otani, Kenichi Ishizawa, Hidetoshi Yamashita, Isao Kubota, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Takeo Kato, Akira Fukao, Takamasa Kayama
Erythroid abnormalities including anemia and polycythemia are often observed in the general clinical setting. Because recent studies reported that adiponectin negatively affects hematopoiesis, we performed a prospective observational study to assess the relationship between anemia and adiponectin, as well as other parameters, in 1029 Japanese subjects (477 men and 552 women) 40 years of age and older. Body measurements, blood tests, and nutrition intake studies were performed at baseline, and 5 to 7 years later (follow-up)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915139/impairment-of-fetal-hematopoietic-stem-cell-function-in-the-absence-of-fancd2
#10
Sakiko Suzuki, Ronny R Racine, Nathan A Manalo, Sharon B Cantor, Glen D Raffel
Fanconi Anemia (FA), results from mutations in genes necessary for DNA damage repair and often leads to progressive bone marrow failure. Although the exhaustion of the bone marrow leads to cytopenias in FA patients as they age, evidence from human FA and mouse model fetal livers suggests hematopoietic defects originate in utero which may lead to deficient seeding of the bone marrow. To address this possibility, we examined the consequences of loss of Fancd2, a central component of the FA pathway. Examination of E14...
November 30, 2016: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914456/microbiota-induces-expression-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-in-postnatal-mouse-skin
#11
D V Yuzhakova, M V Shirmanova, A A Bocharov, I V Astrakhantseva, E A Vasilenko, E N Gorshkova, M S Drutskaya, E V Zagaynova, S A Nedospasov, A A Kruglov
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates many important processes in the body. TNF production in a physiological state supports the structure of lymphoid organs and determines the development of lymphoid cells in hematopoiesis. However, chronic TNF overexpression leads to the development of various autoimmune disorders. Sites of TNF production in the naïve state remain unclear due to the lack of in vivo models. In the present study, we used TNF-2A-Kat reporter mice to monitor the expression of TNF in different tissues...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913635/screening-and-analysis-of-janelia-flylight-project-enhancer-gal4-strains-identifies-multiple-gene-enhancers-active-during-hematopoiesis-in-normal-and-wasp-challenged-drosophila-larvae
#12
Tsuyoshi Tokusumi, Yumiko Tokusumi, Mark S Brahier, Victoria Lam, Jessica R Stoller-Conrad, Paul T Kroeger, Robert A Schulz
A GFP expression screen has been conducted on greater than one thousand Janelia FlyLight Project enhancer-Gal4 lines to identify transcriptional enhancers active in the larval hematopoietic system. A total of 190 enhancers associated with 87 distinct genes showed activity in cells of the third instar larval lymph gland and hemolymph. That is, gene enhancers were active in cells of the lymph gland posterior signaling center (PSC), medullary zone (MZ), and/or cortical zone (CZ), while certain of the transcriptional control regions were active in circulating hemocytes...
December 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913465/aplastic-anemia-and-clonal-evolution-germ-line-and-somatic-genetics
#13
Akiko Shimamura
Clonal progression to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a dreaded complication for a subset of patients with bone marrow failure (BMF). Recognizing risk factors for the development of MDS or AML would inform individualized treatment decisions and identify patients who may benefit from early or upfront hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Now that next-generation DNA sequencing is available in the clinical laboratory, research has focused on the implications of germ line and somatic mutations for diagnosing and monitoring patients with BMF...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913464/new-challenges-in-evaluating-anemia-in-older-persons-in-the-era-of-molecular-testing
#14
David P Steensma
Anemia is common in older persons, and often remains unexplained despite a thorough clinical history, physical examination, and focused laboratory testing, including marrow aspiration, biopsy, and karyotyping. The advent of molecular genetic testing panels in hematology clinical practice has complicated the evaluation of older patients with unexplained anemia. While the presence of a somatic mutation provides evidence of clonal hematopoiesis and may support a diagnosis of a hematologic neoplasm such as one of the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), with rare exceptions, individual mutations are not strongly associated with one specific diagnosis, nor are they by themselves diagnostic of neoplasia...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913459/children-with-rare-diseases-of-neutrophil-granulocytes-from-therapeutic-orphans-to-pioneers-of-individualized-medicine
#15
Christoph Klein
Neutrophil granulocytes are the most abundant immune cells in the blood yet the pathways orchestrating their differentiation and biological function remain incompletely understood. Studying (ultra-) rare patients with monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes may open new horizons to understand basic principles of hematopoiesis and innate immunity. Here, recent insights into genetic factors controlling myelopoiesis and their more general role in biology will be presented in a clinical perspective. Advances in supportive care, first and foremost the use of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, has made a substantial difference for the quality of life and life expectancy of patients with congenital neutropenia (CN)...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912084/fetal-to-adult-hematopoiesis-with-the-flk-of-a-switch
#16
Stijn Vanhee, Joan Yuan
Blood development relies on discrete stem and progenitor cell populations with unclear lineage relationships and distinct functional characteristics that change during ontogeny. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Beaudin et al. (2016) identify a hematopoietic stem cell population with fetal characteristics that is developmentally restricted yet capable of long-term multi-lineage reconstitution upon transplantation into adult recipients.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911806/permissive-roles-of-cytokines-interleukin-7-and-flt3-ligand-in-mouse-b-cell-lineage-commitment
#17
Lilly von Muenchow, Llucia Alberti-Servera, Fabian Klein, Giuseppina Capoferri, Daniela Finke, Rhodri Ceredig, Antonius Rolink, Panagiotis Tsapogas
Hematopoietic cells are continuously generated throughout life from hematopoietic stem cells, thus making hematopoiesis a favorable system to study developmental cell lineage commitment. The main factors incorporating environmental signals to developing hematopoietic cells are cytokines, which regulate commitment of hematopoietic progenitors to the different blood lineages by acting either in an instructive or a permissive manner. Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (Flt3) ligand (FL) and Interleukin-7 (IL-7) are cytokines pivotal for B-cell development, as manifested by the severely compromised B-cell development in their absence...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899822/mir-150-exerts-antileukemia-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-through-regulating-genes-in-multiple-pathways
#18
Zhi Hong Fang, Si Li Wang, Jin Tao Zhao, Zhi Juan Lin, Lin Yan Chen, Rui Su, Si Ting Xie, Bing Z Carter, Bing Xu
MicroRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs, have been implicated to regulate gene expression in virtually all important biological processes. Although accumulating evidence demonstrates that miR-150, an important regulator in hematopoiesis, is deregulated in various types of hematopoietic malignancies, the precise mechanisms of miR-150 action are largely unknown. In this study, we found that miR-150 is downregulated in samples from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia, and normalized after patients achieved complete remission...
September 22, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899806/preleukemia-one-name-many-meanings
#19
REVIEW
H P Koeffler, G Leong
Definition of preleukemia has evolved. It was first used to describe the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with a propensity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Individuals with germline mutations of either RUNX1, CEBPA, or GATA2 can also be called as preleukemic because they have a markedly increased incidence of evolution into AML. Also, alkylating chemotherapy or radiation can cause MDS/preleukemia which nearly always progress to AML. More recently investigators noted that AML patients who achieved complete morphological remission after chemotherapy often have clonal hematopoiesis predominantly marked by either DNMT3A, TET2 or IDH1/2 mutations which were also present at diagnosis of AML...
November 30, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897450/vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-overexpression-in-myelodysplastic-syndrome-bone-marrow-cells-biological-and-clinical-implications
#20
Rosangela Invernizzi, Erica Travaglino, Matteo Giovanni Della Porta, Luca Malcovati, Anna Gallì, Raffaella Bastia, Mariella Ciola, Ilaria Ambaglio, Emanuela Boveri, Vittorio Rosti, Mario Cazzola
In myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) may have regulatory effects on the hematopoietic system and contribute to disease progression. We analyzed by immunocytochemistry VEGF expression in bone marrow (BM) cells from 188 patients with MDS and 96 non-hemopathic subjects. We also measured VEGF BM plasma levels and in vitro VEGF release. Our aims were to evaluate whether VEGF expression abnormalities were associated with relevant laboratory or clinical findings and their possible prognostic value...
November 29, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
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