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Hematopoiesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934481/automatic-identification-of-informative-regions-with-epigenomic-changes-associated-to-hematopoiesis
#1
Enrique Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, David Juan, Vera Pancaldi, Felipe Were, Ignacio Martin-Subero, Daniel Rico, Alfonso Valencia
Hematopoiesis is one of the best characterized biological systems but the connection between chromatin changes and lineage differentiation is not yet well understood. We have developed a bioinformatic workflow to generate a chromatin space that allows to classify 42 human healthy blood epigenomes from the BLUEPRINT, NIH ROADMAP and ENCODE consortia by their cell type. This approach let us to distinguish different cells types based on their epigenomic profiles, thus recapitulating important aspects of human hematopoiesis...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933777/generation-and-use-of-a-humanized-bone-marrow-ossicle-niche-for-hematopoietic-xenotransplantation-into-mice
#2
Andreas Reinisch, David Cruz Hernandez, Katharina Schallmoser, Ravindra Majeti
Xenotransplantation is frequently used to study normal and malignant hematopoiesis of human cells. However, conventional mouse xenotransplantation models lack essential human-specific bone-marrow (BM)-microenvironment-derived survival, proliferation, and self-renewal signals for engraftment of normal and malignant blood cells. As a consequence, many human leukemias and other hematologic disorders do not robustly engraft in these conventional models. Here, we describe a complete workflow for the generation of humanized ossicles with an accessible BM microenvironment that faithfully recapitulates normal BM niche morphology and function...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931565/junctional-adhesion-molecules-jams-cell-adhesion-receptors-with-pleiotropic-functions-in-cell-physiology-and-development
#3
REVIEW
Klaus Ebnet
Junctional adhesion molecules (JAM)-A, -B and -C are cell-cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily which are expressed by a variety of tissues, both during development and in the adult organism. Through their extracellular domains, they interact with other adhesion receptors on opposing cells. Through their cytoplasmic domains, they interact with PDZ domain-containing scaffolding and signaling proteins. In combination, these two properties regulate the assembly of signaling complexes at specific sites of cell-cell adhesion...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930689/integrating-enhancer-mechanisms-to-establish-a-hierarchical-blood-development-program
#4
Charu Mehta, Kirby D Johnson, Xin Gao, Irene M Ong, Koichi R Katsumura, Skye C McIver, Erik A Ranheim, Emery H Bresnick
Hematopoietic development requires the transcription factor GATA-2, and GATA-2 mutations cause diverse pathologies, including leukemia. GATA-2-regulated enhancers increase Gata2 expression in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and control hematopoiesis. The +9.5-kb enhancer activates transcription in endothelium and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and its deletion abrogates HSC generation. The -77-kb enhancer activates transcription in myeloid progenitors, and its deletion impairs differentiation. Since +9...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930665/tissue-resident-macrophages-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-originate-from-embryonic-hematopoiesis-and-promote-tumor-progression
#5
Yu Zhu, John M Herndon, Dorothy K Sojka, Ki-Wook Kim, Brett L Knolhoff, Chong Zuo, Darren R Cullinan, Jingqin Luo, Audrey R Bearden, Kory J Lavine, Wayne M Yokoyama, William G Hawkins, Ryan C Fields, Gwendalyn J Randolph, David G DeNardo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930521/multifactorial-role-of-long-non-coding-rnas-lncrnas-in-hematopoiesis
#6
Muhammad Babar Khawar, Rabia Mehmood, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi, Nadeem Sheikh
  Human genome project unveiled that only 1.5.-2.0.% of the genome is protein coding. ENCODE and related studies showed that most part of the genome transcribed into RNAs, and most of them do not code for a functional proteins, hence the name non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). ncRNAs are small ncRNAs (less than 200 nucleotides) and long ncRNAs (longer than 200 nucleotides up to 10 kb). They act as a direct link between highly ordered chromosome structures, gene expression and serve as a bridge between genome and chromatin modification complexes as guides, scaffolds, and decoys...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929029/association-of-rs1801157-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-of-cxcl12-gene-in-breast-cancer-in-pakistan-and-in-silico-expression-analysis-of-cxcl12-cxcr4-associated-biological-regulatory-network
#7
Samra Khalid, Rumeza Hanif
BACKGROUND: C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) has important implications in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis. It is selectively expressed on B and T lymphocytes and is involved in hematopoiesis, thymocyte trafficking, stem cell motility, neovascularization, and tumorigenesis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801157 of CXCL12 gene has been found to be associated with higher risk of BC. METHODS: Our study focuses on the genotypic and allelic distribution of SNP (rs1801157; G/A) in Pakistani population as well as its association with the clinico-pathological features...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928972/screening-of-mutations-in-the-additional-sex-combs-like-1-transcriptional-regulator-tumor-protein-p53-and-kras-proto-oncogene-gtpase-nras-proto-oncogene-gtpase-genes-of-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#8
Carolina Leite, Lucas Delmonico, Gilda Alves, Romario José Gomes, Mariana Rodrigues Martino, Aline Rodrigues da Silva, Aline Dos Santos Moreira, Maria Christina Maioli, Luciano Rios Scherrer, Elenice Ferreira Bastos, Roberto Irineu, Maria Helena Ornellas
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, different degrees of cellular dysplasia, and increased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. International Prognostic Scoring System is the gold standard for MDS classification; however, patients exhibiting different clinical behaviors often coexist in the same group, indicating that the currently available scoring systems are insufficient. The genes that have recently been identified as mutated in MDS, including additional sex combs like 1, transcriptional regulator (ASXL1), tumor protein p53 (TP53), and KRAS proto-oncogene and GTPase (KRAS)/NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (NRAS), may contribute to a more comprehensive classification, as well as to the prognosis and progression of the disease...
October 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928278/an-interview-with-george-daley
#9
Aidan Maartens
George Daley is Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, Professor of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, and Caroline Shields Walker Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. A former Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and President of the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) from 2007-2008, his lab works on the biology and clinical application of stem cells, with a particular focus on hematopoiesis. He was awarded the Public Service Award at the ISSCR 2017 meeting in Boston, where we caught up with him to discuss his move from the lab to the clinic and back again, his quest to derive human hematopoietic stem cells in vitro, and his advocacy for science in uncertain political times...
September 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928124/emerging-mechanisms-of-long-noncoding-rna-function-during-normal-and-malignant-hematopoiesis
#10
Juan R Alvarez-Dominguez, Harvey F Lodish
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly recognized as vital components of gene programs controlling cell differentiation and function. Central to their functions is an ability to act as scaffolds or as decoys that recruit or sequester effector proteins from their DNA, RNA, or protein targets. lncRNA-modulated effectors include regulators of transcription, chromatin organization, RNA processing, and translation, such that lncRNAs can influence gene expression at multiple levels. Here we review the current understanding of how lncRNAs help coordinate gene expression to modulate cell fate in the hematopoietic system...
September 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926098/distinct-mechanisms-of-regulation-of-the-itga6-and-itgb4-genes-by-runx1-in-myeloid-cells
#11
Jessica L Phillips, Phillippa C Taberlay, Alexandra M Woodworth, Kristine Hardy, Kate H Brettingham-Moore, Joanne L Dickinson, Adele F Holloway
Integrins are transmembrane adhesion receptors that play an important role in hematopoiesis by facilitating interactions between hematopoietic cells and extracellular matrix components of the bone marrow and hematopoietic tissues. These interactions are important in regulating the function, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, as well as their homing and mobilization in the bone marrow. Not surprisingly altered expression and function of integrins plays a key role in the development and progression of cancer including leukemias...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923207/eviction-from-the-sanctuary-development-of-targeted-therapy-against-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#12
REVIEW
Sonali P Barwe, Anthony Quagliano, Anilkumar Gopalakrishnapillai
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant hematological disease afflicting hematopoiesis in the bone marrow. While 80%-90% of patients diagnosed with ALL will achieve complete remission at some point during treatment, ALL is associated with high relapse rate, with a 5-year overall survival rate of 68%. The initial remission failure and the high rate of relapse can be attributed to intrinsic chemoprotective mechanisms that allow persistence of ALL cells despite therapy. These mechanisms are mediated, at least in part, through the engagement of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) within the bone marrow microenvironment...
April 2017: Seminars in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921865/extramedullary-hematopoiesis-a-new-feature-of-inherited-thrombocytopenias
#13
Carlo Zaninetti, Federica Melazzini, Giorgio A Croci, Emanuela Boveri, Carlo L Balduini
Most commonly located in liver and spleen, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is the presence of hematopoietic tissue outside the bone marrow. MYH9-related thrombocytopenia (MYH9-RD) and ANKRD26-related thrombocytopenia (ANKRD26-RT) are two of the most frequent form of inherited thrombocytopenia (IT). Until recently, EMH has been associated with neoplastic and non-neoplastic hematologic conditions in which ITs were not included. We describe a case of mass-like EMH in the presacral space in a patient affected with ANKRD26-RT, comparing it with another case of paravertebral EMH we recently described in a subject with MYH9-RD...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921511/bone-marrow-ilc2s-a-local-source-of-il-5-in-il-33-driven-eosinophilia
#14
Kristina Johansson, Carina Malmhäll, Patricia Ramos-Ramírez, Madeleine Rådinger
T helper type 2 (TH 2) cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and eosinophil progenitors have previously been described to produce IL-5 in the airways upon allergen provocation or by direct administration of IL-33. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is known to be associated with IL-5-dependent eosinophil development in the bone marrow, however, the source of IL-5 remains unclear. TH cells, ILC2s and CD34(+) progenitors have been proposed to be involved in this process, therefore, we investigated whether these cells are taking part in eosinophilopoiesis by producing IL-5 locally in the bone marrow in IL-33-driven inflammation...
September 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919582/rapamycin-inhibits-expansion-of-cord-blood-derived-nk-and-t-cell
#15
Monireh Zare, Behnaz Valipour, Seyede Momeneh Mohammadi, Mohammad Nouri, Aliakbar Movassaghpour, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is important in hematopoiesis. Despite the central role of mTOR in regulating the differentiation of immune cells, the effect of mTOR function on cord blood mononuclear cells is yet to be defined. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of mTOR inhibition, using rapamycin on the proliferation and apoptosis of cord blood mononuclear cells, as well as on the B and T cell expansion. METHODS: Cord blood mononuclear cells were cultured in the presence of IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 cytokines and inhibited by rapamycin for 14 days...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914569/mutations-in-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-their-significance-and-clinical-use
#16
Fiorella Schischlik, Robert Kralovics
Clonal hematologic diseases of the blood such as polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis belong to the BCR-ABL negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN). These diseases are characterized by clonal expansion of hematopoietic precursor cells followed by increased production of differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage. Initiation of clonal hematopoiesis, formation of a clinical phenotype as well as disease progression form part of MPN disease evolution. The disease is driven by acquired somatic mutations in critical pathways such as cytokine signaling, epigenetic regulation, RNA splicing, and transcription factor signaling...
September 15, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912174/senescence-is-a-spi1-pu-1-induced-anti-proliferative-mechanism-in-primary-hematopoietic-cells
#17
Laure Delestré, Cui Hengxiang, Michela Esposito, Cyril Quiveron, Elena Mylonas, Virginie Penard-Lacronique, Oliver Bischof, Christel Guillouf
Transcriptional deregulation caused by epigenetic or genetic alterations is a major cause of leukemic transformation. The Spi1/PU.1 transcription factor is a key regulator of many steps of hematopoiesis, and limits self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells. The deregulation of its expression or activity contributes to leukemia, in which Spi1 can be either an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. Here, we explored whether cellular senescence, an anti-tumoral pathway that restrains cell proliferation, is a mechanism by which Spi1 limits hematopoietic cells expansion, and thus prevents the development of leukemia...
September 14, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911907/microrna-22-controls-interferon-alpha-production-and-erythroid-maturation-in-response-to-infectious-stress-in-mice
#18
Claudine S Kadmon, Cameron T Landers, Haiyan S Li, Stephanie S Watowich, Antony Rodriguez, Katherine Y King
MicroRNA-22 (miR-22) is a highly conserved microRNA that can regulate cell proliferation, oncogenesis, and cell maturation, especially during stress. In hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) miR-22 has been reported to be involved in the regulation of key self-renewal factors including Tet2. Recent work demonstrates that miR-22 also participates in regulation of the interferon response, and expression profiling studies suggest that it is variably expressed at different stages in erythroid differentiation. We thus hypothesized that miR-22 regulates maturation of erythroid progenitors during stress hematopoiesis through its interaction with interferon...
September 11, 2017: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910878/-thyroid-like-follicular-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-extramedullary-hematopoiesis-report-of-a-case
#19
Z P Liu, Q X Tao, X H Tang, T Chen, X P Chen, L W Long, H B Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906093/cutaneous-extramedullary-hematopoiesis
#20
Benedetta Miglino, Rossana Tiberio, Paolo Boggio, Stefano Astolfi, Monica Leutner, Enrico Colombo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
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