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Hematopoiesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809828/bioengineering-of-humanized-bone-marrow-microenvironments-in-mouse-and-their-visualization-by-live-imaging
#1
Diana Passaro, Ander Abarrategi, Katie Foster, Linda Ariza-McNaughton, Dominique Bonnet
Human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow (BM) niche, an intricate, multifactorial network of components producing cytokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix. The ability of HSCs to remain quiescent, self-renew or differentiate, and acquire mutations and become malignant depends upon the complex interactions they establish with different stromal components. To observe the crosstalk between human HSCs and the human BM niche in physiological and pathological conditions, we designed a protocol to ectopically model and image a humanized BM niche in immunodeficient mice...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809641/cementless-total-hip-arthroplasty-in-primary-myelofibrosis-a-case-report
#2
S Brodt, E Eigendorff, G Matziolis
There is a great deal of data available, in part contradictory, on the best fixation technique to use for total hip arthroplasty (THA) in hip osteoarthritis. Both the cementless and the cemented versions offer excellent long-term outcomes - if the respective technique is applied correctly. However, as far as we know, no recommendation has been made regarding cemented vs. cementless THA in primary myelofibrosis. The case described here concerns a very active 76-year-old patient with primary myelofibrosis. This is a rare hematological disease...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807497/characterisation-of-the-porcine-cytokines-which-activate-the-cd131%C3%AE-c-common-sub-unit-for-potential-immune-augmentation
#3
G Stephenson, K R Morris, T E O'Neil, M P Bruce, A D G Strom, A G D Bean
Early acting cytokines and growth factors such as those of the CD131 βc subunit, may offer an alternative method to the current use of antibiotics and chemicals such as anthelmintics in maintaining Porcine (Po) health. Thus far, the recombinant Po (rPo) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rPo interleukin-3 (IL-3) and rPo interleukin-5 (IL-5) proteins have been identified and cloned and the biological activity of each cytokine has been confirmed in vitro, however, in vivo immune system regulation and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) augmentation are regulated by numerous cytokines and cellular signals within the bone marrow (BM) niche...
August 11, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805145/pdgf-vegf-related-receptor-affects-transglutaminase-activity-to-control-cell-migration-during-crustacean-hematopoiesis
#4
Kingkamon Junkunlo, Chadanat Noonin, Kenneth Söderhäll, Irene Söderhäll
The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor, a tyrosine kinase receptor whose ligand is PDGF, is crucial in the transduction of extracellular signals into cells and mediates numerous processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and migration. We demonstrate the important roles of a receptor tyrosine kinase related to the PDGF/VEGF family protein (PVR) in controlling hematopoietic progenitor cell migration by affecting extracellular transglutaminase (TGase) activity. Pl_PVR1, GenBank accession number KY444650, is highly expressed in hemocytes and the hematopoietic tissue (HPT)...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803919/therapy-related-clonal-hematopoiesis-in-patients-with-non-hematologic-cancers-is-common-and-associated-with-adverse-clinical-outcomes
#5
Catherine C Coombs, Ahmet Zehir, Sean M Devlin, Ashwin Kishtagari, Aijazuddin Syed, Philip Jonsson, David M Hyman, David B Solit, Mark E Robson, José Baselga, Maria E Arcila, Marc Ladanyi, Martin S Tallman, Ross L Levine, Michael F Berger
Clonal hematopoiesis (CH), as evidenced by recurrent somatic mutations in leukemia-associated genes, commonly occurs among aging human hematopoietic stem cells. We analyzed deep-coverage, targeted, next-generation sequencing (NGS) data of paired tumor and blood samples from 8,810 individuals to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of CH in patients with non-hematologic malignancies. We identified CH in 25% of cancer patients, with 4.5% harboring presumptive leukemia driver mutations (CH-PD). CH was associated with increased age, prior radiation therapy, and tobacco use...
August 9, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803914/targeted-disruption-of-tcf12-reveals-heb-as-essential-in-human-mesodermal-specification-and-hematopoiesis
#6
Yang Li, Patrick M Brauer, Jastaranpreet Singh, Sintia Xhiku, Kogulan Yoganathan, Juan Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker, Michele K Anderson
Hematopoietic stem cells arise from mesoderm-derived hemogenic endothelium (HE) during embryogenesis in a process termed endothelial-hematopoietic transition (EHT). To better understand the gene networks that control this process, we investigated the role of the transcription factor HEB (TCF12) by disrupting the TCF12 gene locus in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and inducing them to differentiate toward hematopoietic outcomes. HEB-deficient hESCs retained key features of pluripotency, including expression of SOX2 and SSEA-4 and teratoma formation, while NANOG expression was reduced...
August 2, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796790/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-msc-from-jak2-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-differ-from-normal-msc-and-contribute-to-the-maintenance-of-neoplastic-hematopoiesis
#7
Teresa L Ramos, Luis Ignacio Sánchez-Abarca, Beatriz Rosón-Burgo, Alba Redondo, Ana Rico, Silvia Preciado, Rebeca Ortega, Concepción Rodríguez, Sandra Muntión, Ángel Hernández-Hernández, Javier De Las Rivas, Marcos González, José Ramón González Porras, Consuelo Del Cañizo, Fermín Sánchez-Guijo
There is evidence of continuous bidirectional cross-talk between malignant cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC), which favors the emergence and progression of myeloproliferative neoplastic (MPN) diseases. In the current work we have compared the function and gene expression profile of BM-MSC from healthy donors (HD-MSC) and patients with MPN (JAK2V617F), showing no differences in the morphology, proliferation and differentiation capacity between both groups. However, BM-MSC from MPN expressed higher mean fluorescence intensity (MIF) of CD73, CD44 and CD90, whereas CD105 was lower when compared to controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794406/the-non-coding-rna-landscape-of-human-hematopoiesis-and-leukemia
#8
Adrian Schwarzer, Stephan Emmrich, Franziska Schmidt, Dominik Beck, Michelle Ng, Christina Reimer, Felix Ferdinand Adams, Sarah Grasedieck, Damian Witte, Sebastian Käbler, Jason W H Wong, Anushi Shah, Yizhou Huang, Razan Jammal, Aliaksandra Maroz, Mojca Jongen-Lavrencic, Axel Schambach, Florian Kuchenbauer, John E Pimanda, Dirk Reinhardt, Dirk Heckl, Jan-Henning Klusmann
Non-coding RNAs have emerged as crucial regulators of gene expression and cell fate decisions. However, their expression patterns and regulatory functions during normal and malignant human hematopoiesis are incompletely understood. Here we present a comprehensive resource defining the non-coding RNA landscape of the human hematopoietic system. Based on highly specific non-coding RNA expression portraits per blood cell population, we identify unique fingerprint non-coding RNAs-such as LINC00173 in granulocytes-and assign these to critical regulatory circuits involved in blood homeostasis...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791654/pharmacotherapy-of-myelofibrosis
#9
REVIEW
Douglas Tremblay, Bridget Marcellino, John Mascarenhas
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm that is pathologically characterized by bone marrow myeloproliferation, reticulin and collagen fibrosis, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Constitutive activation of the Janus associated kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathway with resultant elevation in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels is the pathogenic hallmark of MF. JAK inhibitors, namely ruxolitinib, have been successful in alleviating symptoms and reducing splenomegaly, but therapy-related myelosuppression has led to the further development of highly selective JAK2 inhibitors...
August 8, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783888/attenuation-of-collagen-induced-arthritis-by-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-through-altering-immune-balance-in-favor-of-regulatory-t-cells
#10
Byung-In Moon, Hyung-Ran Kim, Eun-Jeong Choi, Jeong-Hae Kie, Ju-Young Seoh
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy is currently used for the treatment of chronic wounds, radiation-induced soft tissue necrosis, several oxygen-deficiency conditions and decompression sickness. In addition to the current indications, much empirical and experimental data suggest that HBO₂ therapy may benefit autoimmune diseases by suppressing immunity, but the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether HBO₂ prevents the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in association with alteration of the immune balance between pro-inflammatory Th17 and anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Tregs)...
July 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783041/27-hydroxycholesterol-induces-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization-and-extramedullary-hematopoiesis-during-pregnancy
#11
Hideyuki Oguro, Jeffrey G McDonald, Zhiyu Zhao, Michihisa Umetani, Philip W Shaul, Sean J Morrison
Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is induced during pregnancy to support rapid expansion of maternal blood volume. EMH activation requires hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) proliferation and mobilization, processes that depend upon estrogen receptor α (ERα) in HSCs. Here we show that treating mice with estradiol to model estradiol increases during pregnancy induced HSC proliferation in the bone marrow but not HSC mobilization. Treatment with the alternative ERα ligand 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) induced ERα-dependent HSC mobilization and EMH but not HSC division in the bone marrow...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776905/expression-of-cytokine-and-extracellular-matrix-mrnas-in-fetal-hepatic-stellate-cells
#12
Keai Sinn Tan, Kasem Kulkeaw, Yoichi Nakanishi, Daisuke Sugiyama
In mouse fetal liver, hepatoblasts, sinusoidal endothelial cells and macrophages (or erythroblastic islands) promote differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells through cell-cell interactions and secretion of cytokines and extracellular matrix factors. Until now, we have had little knowledge of the hematopoietic cytokines or extracellular matrix mRNAs expressed in hepatic stellate cells. Using p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) to mark this cell population, we sorted 12.5, 14.5 and 16.5 dpc hepatic stellate cells and analyzed expression of cytokines and extracellular matrix mRNAs...
August 4, 2017: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775247/spinal-abscess-caused-by-salmonella-bacteremia-in-a-patient-with-primary-myelofibrosis
#13
Shehab Fareed, Abdulqadir J Nashwan, Sulieman Abu Jarir, Ahmed Husain, Dina Sameh Suliman, Friyal Ibrahim, Abbas Moustafa, Muhammad S Akhter, Mohamed A Yassin
BACKGROUND In Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF; a clonal disorder arising from the neoplastic transformation of early hematopoietic stem cells) patients, spinal cord compression (SCC) is a common complication or even a presentation symptom due to extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH). However, a case of SCC caused by a spinal abscess is unusual. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of this rare condition. CASE REPORT We are reporting the case of a 50-year-old male with primary myelofibrosis and long-standing splenomegaly with back pain as a presenting symptom who was found to have spinal cord compression...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775072/lmo2-lim-domain-only-2-modulates-sphk1-sphingosine-kinase-and-promotes-endothelial-cell-migration
#14
Gianfranco Matrone, Shu Meng, Qilin Gu, Jie Lv, Longhou Fang, Kaifu Chen, John P Cooke
OBJECTIVE: Lmo (LIM-domain-only)2 transcription factor is involved in hematopoiesis and vascular remodeling. Sphk (sphingosine kinase)1 phosphorylates sphingosine to S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate). We hypothesized that Lmo2 regulates Sphk1 to promote endothelial cell (EC) migration and vascular development. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Lmo2 and Sphk1 knockdown (KD) were performed in Tg(fli1:EGFP) (y1) zebra fish and in human umbilical vein EC. Rescue of phenotypes or overexpression of these factors were achieved using mRNA encoding Lmo2 or Sphk1...
August 3, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774878/the-actin-binding-protein-profilin-2-is-a-novel-regulator-of-iron-homeostasis
#15
Sara Luscieti, Bruno Galy, Lucia Gutierrez, Michael Reinke, Jorge Couso, Maya Shvartsman, Antonio Di Pascale, Walter Witke, Matthias W Hentze, Pietro Pilo Boyl, Mayka Sanchez
Cellular iron homeostasis is controlled by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) 1 and 2 that bind cis-regulatory iron-responsive elements (IRE) on target mRNAs. We identified the profilin2 (Pfn2) mRNA, which encodes an actin binding protein involved in endocytosis and neurotransmitters release, as a novel IRP-interacting transcript and studied its role in iron metabolism. Combination of EMSA experiments and bioinformatic analyses led to the identification of an atypical and conserved IRE in the 3' untranslated region of Pfn2 mRNA...
August 3, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767666/mismatch-repair-deficient-hematopoietic-stem-cells-are-preleukemic-stem-cells
#16
Yulan Qing, Stanton L Gerson
Whereas transformation events in hematopoietic malignancies may occur at different developmental stages, the initial mutation originates in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), creating a preleukemic stem cell (PLSC). Subsequent mutations at either stem cell or progenitor cell levels transform the PLSC into lymphoma/leukemia initiating cells (LIC). Thymic lymphomas have been thought to develop from developing thymocytes. T cell progenitors are generated from HSCs in the bone marrow (BM), but maturation and proliferation of T cells as well as T-lymphomagenesis depends on both regulatory mechanisms and microenvironment within the thymus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767388/mobilization-studies-in-mice-deficient-in-sphingosine-kinase-2-support-a-crucial-role-of-the-plasma-level-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-in-the-egress-of-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#17
Mateusz Adamiak, Lakshman Chelvarajan, Kevin R Lynch, Webster L Santos, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid involved in cell signaling and, if released from cells, also plays a crucial role in regulating the trafficking of lympho-hematopoietic cells, including primitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). It has been demonstrated that S1P chemoattracts HSPCs, and its level in peripheral blood creates a gradient directing egress of these cells during mobilization. In this paper we analyzed hematopoiesis in mice deficient in sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2-KO mice) and studied the effect of this mutation on plasma S1P levels...
July 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764810/cd106-is-a-novel-mediator-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-the-bone-marrow-failure-of-acquired-aplastic-anemia
#18
Shihong Lu, Meili Ge, Yizhou Zheng, Jianping Li, Xiaoming Feng, Sizhou Feng, Jinbo Huang, Ying Feng, Donglin Yang, Jun Shi, Fang Chen, Zhongchao Han
BACKGROUND: Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is characterized by deficiency or dysfunction of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. However, little is known about the impairment of BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in AA patients. METHODS: We used Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 sequencing, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry (FCM), and Western blotting to test the expression of CD106 gene (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1)) and CD106 protein of BM-MSCs...
August 1, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761818/effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derivatives-on-hematopoiesis-and-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#19
REVIEW
Sara Aqmasheh, Karim Shamsasanjan, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh, Davod Pashoutan Sarvar, Hamze Timari
Hematopoiesis is a balance among quiescence, self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation, which is believed to be firmly adjusted through interactions between hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with the microenvironment. This microenvironment is derived from a common progenitor of mesenchymal origin and its signals should be capable of regulating the cellular memory of transcriptional situation and lead to an exchange of stem cell genes expression. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have self-renewal and differentiation capacity into tissues of mesodermal origin, and these cells can support hematopoiesis through release various molecules that play a crucial role in migration, homing, self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of HSPCs...
June 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761001/dna-damage-tolerance-in-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-mice
#20
Bas Pilzecker, Olimpia Alessandra Buoninfante, Paul van den Berk, Cesare Lancini, Ji-Ying Song, Elisabetta Citterio, Heinz Jacobs
DNA damage tolerance (DDT) enables bypassing of DNA lesions during replication, thereby preventing fork stalling, replication stress, and secondary DNA damage related to fork stalling. Three modes of DDT have been documented: translesion synthesis (TLS), template switching (TS), and repriming. TLS and TS depend on site-specific PCNA K164 monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination, respectively. To investigate the role of DDT in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors, we used Pcna(K164R/K164R) mice as a unique DDT-defective mouse model...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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