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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339756/molecular-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-dogs
#1
Patrizia Danesi, Silvia Ravagnan, Lynelle R Johnson, Tommaso Furlanello, Adelaide Milani, Patricia Martin, Susan Boyd, Matthew Best, Bradley Galgut, Peter Irwin, Paul J Canfield, Mark B Krockenberger, Catriona Halliday, Wieland Meyer, Richard Malik
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening fungal disease that can occur in dogs. The aim of this study was to provide a preliminary genetic characterisation of Pneumocystis carinii f.sp.'canis' (P. canis) in dogs and thereby develop a reliable molecular protocol to definitively diagnose canine PCP. We investigated P. canis in a variety of lung specimens from dogs with confirmed or strongly suspected PCP (Group 1, n = 16), dogs with non-PCP lower respiratory tract problems (Group 2, n = 65) and dogs not suspected of having PCP or other lower respiratory diseases (Group 3, n = 11)...
February 23, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338625/-r-aloesaponol-iii-8-methyl-ether-from-eremurus-persicus-a-novel-compound-against-leishmaniosis
#2
Daniela Rossi, Karzan Mahmood Ahmed, Raffaella Gaggeri, Serena Della Volpe, Lauretta Maggi, Giuseppe Mazzeo, Giovanna Longhi, Sergio Abbate, Federica Corana, Emanuela Martino, Marisa Machado, Raquel Varandas, Maria do Céu Sousa, Simona Collina
Leishmaniosis is a neglected tropical disease which affects several millions of people worldwide. The current drug therapies are expensive and often lack efficacy, mainly due to the development of parasite resistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for new drugs effective against Leishmania infections. As a part of our ongoing study on the phytochemical characterization and biological investigation of plants used in the traditional medicine of western and central Asia, in the present study, we focused on Eremurus persicus root extract in order to evaluate its potential in the treatment of leishmaniosis...
March 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338610/fructose-rich-diet-affects-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-repair-in-rats
#3
Federica Cioffi, Rosalba Senese, Pasquale Lasala, Angela Ziello, Arianna Mazzoli, Raffaella Crescenzo, Giovanna Liverini, Antonia Lanni, Fernando Goglia, Susanna Iossa
Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet...
March 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338606/dystrophic-cardiomyopathy-potential-role-of-calcium-in-pathogenesis-treatment-and-novel-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Victoria P A Johnstone, Helena M Viola, Livia C Hool
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by defects in the DMD gene and results in progressive wasting of skeletal and cardiac muscle due to an absence of functional dystrophin. Cardiomyopathy is prominent in DMD patients, and contributes significantly to mortality. This is particularly true following respiratory interventions that reduce death rate and increase ambulation and consequently cardiac load. Cardiomyopathy shows an increasing prevalence with age and disease progression, and over 95% of patients exhibit dilated cardiomyopathy by the time they reach adulthood...
March 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337566/liver-mitochondrial-membrane-fluidity-at-early-development-of-diabetes-and-its-correlation-with-the-respiration
#5
Ismael H Pérez-Hernández, Josué Misael Domínguez-Fuentes, Martín Palomar-Morales, Ana Cecilia Zazueta-Mendizabal, Arturo Baiza-Gutman, Ricardo Mejía-Zepeda
The biological membranes are important in cell function but, during development of diseases such as diabetes, they are impaired. Consequently, membrane-associated biological processes are impaired as well. The mitochondria are important organelles where oxidative phosphorylation takes place, a process closely related with the membranes. In general, it is accepted that the development process of diabetes decreases membrane fluidity. However, in some cases, it has been found to increase membrane fluidity of mitochondria but to decrease the Respiratory Control (RC) index...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337542/%C3%AE-synuclein-binds-to-the-er-mitochondria-tethering-protein-vapb-to-disrupt-ca-2-homeostasis-and-mitochondrial-atp-production
#6
Sébastien Paillusson, Patricia Gomez-Suaga, Radu Stoica, Daniel Little, Paul Gissen, Michael J Devine, Wendy Noble, Diane P Hanger, Christopher C J Miller
α-Synuclein is strongly linked to Parkinson's disease but the molecular targets for its toxicity are not fully clear. However, many neuronal functions damaged in Parkinson's disease are regulated by signalling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. This signalling involves close physical associations between the two organelles that are mediated by binding of the integral ER protein vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB) to the outer mitochondrial membrane protein, protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51)...
March 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337303/the-involvement-and-possible-mechanism-of-nr4a1-in-chondrocyte-apoptosis-during-osteoarthritis
#7
Xinge Shi, Hui Ye, Xuedong Yao, Yanzheng Gao
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease caused by the breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone, and places great burdens to daily life of patients. Nuclear orphan receptor nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (NR4A1) is vital for cell apoptosis, but little is known about its role in OA. This study aims to reveal the expression and function of NR4A1 during OA chondrocyte apoptosis. NR4A1 expression by qRT-PCR and western blot, and chondrocyte apoptosis by TUNEL assay were detected in normal and OA joint cartilage...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337258/neuroprotective-effect-of-win55-212-2-against-3-nitropropionic-acid-induced-toxicity-in-the-rat-brain-involvement-of-cb1-and-nmda-receptors
#8
Marisol Maya-López, Ana Laura Colín-González, Gabriela Aguilera, María Eduarda de Lima, Ana Colpo-Ceolin, Edgar Rangel-López, Juana Villeda-Hernández, Daniel Rembao-Bojórquez, Isaac Túnez, Armando Luna-López, Roberto Lazzarini-Lechuga, Viridiana Yazmín González-Puertos, Pedro Posadas-Rodríguez, Alejandro Silva-Palacios, Mina Königsberg, Abel Santamaría
The endocannabinoid system (ECS), and agonists acting on cannabinoid receptors (CBr), are known to regulate several physiological events in the brain, including modulatory actions on excitatory events probably through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) activity. Actually, CBr agonists can be neuroprotective. The synthetic CBr agonist WIN55,212-2 acts mainly on CB1 receptor. In turn, the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) produces striatal alterations in rats similar to those observed in the brain of Huntington's disease patients...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337125/neuronal-mitophagy-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Marta Martinez-Vicente
Neuronal homeostasis depends on the proper functioning of different quality control systems. All intracellular components are subjected to continuous turnover through the coordinated synthesis, degradation and recycling of their constituent elements. Autophagy is the catabolic mechanism by which intracellular cytosolic components, including proteins, organelles, aggregates and any other intracellular materials, are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Among the different types of selective autophagy described to date, the process of mitophagy involves the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336790/prioritizing-functional-capacity-as-a-principal-end-point-for-therapies-oriented-to-older-adults-with-cardiovascular-disease-a-scientific-statement-for-healthcare-professionals-from-the-american-heart-association
#10
REVIEW
Daniel E Forman, Ross Arena, Rebecca Boxer, Mary A Dolansky, Janice J Eng, Jerome L Fleg, Mark Haykowsky, Arshad Jahangir, Leonard A Kaminsky, Dalane W Kitzman, Eldrin F Lewis, Jonathan Myers, Gordon R Reeves, Win-Kuang Shen
Adults are living longer, and cardiovascular disease is endemic in the growing population of older adults who are surviving into old age. Functional capacity is a key metric in this population, both for the perspective it provides on aggregate health and as a vital goal of care. Whereas cardiorespiratory function has long been applied by cardiologists as a measure of function that depended primarily on cardiac physiology, multiple other factors also contribute, usually with increasing bearing as age advances...
March 23, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336486/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-airway-disease
#11
Y S Prakash, Christina M Pabelick, Gary C Sieck
There is increasing appreciation that mitochondria serve cellular functions beyond oxygen sensing and energy production. Accordingly, it has become important to explore non-canonical roles of mitochondria in normal and pathophysiological processes that influence airway structure and function in the context of diseases such as asthma and COPD. Mitochondria can sense upstream processes such as inflammation, infection, tobacco smoke and environmental insults important in these diseases, and in turn can respond to such stimuli via altered mitochondrial protein expression, structure, and resultant dysfunction...
March 21, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336332/how-to-use-and-integrate-bioinformatics-tools-to-compare-proteomic-data-from-distinct-conditions-a-tutorial-using-the-pathological-similarities-between-aortic-valve-stenosis-and-coronary-artery-disease-as-a-case-study
#12
Fábio Trindade, Rita Ferreira, Beatriz Magalhães, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Inês Falcão-Pires, Rui Vitorino
Nowadays we are surrounded by a plethora of bioinformatics tools, powerful enough to deal with the large amounts of data arising from proteomic studies, but whose application is sometimes hard to find. Therefore, we used a specific clinical problem - to discriminate pathophysiology and potential biomarkers between two similar cardiovascular diseases, aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) - to make a step-by-step guide through four bioinformatics tools: STRING, DisGeNET, Cytoscape and ClueGO...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336315/cardiolipin-and-mitochondrial-cristae-organization
#13
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
A fundamental question in cell biology, under investigation for over six decades, is the structural organization of mitochondrial cristae. Long known to harbor electron transport chain proteins, crista membrane integrity is key to establishment of the proton gradient that drives oxidative phosphorylation. Visualization of cristae morphology by electron microscopy / tomography has provided evidence that cristae are tube-like extensions of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) that project into the matrix space...
March 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336253/mitochondrial-matters-mitochondrial-bottlenecks-self-assembling-structures-and-entrapment-in-the-female-germline
#14
Florence L Marlow
Mitochondrial replacement therapy, a procedure to generate embryos with the nuclear genome of a donor mother and the healthy mitochondria of a recipient egg, has recently emerged as a promising strategy to prevent transmission of devastating mitochondrial DNA diseases and infertility. The procedure may produce an embryo that is free of diseased mitochondria. A recent study addresses important fundamental questions about the mechanisms underlying maternal inheritance and translational questions regarding the transgenerational effectiveness of this promising therapeutic strategy...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335035/a-novel-cisd2-mutation-associated-with-a-classical-wolfram-syndrome-phenotype-alters-ca2-homeostasis-and-er-mitochondria-interactions
#15
Cécile Rouzier, David Moore, Cécile Delorme, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Samira Ait-El-Mkadem, Konstantina Fragaki, Florence Burté, Valérie Serre, Sylvie Bannwarth, Annabelle Chaussenot, Martin Catala, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Véronique Paquis-Flucklinger
Wolfram syndrome (WS) is progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by early-onset optic atrophy and diabetes mellitus, which can be associated with more extensive central nervous system and endocrine complications. The majority of patients harbour pathogenic WFS1 mutations, but recessive mutations in a second gene, CISD2, have been described in a small number of families with Wolfram syndrome type 2 (WFS2). The defining diagnostic criteria for WFS2 also consist of optic atrophy and diabetes mellitus, but unlike WFS1, this phenotypic subgroup has been associated with peptic ulcer disease and an increased bleeding tendency...
March 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335001/fastkd1-and-fastkd4-have-opposite-effects-on-expression-of-specific-mitochondrial-rnas-depending-upon-their-endonuclease-like-rap-domain
#16
Erik Boehm, Sofia Zaganelli, Kinsey Maundrell, Alexis A Jourdain, Stéphane Thore, Jean-Claude Martinou
FASTK family proteins have been identified as regulators of mitochondrial RNA homeostasis linked to mitochondrial diseases, but much remains unknown about these proteins. We show that CRISPR-mediated disruption of FASTKD1 increases ND3 mRNA level, while disruption of FASTKD4 reduces the level of ND3 and of other mature mRNAs including ND5 and CYB, and causes accumulation of ND5-CYB precursor RNA. Disrupting both FASTKD1 and FASTKD4 in the same cell results in decreased ND3 mRNA similar to the effect of depleting FASTKD4 alone, indicating that FASTKD4 loss is epistatic...
March 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333387/pathophysiological-fundamentals-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#17
Xinyue Hu, Tao Bai, Zheng Xu, Qiuju Liu, Yang Zheng, Lu Cai
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) was first recognized more than four decades ago and occurred independent of cardiovascular diseases or hypertension in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. The exact mechanisms underlying this disease remain incompletely understood. Several pathophysiological bases responsible for DCM have been proposed, including the presence of hyperglycemia, nonenzymatic glycosylation of large molecules (e.g., proteins), energy metabolic disturbance, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction, impaired calcium handling, reactive oxygen species formation, inflammation, cardiac cell death, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, leading to impairment of cardiac contractile functions...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333383/calcium-transport-and-signaling-in-mitochondria
#18
Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Valentina Parra, Camila López-Crisosto, Paula Díaz, Andrew F G Quest, Sergio Lavandero
Calcium (Ca2+) is a key player in the regulation of many cell functions. Just like Ca2+, mitochondria are ubiquitous, versatile, and dynamic players in determining both cell survival and death decisions. Given their ubiquitous nature, the regulation of both is deeply intertwined, whereby Ca2+ regulates mitochondrial functions, while mitochondria shape Ca2+ dynamics. Deregulation of either Ca2+ or mitochondrial signaling leads to abnormal function, cell damage or even cell death, thereby contributing to muscle dysfunction or cardiac pathologies...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333097/effects-of-a-sativex-like-combination-of-phytocannabinoids-on-disease-progression-in-r6-2-mice-an-experimental-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#19
Sara Valdeolivas, Onintza Sagredo, Mercedes Delgado, Miguel A Pozo, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Several cannabinoids afforded neuroprotection in experimental models of Huntington's disease (HD). We investigated whether a 1:1 combination of botanical extracts enriched in either ∆⁸-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆⁸-THC) or cannabidiol (CBD), which are the main constituents of the cannabis-based medicine Sativex(®), is beneficial in R6/2 mice (a transgenic model of HD), as it was previously shown to have positive effects in neurotoxin-based models of HD. We recorded the progression of neurological deficits and the extent of striatal deterioration, using behavioral, in vivo imaging, and biochemical methods in R6/2 mice and their corresponding wild-type mice...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332488/parkinson-disease
#20
REVIEW
Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi, Caroline M Tanner, Glenda M Halliday, Patrik Brundin, Jens Volkmann, Anette-Eleonore Schrag, Anthony E Lang
Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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