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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102525/environmental-chemicals-and-aging
#1
REVIEW
Brandon L Pearson, Dan Ehninger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Innovations in agriculture and medicine as well as industrial and domestic technologies are essential for the growing and aging global population. These advances generally require the use of novel natural or synthetic chemical agents with the potential to affect human health. Here, we attempt to highlight environmental chemicals and select drugs with the potential to exacerbate aging by directly affecting molecular aging cascades focusing particular attention on the brain...
January 19, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100843/pathophysiology-and-molecular-basis-of-selected-metabolic-abnormalities-in-huntington-s-disease
#2
Jolanta Krzysztoń-Russjan
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, devastating neurodegenerative disease with a known genetic background and autosomally dominant inheritance pattern. HTT gene mutation (mHTT) is associated with polymorphic fragment elongation above 35 repeats of the CAG triplet. The mHTT product is an altered protein with a poly-Q elongated fragment, with the highest expression determined in the central nervous system (CNS) and with differentiated expression outside the CNS. A drastic loss of striatal and deeper layers of the cerebral cortex neurons was determined in the CNS, but muscle and body weight mass loss with dysfunction of many organs was also observed...
December 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099989/effects-of-a-dietary-ketone-ester-on-hippocampal-glycolytic-and-tca-cycle-intermediates-and-amino-acids-in-a-3xtgad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Robert J Pawlosky, Martin F Kemper, Yoshihero Kashiwaya, M Todd King, Mark P Mattson, Richard L Veech
In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a triple transgenic (3xTgAD) mouse model of AD low glucose metabolism in the brain precedes loss of memory and cognitive decline. The metabolism of ketones in the brain by-passes glycolysis and therefore may correct several deficiencies that are associated with glucose hypometabolism. A dietary supplement composed of an ester of D-β-hydroxybutyrate and R-1,3 butane diol referred to as ketone ester (KE) was incorporated into a rodent diet and fed to 3xTgAD mice for 8 months...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099857/a-systems-approach-reveals-mavs-signaling-in-myeloid-cells-as-critical-for-resistance-to-ebola-virus-in-murine-models-of-infection
#4
Mukta Dutta, Shelly J Robertson, Atsushi Okumura, Dana P Scott, Jean Chang, Jeffrey M Weiss, Gail L Sturdevant, Friederike Feldmann, Elaine Haddock, Abhilash I Chiramel, Sanket S Ponia, Jonathan D Dougherty, Michael G Katze, Angela L Rasmussen, Sonja M Best
The unprecedented 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) resulted in over 11,300 human deaths. Host resistance to RNA viruses requires RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling through the adaptor protein, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), but the role of RLR-MAVS in orchestrating anti-EBOV responses in vivo is not known. Here we apply a systems approach to MAVS(-/-) mice infected with either wild-type or mouse-adapted EBOV. MAVS controlled EBOV replication through the expression of IFNα, regulation of inflammatory responses in the spleen, and prevention of cell death in the liver, with macrophages implicated as a major cell type influencing host resistance...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099419/genomic-deletion-of-malic-enzyme-2-confers-collateral-lethality-in-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Prasenjit Dey, Joelle Baddour, Florian Muller, Chia Chin Wu, Huamin Wang, Wen-Ting Liao, Zangdao Lan, Alina Chen, Tony Gutschner, Yaan Kang, Jason Fleming, Nikunj Satani, Di Zhao, Abhinav Achreja, Lifeng Yang, Jiyoon Lee, Edward Chang, Giannicola Genovese, Andrea Viale, Haoqiang Ying, Giulio Draetta, Anirban Maitra, Y Alan Wang, Deepak Nagrath, Ronald A DePinho
The genome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) frequently contains deletions of tumour suppressor gene loci, most notably SMAD4, which is homozygously deleted in nearly one-third of cases. As loss of neighbouring housekeeping genes can confer collateral lethality, we sought to determine whether loss of the metabolic gene malic enzyme 2 (ME2) in the SMAD4 locus would create cancer-specific metabolic vulnerability upon targeting of its paralogous isoform ME3. The mitochondrial malic enzymes (ME2 and ME3) are oxidative decarboxylases that catalyse the conversion of malate to pyruvate and are essential for NADPH regeneration and reactive oxygen species homeostasis...
January 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#6
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098754/drp1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-plays-critical-roles-in-physiological-and-pathological-progresses-in-mammals
#7
REVIEW
Chenxia Hu, Yong Huang, Lanjuan Li
Current research has demonstrated that mitochondrial morphology, distribution, and function are maintained by the balanced regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion, and perturbation of the homeostasis between these processes has been related to cell or organ dysfunction and abnormal mitochondrial redistribution. Abnormal mitochondrial fusion induces the fragmentation of mitochondria from a tubular morphology into pieces; in contrast, perturbed mitochondrial fission results in the fusion of adjacent mitochondria...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098432/a-multi-mitochondrial-anticancer-agent-that-selectively-kills-cancer-cells-and-overcomes-drug-resistance
#8
Yong Bo Peng, Zi Long Zhao, Teng Liu, Guo Jian Xie, Cheng Jin, Tang Gang Deng, Yang Sun, Xiong Li, Xiao Xiao Hu, Xiao Bing Zhang, Mao Ye, Wei Hong Tan
Mitochondria are double-membrane-bound organelles involved mainly in supplying cellular energy, but also play roles in signaling, cell differentiation, and cell death. Mitochondria are implicated in carcinogenesis, and therefore dozens of lethal signal transduction pathways converge on these organelles. Accordingly, mitochondria provide an alternative target for cancer management. In this study, F16, a drug that targets mitochondria, and chlorambucil (CBL), which is indicated for the treatment of selected human neoplastic diseases, were covalently linked, resulting in the synthesis of a multi-mitochondrial anticancer agent, FCBL...
January 18, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098219/combined-lrrk2-mutation-aging-and-chronic-low-dose-oral-rotenone-as-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Hui-Fang Liu, Philip Wing-Lok Ho, Gideon Chi-Ting Leung, Colin Siu-Chi Lam, Shirley Yin-Yu Pang, Lingfei Li, Michelle Hiu-Wai Kung, David Boyer Ramsden, Shu-Leong Ho
Aging, genetics and environmental toxicity are important etiological factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. A major obstacle is the lack of an appropriate experimental model which incorporates genetic susceptibility, aging and prolonged environmental toxicity. Here, we explored the interplay amongst these factors using mutant LRRK2(R1441G) (leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2) knockin mice. We found that mutant primary cortical and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons were more susceptible to rotenone-induced ATP deficiency and cell death...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097850/-a-regenerative-anemia-in-infants-2-cases-of-pearson%C3%A2-s-syndrome
#10
José M Martínez de Zabarte Fernández, Carmen Rodríguez-Vigil Iturrate, Cristina Martínez Faci, Inmaculada García Jiménez, Laura Murillo Sanjuan, Ascensión Muñoz Mellado
Anemia is very common in infants. Although its causes are usually not severe and treatable, proper etiologic diagnosis should be established. When anemia is non-regenerative, it can be caused by aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, bone marrow infiltration or hematopoietic factors deficiencies. Another possible cause is Pearson's syndrome, a rare mitochondrial disease that causes non-regenerative anemia associated with other cytopenias, pancreatic insufficiency, lactic acidosis and great variability in clinical presentation conditioned by heteroplasmy...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097102/mechanisms-of-accelerated-liver-fibrosis-progression-during-hiv-infection
#11
REVIEW
Jose D Debes, Paul R Bohjanen, Andre Boonstra
With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), a dramatic reduction in HIV-related morbidity and mortality has been observed. However, it is now becoming increasingly clear that liver-related complications, particularly rapid fibrosis development from ART as well as from the chronic HIV infection itself, are of serious concern to HIV patients. The pathophysiology of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV is a multifactorial process whereby persistent viral replication, and bacterial translocation lead to chronic immune activation and inflammation, which ART is unable to fully suppress, promoting production of fibrinogenic mediators and fibrosis...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096879/association-between-mitofusin-2-gene-polymorphisms-and-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-korean-population
#12
Young Jong Kim, Jin Kyung Park, Won Sub Kang, Su Kang Kim, Changsu Han, Hae Ri Na, Hae Jeong Park, Jong Woo Kim, Young Youl Kim, Moon Ho Park, Jong-Woo Paik
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent and early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The morphologic changes observed in the AD brain could be caused by a failure of mitochondrial fusion mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of two genes involved in mitochondrial fusion mechanisms, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2), were associated with AD in the Korean population by analyzing genotypes and allele frequencies. METHODS: One coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MFN2, rs1042837, and two coding SNPs in the OPA1, rs7624750 and rs9851685, were compared between 165 patients with AD (83 men and 82 women, mean age 72...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096195/the-multifunctional-mitochondrial-epac1-controls-myocardial-cell-death
#13
Loubina Fazal, Marion Laudette, Sílvia Paula-Gomes, Sandrine Pons, Caroline Conte, Florence Tortosa, Pierre Sicard, Yannis Sainte-Marie, Malik Bisserier, Olivier Lairez, Alexandre Lucas, Jérôme Roy, Bijan Ghaleh, Jeremy Fauconnier, Jeanne Mialet-Perez, Frank Lezoualc'h
RATIONALE: Although the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) is physiologically beneficial in the heart, it largely contributes to cardiac disease progression when dysregulated. Current evidence suggests that cAMP is produced within mitochondria. However, mitochondrial cAMP signaling and its involvement in cardiac pathophysiology are far from being understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of mitochondrial exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (MitEpac1) in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury...
January 17, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096168/sk-channel-enhancers-attenuate-ca2-dependent-arrhythmia-in-hypertrophic-hearts-by-regulating-mito-ros-dependent-oxidation-and-activity-of-ryr
#14
Tae Yun Kim, Radmila Terentyeva, Karim H F Roder, Weiyan Li, Man Liu, Ian Greener, Shanna Hamilton, Iuliia Polina, Kevin R Murphy, Richard T Clements, Samuel C Dudley, Gideon Koren, Bum-Rak Choi, Dmitry Terentyev
AIM: s: Plasmamembrane small conductance Ca<su2+p>-activated K<su+ p > (SK) channels were implicated in ventricular arrhythmias in infarcted and failing hearts. Recently, SK channels were detected in the mitochondria inner membrane (mSK), and their activation protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury by reducing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We hypothesized that mSK play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function in chronic cardiac diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095669/complete-mitochondrial-genome-of-a-tongue-worm-armillifer-agkistrodontis
#15
Jian Li, Fu-Nan He, Hong-Xiang Zheng, Rui-Xiang Zhang, Yi-Jing Ren, Wei Hu
Armillifer agkistrodontis (Ichthyostraca: Pantastomida) is a parasitic pathogen, only reported in China, which can cause a zoonotic disease, pentastomiasis. A complete mitochondrial (mt) genome was 16,521 bp comprising 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 non-coding region (NCR). A phylogenetic tree drawn with the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 6 conserved PCGs (atp6, cox1-3, and nad2) showed that A. agkistrodontis and Armillifer armillatus constituted a clade Pentastomida which was a sister group of the Branchiura...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094806/plant-toxin-%C3%AE-odap-activates-integrin-%C3%AE-1-and-focal-adhesion-a-critical-pathway-to-cause-neurolathyrism
#16
Rui-Yue Tan, Geng-Yan Xing, Guang-Ming Zhou, Feng-Min Li, Wen-Tao Hu, Fernand Lambein, Jun-Lan Xiong, Sheng-Xiang Zhang, Hai-Yan Kong, Hao Zhu, Zhi-Xiao Li, You-Cai Xiong
Neurolathyrism is a unique neurodegeneration disease caused by β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β- diaminopropionic (β-ODAP) present in grass pea seed (Lathyrus stativus L.) and its pathogenetic mechanism is unclear. This issue has become a critical restriction to take full advantage of drought-tolerant grass pea as an elite germplasm resource under climate change. We found that, in a human glioma cell line, β-ODAP treatment decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to outside release and overfall of Ca(2+) from mitochondria to cellular matrix...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094012/mammalian-mitochondria-and-aging-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Timo E S Kauppila, Johanna H K Kauppila, Nils-Göran Larsson
Mitochondria were first postulated to contribute to aging more than 40 years ago. During the following decades, multiple lines of evidence in model organisms and humans showed that impaired mitochondrial function can contribute to age-associated disease phenotypes and aging. However, in contrast to the original theory favoring oxidative damage as a cause for mtDNA mutations, there are now strong data arguing that most mammalian mtDNA mutations originate as replication errors made by the mtDNA polymerase. Currently, a substantial amount of mitochondrial research is focused on finding ways to either remove or counteract the effects of mtDNA mutations with the hope of extending the human health- and lifespan...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093354/low-dose-resveratrol-ameliorates-mitochondrial-respiratory-dysfunction-and-enhances-cellular-reprogramming
#18
Yuki Mizuguchi, Hideyuki Hatakeyama, Kou Sueoka, Mamoru Tanaka, Yu-Ichi Goto
Mitochondrial disease is associated with a wide variety of clinical presentations, even among patients carrying heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations, probably because of variations in mutant mtDNA proportions at the tissue and organ levels. Although several case reports and clinical trials have assessed the effectiveness of various types of drugs and supplements for the treatment of mitochondrial diseases, there are currently no cures for these conditions. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that low dose resveratrol (RSV) ameliorated mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in patient-derived fibroblasts carrying homoplasmic mtDNA mutations...
January 13, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093254/risperidone-ameliorated-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-cognitive-and-hippocampal-synaptic-impairments-in-mice
#19
Lingzhi Wu, Xiaowen Feng, Tingting Li, Baojuan Sun, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Ling He
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment and major neuropathologic hallmark of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, can improve concentration and cognitive deficit in schizophrenia patients. In this study, behavior tests including Morris Water Maze test, Step-through passive avoidance test, Open Field test, Step-Down test, Hole-Board test and Novel object recognition test were preformed to examine the effect of Risperidone on Aβ1-42-induced cognitive dysfunction in both long-term and short-term memory...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092677/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-regulates-mitochondrial-activity-to-alter-the-oncogenic-potential-of-melanoma-in-a-pten-dependent-manner
#20
K Brown, P Yang, D Salvador, R Kulikauskas, H Ruohola-Baker, A M Robitaille, A J Chien, R T Moon, V Sherwood
Aberrant regulation of WNT/β-catenin signaling has a crucial role in the onset and progression of cancers, where the effects are not always predictable depending on tumor context. In melanoma, for example, models of the disease predict differing effects of the WNT/β-catenin pathway on metastatic progression. Understanding the processes that underpin the highly context-dependent nature of WNT/β-catenin signaling in tumors is essential to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit from WNT inhibitory compounds. In this study, we have found that expression of the tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), alters the invasive potential of melanoma cells in response to WNT/β-catenin signaling, correlating with differing metabolic profiles...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
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