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Hcg diet

Jian Kang, Chongyang Ge, Lei Yu, Longlong Li, Haitian Ma
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates glucose metabolism, which would in turn affect fat deposition. To investigate the effects of DHEA on glucose metabolism, rats were administered a high-fat diet containing either 0 (HCG), 25 (HLG), 50 (HMG), or 100 (HHG) mg·kg-1 DHEA per day via gavage for 8 weeks. Results showed that long-term administration of DHEA inhibited body weight gain in rats on a high-fat diet. No statistical differences in serum glucose levels were observed, whereas hepatic glycogen content in HMG and HHG groups and muscle glycogen content in HLG and HMG groups were higher than those in HCG group...
2016: PloS One
Jomol Antony, P Natarajan
In aquaculture, growth hormones attract many researchers as they play a key role in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. In this study, we observed the influence of hCG on growth in Barilius bakeri, a common ornamental fish endemic to the Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Juveniles of B. bakeri 2.19 ± 0.92 g were selected and stocked in the experimental tanks of size 90 x 45 x 45 cm. Water quality parameters were examined periodically and were maintained under tolerable limits. The feeds were formulated at 40% protein level...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Qingqing Chu, Zhi-Hong Chi, Xiuli Zhang, Dan Liang, Xuemei Wang, Yue Zhao, Li Zhang, Ping Zhang
Previous studies have demonstrated that zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element which is involved in male reproduction. The zinc transporter (ZnT) family, SLC30a, is involved in the maintenance of Zn homeostasis and in mediating intracellular signaling events; however, relatively little is known regarding the effect of ZnTs on testosterone synthesis. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to determine the effect of Zn transporter 7 (ZnT7) on testosterone synthesis in male CD-1 mice and mouse Leydig cells. The findings of the present study revealed that the concentrations of Zn in the testes and Leydig cells were significantly lower in mice fed a Zn-deficient diet compared with the control mice fed a Zn-adequate diet...
June 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Tomoko Kawai, Noriyuki Yanaka, JoAnne S Richards, Masayuki Shimada
Retinoic acid (RA) is the active form of vitamin A and is synthesized from retinol by two key enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). As the physiological precursor of RA, retinol impacts female reproductive functions and fertility. The expression of Adh1 and Adh5 as well as Aldh1a1 and Aldh1a7 are significantly increased in the ovaries of mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin/FSH. The RA receptor is expressed and localized in granulosa cells and is activated by endogenous RA as indicated by LacZ expression in granulosa cells of RA-responsive transgene-LacZ transgenic mice (RA reporter mice)...
May 2016: Endocrinology
Stephen A Butler, Laurence A Cole
Trend diets can be commonplace amongst those who are trying to lose weight but in most cases there is some shred of evidence to suggest they might be of some benefit. Seldom is there a diet which is such a fad that it is not only completely unfounded but also potential harmful. The human chorionic gonadotropin or "hCG diet" is such a diet, which after half a century still has no evidence to support its efficacy; in fact all scientific publications subsequent to the original article counter these claims. In this short communication, we review the literature and present data on exactly what some of the hCG diet preparations actually contain and highlight that, based on current data, these may do more harm than good...
November 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
E Gailly-Fabre, V Kerlan, S Christin-Maitre
Pregnancy is an immunological paradox that implies that a semi-allogeneic fetus is not rejected by the maternal immune system, from implantation of the embryo to delivery. Progesterone (P4), estradiol (E2) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), contribute to the transformation of immune cells in a transient tolerance state, necessary to the maintenance of pregnancy. The effects of pregnancy hormones depend probably of their maternal plasma level. hCG is dangerous at high concentrations because it can stimulate autoantibodies production, whereas in physiological concentrations, hCG, P4 and E2 upregulate immune response expanding regulatory T and B cells, allowing the fetus to grow within the maternal uterus in a protective environment...
October 2015: Annales D'endocrinologie
Jing Xu, Whitney K McGee, Cecily V Bishop, Byung S Park, Judy L Cameron, Mary B Zelinski, Richard L Stouffer
Increased adiposity and hyperandrogenemia alter reproductive parameters in both animal models and women, but their effects on preantral follicles in the ovary remain unknown. We recently reported that Western-style diet (WSD) consumption over 1 year, with or without chronic exposure to elevated circulating T, increased the body fat percentage, elicited insulin resistance, suppressed estradiol and progesterone production, as well as altered the numbers, size, and dynamics of antral follicles in the ovary during the menstrual cycle in female macaques...
March 2015: Endocrinology
S M Fredin, M S Akins, L F Ferraretto, R D Shaver
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of corn-based dietary starch content and source of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on lactation performance, nutrient digestion, bacterial protein flow, and ruminal parameters in lactating dairy cows. Eight ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows averaging 193±11d in milk were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatment diets were high corn grain (HCG; 38% corn silage, 19% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), high soy hulls (HSH; 38% corn silage, 11% dry ground corn, and 13% soy hulls), high corn silage (HCS; 50% corn silage, 6% dry ground corn, and 4% soy hulls), and low corn silage (LCS; 29% corn silage, 15% corn, and 19% soy hulls)...
January 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Enrique F Schisterman, Sunni L Mumford, Richard W Browne, Dana Boyd Barr, Zhen Chen, Germaine M Buck Louis
CONTEXT: A role of lipids in human fecundity is hypothesized as cholesterol is the main substrate for steroid synthesis and has also been shown to affect the hormonal milieu and steroidogenesis in both men and women. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between male and female serum lipid concentrations and time to pregnancy (TTP). DESIGN/SETTING: A population-based prospective cohort study recruiting couples from 16 counties in Michigan and Texas (2005-2009) using sampling frameworks allowing for identification of couples planning pregnancy in the near future...
August 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
William E Pohlmeier, Fang Xie, Scott G Kurz, Ningxia Lu, Jennifer R Wood
Obese women who are able to attain pregnancy are at increased risk for early-pregnancy loss due, in part, to reduced oocyte quality. We and others have demonstrated that female Lethal Yellow (LY) mice and female C57BL/6 mice fed a high fat diet (B6-HFD) exhibit phenotypes consistent with human obesity. These studies also showed that zygotes collected from LY and B6-HFD females have reduced developmental competence. The current hypothesis is that LY and B6-HFD females exhibit an abnormal response to gonadotropin stimulation compared to C57BL/6 controls fed normal rodent chow (B6-ND), resulting in the ovulation of oocytes with an altered molecular phenotype which may contribute to its reduced developmental competence...
August 2014: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Sheng Wu, Sara Divall, Amanda Nwaopara, Sally Radovick, Fredric Wondisford, Chemyong Ko, Andrew Wolfe
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exhibit elevated androgen levels, oligoanovulation, infertility, and insulin resistance in metabolic tissues. The aims of these studies were to determine the role of insulin signaling in the development and function of ovarian theca cells and the pathophysiologic effects of hyperinsulinism on ovarian function in obesity. We disrupted the insulin receptor (IR) gene specifically in the theca-interstitial (TI) cells of the ovaries (Cyp17IRKO). No changes in reproductive development or function were observed in lean Cyp17IRKO female mice, suggesting that insulin signaling in TI cell is not essential for reproduction...
April 2014: Diabetes
E Tunç, D Erdogan, E Calgüner, G Göktas, Ç Elmas, R Gözil, M Bahçelioglu, H Öktem
OBJECTIVES: Recently, it has been observed that weight loss is accelerated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone preparation used for hypothalamic dysfunction in obesity treatment in both sexes. hCG is also used for in vitro fertilization and in treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our aim was to observe the ultrastructural changes caused by local injections of hCG made for purpose of weight loss and to present them to inform those receiving such therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, 10 obese female, 10 male obese, 10 non-obese female and 10 non-obese male rats were used...
November 2013: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Katharina Eva Keifenheim, Katrin Elisabeth Giel, Elisabeth Johanna Leehr, Sandra Becker, Klaus Mörike, Stephan Zipfel, Martin Teufel
HISTORY AND CLINICAL FINDINGS: We report on a 24-year-old patient with secondary amenorrhoea, underweight (BMI 15,0 kg/m²), and a fear of weight gain, who used laxatives, diuretics, excessive sport and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for weight regulation. EXAMINATIONS: On physical examination, cachexia, bradycardia, lanugo hair on face and back, and cyanosis of hands and feet were observed. In the laboratory findings, leukopenia, recurrent low potassium and an elevated mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were remarkable...
August 2013: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Nancy H Goodbar, Jaime A Foushee, David H Eagerton, Katie B Haynes, Amanda A Johnson
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of left lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and bilateral pulmonary embolisms in a patient who initiated the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) diet 2 weeks prior to presentation. CASE SUMMARY: A 64-year-old white female presented with leg swelling and shortness of breath. Lower extremity ultrasound revealed left leg DVT, and a computed tomography angiogram revealed bilateral pulmonary embolisms. A complete history and physical examination were unremarkable for any risk factors for acute thrombosis, with the exception of the initiation of the HCG diet approximately 2 weeks prior to presentation; the patient was taking 20 sublingual drops of HCG twice daily...
May 2013: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Thaís da Silva Ferreira, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves Torres, Antonio Felipe Sanjuliani
Recent studies have suggested that dietary Ca may have beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and blood pressure (BP). One potential mechanism underlying these benefits involves modifications in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i). The present study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary Ca with adiposity, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, metabolic profile, BP, inflammatory state and endothelial function in healthy pre-menopausal women. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-six women aged 18–50 years were submitted to the evaluation of dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, erythrocyte [Ca2+]i, biochemical variables, endothelial function and BP...
September 28, 2013: British Journal of Nutrition
May Yen, Michele Burns Ewald
INTRODUCTION: With the rise of the obesity epidemic in the United States over the last several decades and the medical complications seen with it, weight loss and dieting have become a national public health concern. DISCUSSION: Because of their increased use and availability through internet sales, several different dieting agents were reviewed for potential toxicity. These included: syrup of ipecac, cathartics, human chorionic gonadotropin hormone, 2,4 Dinitrophenol, guar gum, phenylpropanolamine, ma huang/ ephedra, caffeine, clenbuterol, fenfluramine, sibutramine, thyroid hormone, orlistat and cannabinoid antagonists...
June 2012: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
X Tian, F J Diaz
Shortly before ovulation, the oocyte acquires developmental competence and granulosa cells undergo tremendous changes including cumulus expansion and luteinization. Zinc is emerging as a key regulator of meiosis in vitro, but a complete understanding of zinc-mediated effects during the periovulatory period is lacking. The present study uncovers the previously unknown role of zinc in maintaining meiotic arrest before ovulation. A zinc chelator [N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN)] caused premature germinal vesicle breakdown and associated spindle defects in denuded oocytes even in the presence of a phosphodiesterase 3A inhibitor (milrinone)...
February 2012: Endocrinology
G Zamaratskaia, G Chen, K Lundström
Cytochromes P4502E1 (CYP2E1) and P4502A6 (CYP2A6) catalyse metabolic reactions of skatole and indole metabolism. The objectives of this study were as follows: to evaluate whether activities of CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 in pigs of two live weights (LW) differ between males and females; to investigate whether activities of CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 are affected by hCG stimulation; and to investigate whether the levels of skatole and indole in the liver and the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP2A6 are affected by raw potato starch (RPS)...
February 2006: Meat Science
Sheetal Wadera, Margret S Magid, Mark McOmber, David Carpentieri, Tamir Miloh
A 15-year-old Caucasian female on human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) diet presented with fever, cholestasis, coagulopathy, hemolytic anemia, and acute renal dysfunction. Imaging of the biliary system and liver were normal. She responded to intravenous antibiotics, vitamin K and blood transfusions but experienced relapse upon discontinuation of antibiotics. She had remission with reinstitution of antibiotics. Liver biopsy revealed pronounced bile ductular reaction, bridging fibrosis, and hepatocytic anisocytosis and anisonucleosis with degenerative enlarged eosinophilic hepatocytes, suggestive of Wilson disease...
August 2011: Seminars in Liver Disease
Nina A Mikirova, Joseph J Casciari, Ronald E Hunninghake, Margaret M Beezley
Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial cells and stem/endothelial progenitor cell function associated with overweight and obesity predispose to atherosclerosis and thrombosis...
2011: International Journal of Medical Sciences
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