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Renal review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651424/estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-renal-scan-and-volumetric-assessment-of-the-kidney-before-and-after-partial-nephrectomy-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#1
Riccardo G Bertolo, Homayoun Zargar, Riccardo Autorino, Cristian Fiori, Jihad H Kaouk, Paul Russo, Robert H Thompson, Francesco Porpiglia
INTRODUCTION: The best method for assessing renal function after partial nephrectomy (PN) continues to be a matter of debate. Early studies evaluated kidney function by measuring serum creatinine (sCr) and/or the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), potentially underestimating the contribution of the contralateral kidney in masking alterations in renal function. Since then, researchers have studied the operated renal unit with the aid of nuclear renal scans (RS). However, taking into consideration the importance of the amount of renal parenchyma spared or sacrificed during PN, many novel methods have been proposed for determining kidney volume before and after PN...
June 23, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650868/obesity-and-its-implications-on-nononcological-urological-surgery
#2
Andrea Mari, Mohammad Abufaraj, Karim Mansy, Karl-Dietrich Sievert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review and summarize the current literature of the implications of obesity on nononcological urological surgery. We conducted a comprehensive search of the current literature with emphasis on the published literature in the last 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Over time, obese patients have become a more common encounter in clinical practice. Obesity represents a considerable operative challenge and has been linked to a higher rate of postoperative complications...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650865/effect-of-obesity-on-bladder-cancer-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-incidence-and-survival
#3
Philipp Gild, Behfar Ehdaie, Luis A Kluth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically in the general population and among cancer survivors in the last three decades. In this review, we highlight the impact of obesity on carcinogenesis and survival with a focus on bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity presents an established risk factor for an up to 1.8-fold relative risk of RCC. Data with regard to bladder cancer are less abundant but support this association as well...
June 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650600/clear-cell-neuroendocrine-tumor-of-the-pancreas-in-von-hippel-lindau-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
(no author information available yet)
Clear cell neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas is found in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I), and sporadic form. Clear cell NETs are often misdiagnosed as metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A 47-year-old woman with VHL was found to have a mass in the pancreatic tail and two masses in the right kidney with two cysts. A distal pancreatectomy and right radical nephrectomy were performed. The pancreatic lesion was a well-circumscribed, golden-yellow solid mass, which was lobulated by septal fibrosis...
May 26, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650002/cabozantinib-use-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
A J Neuwelt, S Mathur, A T Johnson, E R Kessler, D W Bowles
In the last several years, many new drugs have been approved to treat metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Cabozantinib is a novel multikinase inhibitor with activity against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret and other kinases that recently joined this impressive list of approved agents. Cabozantinib is an active agent in the preclinical and clinical setting, having recently demonstrated superiority over everolimus in a blinded, randomized phase III study of patients with progressive RCC after at least one prior line of antiangiogenic therapy...
May 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649865/dental-stem-cells-recent-progresses-in-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#6
João Botelho, Maria Alzira Cavacas, Vanessa Machado, José João Mendes
Since the disclosure of adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) there have been an intense investigation on the characteristics of these cells and their potentialities. Dental Stem Cells (DSCs) are MSC-like populations with self-renewal capacity and multidifferentiation potential. Currently, there are five main DSCs, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and Dental Follicle Precursor Cells (DFPCs)...
June 24, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648738/current-topics-in-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-research-focus-on-inverse-agonism-receptor-dimerization-and-biased-agonism
#7
REVIEW
Takanobu Takezako, Hamiyet Unal, Sadashiva S Karnik, Koichi Node
Although the octapeptide hormone angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates cardiovascular and renal homeostasis through the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), overstimulation of AT1R causes various human diseases, such as hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, AT1R blockers (ARBs) have been widely used as therapeutic drugs for these diseases. Recent basic research and clinical studies have resulted in the discovery of interesting phenomena associated with AT1R function. For example, ligand-independent activation of AT1R by mechanical stress and agonistic autoantibodies, as well as via receptor mutations, has been shown to decrease the inverse agonistic efficacy of ARBs, though the molecular mechanisms of such phenomena had remained elusive until recently...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648509/pendred-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Jean-Louis Wémeau, Peter Kopp
Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that is classically defined by the combination of sensorineural deafness/hearing impairment, goiter, and an abnormal organification of iodide with or without hypothyroidism. The hallmark of the syndrome is the impaired hearing, which is associated with inner ear malformations such as an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). The thyroid phenotype is variable and may be modified by the nutritional iodine intake. Pendred syndrome is caused by biallelic mutations in the SLC26A4/PDS gene, which encodes the multifunctional anion exchanger pendrin...
March 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648481/outcomes-of-concomitant-renal-reconstruction-during-open-paravisceral-aortic-aneurysm-repair
#9
Mathew Wooster, Martin Back, Shivangi Patel, Adam Tanious, Paul Armstrong, Murray Shames
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the outcomes of renal artery revascularizations during open aortic aneurysm repair. METHODS: Open abdominal aneurysm repairs performed from 2010 to 2015 at a single institution were reviewed, including type IV thoracoabdominal, suprarenal, and juxtarenal aneurysms. Direct renal reconstruction techniques included eversion endarterectomy, bypass, and vessel reimplantation based on the patient's anatomy. Renal loss was defined by artery occlusion...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648469/long-term-clinical-outcomes-following-radiofrequency-and-microwave-ablation-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-at-a-single-va-medical-center
#10
Salim E Abboud, Tanay Patel, Stephanie Soriano, Joseph Giesler, Nannette Alvarado, Preet Kang
PURPOSE: Microwave ablation (MWA) is a relatively newer treatment modality for treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and only a few small studies have examined the short- and long-term outcomes for MWA applied to renal tumors. The purpose of this retrospective review is to assess the initial experience including technical short- and long-term success rates of using radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and MWA for RCC at a single Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor characteristics were recorded using the R...
May 17, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648436/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-and-receptor-blockers-in-heart-failure-and-chronic-kidney-disease-demystifying-controversies
#11
REVIEW
Kader Muneer, Anishkumar Nair
In clinical setting, congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) often co-exist in patients due to common underlying predisposing factors. An intricate equilibrium between the cardiovascular and renal system is maintained through rennin angiotensin-aldosterone axis and autonomic nervous system. Consequent to favorable hemodynamic modification, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocking (ARB) therapy have proven to be an indispensable aspect of heart failure management with morbidity and mortality benefit...
May 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648202/a-review-on-autosomal-dominant-tubulointerstitial-kidney-disease
#12
Nadia Ayasreh Fierro, Rosa Miquel Rodríguez, Ana Matamala Gastón, Elisabet Ars Criach, Roser Torra Balcells
In recent years there has been a reclassification of hereditary tubulointerstitial renal diseases. The old concepts of nephronoptisis or medullary cystic disease have been reordered based on the discovery of new genes. The 2015 KDIGO guidelines proposed a unification of terminology, diagnostic criteria and monitoring. So far 4genes causing autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease have been described: MUC1, UMOD, HNF1B and REN. Although the mutation in each of them causes distinctive features in how they present, all have in common the progressive tubulointerstitial damage and renal fibrosis...
May 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647299/otolaryngology-consultation-tracheostomies-and-complex-patient-population
#13
Kristan P Alfonso, Michael R Kaufman, Emily V Dressler, Meng Liu, Rony K Aouad
PURPOSE: To assess for the differences in patients undergoing tracheostomy by the otolaryngology consult service versus other specialties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of 1035 tracheostomies performed at our institution from January 2013 through November 2015 was retrospectively reviewed. Patient-related factors that contribute to procedural difficulty were reviewed. RESULTS: 805 consecutive tracheostomies were included. Otolaryngology performed 176/805 (21...
June 17, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646942/endoscopic-placement-of-double-j-ureteric-stents-in-children-as-a-treatment-for-primary-hydronephrosis
#14
Zenon Pogorelić, Tomislava Brković, Dražen Budimir, Jakov Todorić, Đurđica Košuljandić, Ana Jerončić, Mihovil Biočić, Marijan Saraga
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and potential complications of double-J ureteric stents in the treatment of primary hydronephrosis in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-records review of 133 patients (45 girls and 88 boys) treated because of primary hydronephrosis with double-J ureteric stents, in Department of Pediatric Surgery, Split University Hospital, between December 1997 and December 2014, was performed...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646585/prognostic-value-of-cell-cycle-arrest-biomarkers-in-patients-at-high-risk-for-acute-kidney-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Hui-Miao Jia, Li-Feng Huang, Yue Zheng, Wen-Xiong Li
AIM: Urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) are G1 cell cycle arrest biomarkers. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of urinary [TIMP-2]·[IGFBP7] in patients at high risk for AKI. METHODS: The MEDLINE (via PubMed), Ovid, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched from inception to December 25, 2016. Original clinical studies which met the eligibility criteria were included in this study...
June 24, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646466/effects-of-catheter-based-renal-denervation-on-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Hidekatsu Fukuta, Toshihiko Goto, Kazuaki Wakami, Nobuyuki Ohte
Despite the recent advances in the management of heart failure, the mortality of heart failure patients remains high. It is of urgent need to develop new therapy for heart failure. Heart failure is characterized by increased sympathetic activity, and chronic sympathetic activation is involved in the maintenance of the pathological state. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as an invasive but safe approach that can reduce sympathetic activation. Studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the effect of RDN in heart failure patients due to limited power with small sample sizes...
June 24, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645868/natural-history-of-contralateral-hypertrophy-in-patients-with-multicystic-dysplastic-kidneys
#17
Thomas W Gaither, Ankur Patel, Chandni Patel, Kai-Wen Chuang, Ronald A Cohen, Laurence S Baskin
PURPOSE: To evaluate predictive factors for compensatory hypertrophy and renal outcomes in a large cohort of patients with multicystic dysplastic kidneys (MCDK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review from 1997 to 2016. Contralateral kidney and MCDK length were recorded from all ultrasounds as well as creatinine when available. We used generalized estimating equations to determine predictors of contralateral kidney length. RESULTS: 443 children with MCDK were identified based on sonographic finding and lack of function on nuclear scan...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645491/systematic-review-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-urological-cancers
#18
REVIEW
Maud Rijnders, Ronald de Wit, Joost L Boormans, Martijn P J Lolkema, Astrid A M van der Veldt
CONTEXT: In patients with advanced and metastatic urological cancers, clinical outcome may be improved by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review relevant literature on efficacy and safety of ICIs in patients with advanced and metastatic urothelial cell cancer (UCC), renal cell cancer (RCC), and prostate cancer. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Relevant databases, including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, were searched up to March 16, 2017...
June 20, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644432/dental-implant-treatment-for-renal-failure-patients-on-dialysis-a-clinical-guideline
#19
REVIEW
Quan Yuan, Qiu-Chan Xiong, Megha Gupta, Rosa María López-Pintor, Xiao-Lei Chen, Dutmanee Seriwatanachai, Michael Densmore, Yi Man, Ping Gong
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem that is growing in prevalence and is associated with severe complications. During the progression of the disease, a majority of CKD patients suffer oral complications. Dental implants are currently the most reliable and successful treatment for missing teeth. However, due to complications of CKD such as infections, bone lesions, bleeding risks, and altered drug metabolism, dental implant treatment for renal failure patients on dialysis is more challenging...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643849/prevalence-of-exposure-of-heavy-metals-and-their-impact-on-health-consequences
#20
Kanwal Rehman, Fiza Fatima, Iqra Waheed, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Even in the current era of growing technology, the concentration of heavy metals present in drinking water is still not within the recommended limits as set by the regulatory authorities in different countries of the world. Drinking water contaminated with heavy metals namely; arsenic, cadmium, nickel, chromium, mercury, chromium, zinc and lead is becoming a major health concern for public and health care professionals. Occupational exposure to heavy metals is known to occur by the utilization of these metals in various industrial processes and/or contents including color pigments and alloys...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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