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Renal review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938652/correlation-between-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-adc-and-cellularity-is-different-in-several-tumors-a-meta-analysis
#1
Alexey Surov, Hans Jonas Meyer, Andreas Wienke
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide clinical evidence regarding relationship between ADC and cellularity in different tumors based on large patient data. Medline library was screened for associations between ADC and cell count in different tumors up to September 2016. Only publications in English were extracted. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA) was used for the research. Overall, 39 publications with 1530 patients were included into the analysis...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937805/laparoscopic-partial-nephrectomy-a-narrative-review-and-comparison-with-open-and-robotic-partial-nephrectomy
#2
Andrew M Ng, Paras H Shah, Louis R Kavoussi
INTRODUCTION: Kidney cancer ranks among the top 10 most prevalent cancers in Western society, ∼90% of which are renal cell carcinomas. There has been a paradigm shift in the management of small renal masses with strong emphasis now placed on nephron-sparing surgery and increased utilization of laparoscopic approaches to partial nephrectomy. In this review, the current state of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is discussed. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The PubMed database was queried using the MeSH terms "laparoscopy" and "nephrectomy," as well as the search term "partial...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937415/biomarkers-in-vasculitis
#3
Gulen Hatemi, Sinem N Esatoglu, Yusuf Yazici
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biomarkers are considered to be helpful in diagnosing, monitoring, predicting treatment response, and prognosis in clinical practice and as outcomes in clinical trials. In this article, we review the recent literature on new biomarkers and the expanding use of older ones in vasculitic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis patients antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody type may be useful as a predictor of relapse and response to rituximab...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937406/tolerance-in-xenotransplantation
#4
Kazuhiko Yamada, Megan Sykes, David H Sachs
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review describes recent progress in tolerance-inducing strategies across xenogeneic immunological barriers as well as the potential benefit of a tolerance strategy for islets and kidney xenotransplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: Using advanced gene editing technologies, xenotransplantation from multitransgenic alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs has demonstrated marked prolongation of renal xenograft survival, ranging from days to greater than several months for life-supporting kidneys, and more than 2 years in a heterotopic nonlife-supporting cardiac xenograft model...
September 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937324/impact-of-2-staged-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-treatment-of-brain-metastases-%C3%A2-2-cm
#5
Lilyana Angelov, Alireza M Mohammadi, Elizabeth E Bennett, Mahmoud Abbassy, Paul Elson, Samuel T Chao, Joshua S Montgomery, Ghaith Habboub, Michael A Vogelbaum, John H Suh, Erin S Murphy, Manmeet S Ahluwalia, Sean J Nagel, Gene H Barnett
OBJECTIVE Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the primary modality for treating brain metastases. However, effective radiosurgical control of brain metastases ≥ 2 cm in maximum diameter remains challenging and is associated with suboptimal local control (LC) rates of 37%-62% and an increased risk of treatment-related toxicity. To enhance LC while limiting adverse effects (AEs) of radiation in these patients, a dose-dense treatment regimen using 2-staged SRS (2-SSRS) was used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of this treatment strategy...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937064/nephrocalcinosis-among-children-at-king-hussein-medical-center-causes-and-outcome
#6
Jwaher T Al-Bderat, Reham I Mardinie, Ghazi M Salaita, Amer T Al-Bderat, Mahdi K Farrah
Nephrocalcinosis (NC) is defined as deposition of calcium crystals in the renal parenchyma and tubules. This is a retrospective review of all the data of 63 children presented to Pediatric Nephrology Clinic at King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) over a 15-year period with bilateral NC. We determine their causes, clinical presentation and evaluate their growth and renal function during their follow-up. Thirty-five (55.5%) cases were males and 28 (44.5%) were females. The median (range) age at presentation was four (2-192) months...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937057/outcome-of-childhood-lupus-nephritis-in-saudi-children
#7
Sulaiman Mohammed Al-Mayouf, Ali AlAmeer, Areej Alfattani, Abdullah Alsonbul
Our aim in this study is to report the long-term renal outcome of a cohort of Saudi children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). All patients with childhood lupus nephritis (cLN) proved by renal biopsy seen between January 2000 and June 2015 were reviewed. The renal outcome was assessed according to serum creatinine level, protein/creatinine ratio at the last follow-up visit, and/or evidence of renal impairment during follow-up period and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Additional outcome measures include accrual damage measured by pediatric adaptation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (pSDI), and death related to SLE was determined...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936714/prevalence-of-abdominal-artery-calcification-in-dialysis-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Zhihui Yao, Congxia Wang, Qiaona Zhang, Shan Ma, Baosong Gui, Chaoyang Duan
PURPOSE: To systematically determine the prevalence of abdominal artery calcification (AAC) in dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and identify reasons for heterogeneity. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science from database inception to March 2017. Cross-sectional or cohort (only used baseline data) studies reporting estimates of AAC prevalence in dialysis adult patients with ESRD were included. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis to generate pooled prevalence estimates...
September 21, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936594/transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-outcomes-indications-complications-and-innovations
#9
REVIEW
Michael N Young, Ignacio Inglessis
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become the standard of care for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in individuals who are at prohibitive surgical risk and presents a viable alternative to surgery in selected patients who are at high operative risk. To date, outcomes from the PARTNER (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valve) and Medtronic CoreValve® US Pivotal trials continue to show the benefits of TAVR in these high-risk subgroups out to 5 and 3 years, respectively (as reported by Mack et al...
September 22, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936542/efficacy-of-percutaneous-radiofrequency-ablation-may-vary-with-clear-cell-renal-cell-cancer-histologic-subtype
#10
Timothy McClure, Allan Pantuck, James Sayer, Steven Raman
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to determine if clear cell renal cell cancer (RCC) subtype predicts efficacy in percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of RCC. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients who underwent percutaneous RF ablation for histologically proven RCC subtypes were retrospectively reviewed. Group comparisons were done using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine factors impacting primary, secondary, and total technique effectiveness...
September 21, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936436/prognostic-value-of-admission-red-blood-cell-distribution-width-in-acute-pancreatitis-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Hemant Goyal, Hamza Awad, Zhi-De Hu
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been proved to be a strong prognostic marker in various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, renal failure, viral hepatitis etc. But its prognostic value in acute pancreatitis (AP) remains controversial. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the prognostic value of RDW in AP. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane, Google scholar, and Web of Science were searched on March 2, 2017 to identify studies that investigated the association between RDW and the prognosis of AP...
September 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935774/immunotherapy-a-new-and-old-approach-to-treatment-of-soft-tissue-and-bone-sarcomas
#12
REVIEW
Michael J Nathenson, Anthony P Conley, Edward Sausville
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas are a rare and heterogeneous form of cancer. With standard of care treatment options including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the long-term survival is still low for high-risk soft tissue sarcoma patients. New treatment strategies are needed. Immunotherapy offers a new potential treatment paradigm with great promise. Immunotherapy of soft tissue sarcomas dates back to Dr. Coley's first use of toxins in the late 1800s. A variety of strategies of immunotherapy have been tried in soft tissue and bone sarcomas, including various vaccines and cytokines, with limited success...
September 21, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935636/wnt-signaling-and-podocyte-dysfunction-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
REVIEW
Madhura Bose, Sadia Almas, Sharma Prabhakar
Nephropathy is a major microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and often leads to terminal renal failure in addition to contributing significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite continuous advances, the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy remains poorly understood. Recent studies have underscored the significance of structural and functional changes in podocytes in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The role of podocytes in health and diabetic nephropathy and abnormalities including podocyte hypertrophy, effacement, and apoptosis, and a detailed discussion on the role played by the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway in podocyte injury and dysfunction are the focus of this review...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935604/molecular-features-and-physiological-roles-of-k-cl-cotransporter-4-kcc4
#14
REVIEW
A A Marcoux, A P Garneau, R Frenette-Cotton, S Slimani, F Mac-Way, P Isenring
A K(+)-Cl(-) cotransport system was documented for the first time during the mid-seventies in sheep and goat red blood cells. It was then described as a Na(+)-independent and ouabain-insensitive ion carrier that could be stimulated by cell swelling and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), a thiol-reacting agent. Twenty years later, this system was found to be dispensed by four different isoforms in animal cells. The first one was identified in the expressed sequence tag (EST) database by Gillen et al. based on the assumption that it would be homologous to the Na(+)-dependent K(+)-Cl(-) cotransport system for which the molecular identity had already been uncovered...
September 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935512/analysis-of-short-and-long-term-outcomes-of-patients-with-surgically-treated-left-sided-infective-endocarditis-a-5-year-longitudinal-follow-up-study
#15
Oksana Marushchak, Holy Cole, Brett Hiebert, Evelyn Lo, Yoav Keynan, James Tam, Nasir Shaikh, Alan H Menkis, Rakesh C Arora, Pallav Shah
This study aims to analyze survival, repeat hospitalization, and risk factors for surgically treated left-sided endocarditis. Retrospective review of all 166 (114 native and 52 prosthetic) patients operated between January 2004 and March 2015 was performed. Long-term survival and repeat hospitalization data for 134 of 166 patients were obtained via linked clinical databases with the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival and hospital readmission and Cox multivariable regression analysis of factors influencing outcomes were performed...
August 23, 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934992/breast-cancer-metastases-to-the-thyroid-gland-an-uncommon-sentinel-for-diffuse-metastatic-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Agata M Plonczak, Aimee N DiMarco, Roberto Dina, Dorothy J Gujral, Fausto F Palazzo
BACKGROUND: Metastases to the thyroid are rare. The most common primary cancer to metastasize to the thyroid is renal cell carcinoma, followed by malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin, with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid being rare. Overall, the outcomes in malignancies that have metastasized to the thyroid are poor. There are no prospective studies addressing the role of surgery in metastatic disease of the thyroid. Isolated thyroidectomy has been proposed as a local disease control option to palliate and prevent the potential morbidity of tumor extension related to the airway...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933805/perioperative-administration-of-buffered-versus-non-buffered-crystalloid-intravenous-fluid-to-improve-outcomes-following-adult-surgical-procedures
#17
REVIEW
Sohail Bampoe, Peter M Odor, Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Elliott Bennett-Guerrero, Suzie Cro, Tong J Gan, Michael Pw Grocott, Michael Fm James, Michael G Mythen, Catherine Mn O'Malley, Anthony M Roche, Kathy Rowan, Edward Burdett
BACKGROUND: Perioperative fluid strategies influence clinical outcomes following major surgery. Many intravenous fluid preparations are based on simple solutions, such as normal saline, that feature an electrolyte composition that differs from that of physiological plasma. Buffered fluids have a theoretical advantage of containing a substrate that acts to maintain the body's acid-base status - typically a bicarbonate or a bicarbonate precursor such as maleate, gluconate, lactate, or acetate...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933368/biomarkers-and-imaging-findings-of-anderson-fabry-disease-what-we-know-now
#18
REVIEW
Idalina Beirão, Ana Cabrita, Márcia Torres, Fernando Silva, Patrício Aguiar, Francisco Laranjeira, Ana Marta Gomes
Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, caused by deficiency or absence of the alpha-galactosidase A activity, with a consequent glycosphingolipid accumulation. Biomarkers and imaging findings may be useful for diagnosis, identification of an organ involvement, therapy monitoring and prognosis. The aim of this article is to review the current available literature on biomarkers and imaging findings of AFD patients. An extensive bibliographic review from PubMed, Medline and Clinical Key databases was performed by a group of experts from nephrology, neurology, genetics, cardiology and internal medicine, aiming for consensus...
June 11, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932688/alg9-cdg-new-clinical-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Kellie Davis, Duncan Webster, Chris Smith, Sheryl Jackson, David Sinasac, Lorne Seargeant, Xing-Chang Wei, Patrick Ferreira, Julian Midgley, Yolanda Foster, Xueli Li, Miao He, Walla Al-Hertani
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of metabolic diseases resulting from defects in glycan synthesis or processing. The number of subgroups and their phenotypic spectrums continue to expand with most related to deficiencies of N-glycosylation. ALG9-CDG (previously CDG-IL) is the result of a mutation in ALG9. This gene encodes the enzyme alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase. To date, a total of 10 patients from 6 different families have been reported with one of four ALG9 mutations. Seven of these patients had a similar phenotype with failure to thrive, dysmorphic features, seizures, hepatic and/or renal cysts; the other three patients died in utero from a lethal skeletal dysplasia...
December 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932601/the-role-of-sodium-bicarbonate-in-the-management-of-some-toxic-ingestions
#20
REVIEW
Aibek E Mirrakhimov, Taha Ayach, Aram Barbaryan, Goutham Talari, Romil Chadha, Adam Gray
Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology
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