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Dna hydroxymethylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331549/dynamics-of-5-methylcytosine-and-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-during-pronuclear-development-in-equine-zygotes-produced-by-icsi
#1
Sonia Heras, Katrien Smits, Catharina De Schauwer, Ann Van Soom
BACKGROUND: Global epigenetic reprogramming is considered to be essential during embryo development to establish totipotency. In the classic model first described in the mouse, the genome-wide DNA demethylation is asymmetric between the paternal and the maternal genome. The paternal genome undergoes ten-eleven translocation (TET)-mediated active DNA demethylation, which is completed before the end of the first cell cycle. Since TET enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, the latter is postulated to be an intermediate stage toward DNA demethylation...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298607/human-herpesvirus-6b-induces-hypomethylation-on-chromosome-17p13-3-correlating-with-increased-gene-expression-and-virus-integration
#2
Elin Engdahl, Nicky Dunn, Pitt Niehusmann, Sarah Wideman, Peter Wipfler, Albert J Becker, Tomas J Ekström, Malin Almgren, Anna Fogdell-Hahn
Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a neurotropic beta-herpesvirus that achieves latency by integrating its genome into host cell chromosomes. Several viruses can induce epigenetic modifications in their host cells, but no study has investigated the epigenetic modifications induced by HHV-6B. This study analyzed methylation with Illumina 450K array comparing HHV-6B infected and uninfected Molt-3 T cells three days post infection. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to validate Illumina results and investigate methylation over time in vitro Expression of genes was investigated using qPCR, and virus integration was investigated with PCR...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294608/an-engineered-split-tet2-enzyme-for-inducible-epigenetic-remodeling
#3
Minjung Lee, Jia Li, Yi Liang, Guolin Ma, Jixiang Zhang, Lian He, Yuliang Liu, Qian Li, Minyong Li, Deqiang Sun, Yubin Zhou, Yun Huang
The Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) dioxygenases catalyze the conversion of 5mC into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and further oxidized species to promote active DNA demethylation. Here we engineered a split-TET2 enzyme to enable temporal control of 5mC oxidation and subsequent remodeling of epigenetic states in mammalian cells. We further demonstrate the use of this chemically-inducible system to dissect the correlation between DNA hydroxymethylation and chromatin accessibility in the mammalian genome...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293326/line-1-is-preferentially-hypomethylated-within-adenomatous-polyps-in-the-presence-of-synchronous-colorectal-cancer
#4
Alice Chu Jiang, Lela Buckingham, William Barbanera, Amoah Yeboah Korang, Faraz Bishesari, Joshua Melson
BACKGROUND: Conventional tubular adenomas are frequently detected in patients undergoing average risk screening colonoscopy and are over-represented in patients who will develop colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether features of adenomas could serve as predictors of synchronous CRC is not known. Here, we investigate whether global methylation markers, including LINE-1, differ within adenomas in patients with and without synchronous CRC. METHODS: Colorectal tubular/tubulovillous adenomatous polyps in the absence (P group, n = 45) and in the presence of synchronous CRC (PC group, n = 32) were identified...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282966/experimental-mitochondria-targeted-dna-methylation-identifies-gpc-methylation-not-cpg-methylation-as-potential-regulator-of-mitochondrial-gene-expression
#5
Monique G P van der Wijst, Amanda Y van Tilburg, Marcel H J Ruiters, Marianne G Rots
Like the nucleus, mitochondria contain their own DNA and recent reports provide accumulating evidence that also the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is subjective to DNA methylation. This evidence includes the demonstration of mitochondria-localised DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, and the detection of mtDNA methylation as well as hydroxymethylation. Importantly, differential mtDNA methylation has been linked to aging and diseases, including cancer and diabetes. However, functionality of mtDNA methylation has not been demonstrated...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272510/apolipoprotein-e4-and-insulin-resistance-interact-to-impair-cognition-and-alter-the-epigenome-and-metabolome
#6
Lance A Johnson, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Soren Impey, Jan F Stevens, Jacob Raber
Apolipoprotein E4 (E4) and type 2 diabetes are major risk factors for cognitive decline and late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). E4-associated phenotypes and insulin resistance (IR) share several features and appear to interact in driving cognitive dysfunction. However, shared mechanisms that could explain their overlapping pathophysiology have yet to be found. We hypothesized that, compared to E3 mice, E4 mice would be more susceptible to the harmful cognitive effects of high fat diet (HFD)-induced IR due to apoE isoform-specific differences in brain metabolism...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260562/the-effect-of-paternal-methyl-group-donor-intake-on-offspring-dna-methylation-and-birth-weight
#7
S Pauwels, I Truijen, M Ghosh, R C Duca, S A S Langie, B Bekaert, K Freson, I Huybrechts, G Koppen, R Devlieger, L Godderis
Most nutritional studies on the development of children focus on mother-infant interactions. Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the growth and development of the fetus, but what about the father? The aim is to investigate the effects of paternal methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, betaine, choline) on paternal and offspring global DNA (hydroxy)methylation, offspring IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and birth weight. Questionnaires, 7-day estimated dietary records, whole blood samples, and anthropometric measurements from 74 fathers were obtained...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250235/methylation-dynamics-during-folliculogenesis-and-early-embryo-development-in-sheep
#8
Laura Masala, Giovanni Pietro Burrai, Emanuela Bellu, Federica Ariu, Luisa Bogliolo, Sergio Ledda, Daniela Bebbere
Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming occurs during mammalian gametogenesis and early embryogenesis. Post-fertilization demethylation of paternal and maternal genomes is considered to occur by an active and passive mechanism, respectively, in most mammals but sheep; in this species no loss of methylation was observed in either pronucleus. Post-fertilization reprogramming relies on methylating and de-methylating enzymes and co-factors that are stored during oocyte growth, concurrently with the re-methylation of the oocyte itself...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230192/an-endoparasitoid-wasp-influences-host-dna-methylation
#9
Sunil Kumar, Yonggyun Kim
Parasitism by endoparasitoid wasps changes the expression of various host genes, and alters host immune and developmental processes. However, it is not clearly understood how parasitism changes host gene expression in a whole genome scale. This study focused on an epigenetic control of Cotesia plutellae, an endoparasitoid wasp, against its host, Plutella xylostella. Two DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-1 and DNMT-2) are encoded in the genome of P. xylostella. In addition, methyl-binding domain proteins (MBDs) and DNA demethylation factor, ten-eleven translation protein (TET) are encoded...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229992/increased-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-and-ten-eleven-translocation-protein-expression-in-ultraviolet-b-irradiated-hacat-cells
#10
Dan Wang, Jin-Hua Huang, Qing-Hai Zeng, Can Gu, Shu Ding, Jian-Yun Lu, Jing Chen, Sheng-Bo Yang
BACKGROUND: DNA hydroxymethylation refers to a chemical modification process in which 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is catalyzed to 5- hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family proteins. Recent studies have revealed that aberrant TETs expression or 5hmC level may play important roles in the occurrence and development of various pathological and physiological processes including cancer and aging. This study aimed to explore the relation between aberrant DNA hydroxymethylation with skin photoaging and to investigate the levels of TETs, 5mC, and 5hmC expression 24 h after 40 mJ/cm2 and 80 mJ/cm2 doses of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation to HaCaT cells...
March 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225433/the-role-of-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-in-melanoma
#11
Feng-Juan Li, Li-Ming Li, Rui-Hua Zhang, Cui Xu, Pan Zhou, Jia Long, Gang Hu, Ming-Jun Jiang
Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive neoplasia of melanocytic origin. In part because of the lack of effective treatment methods, the incidence and mortality rates of this disease continue to increase. Rapidly accumulating evidence suggests that dysregulation of epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation/demethylation, chromatin modification, and remodeling, and diverse activities of noncoding RNAs, play a central role in the pathogenesis of melanoma. The epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) has attracted interest since 2009, when it was shown that ten-eleven translocation proteins can enzymatically convert 5-methylcytosine into 5-hmC, a key intermediate of DNA demethylation...
February 20, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220902/twist1-induces-mmp3-expression-through-up-regulating-dna-hydroxymethylation-and-promotes-catabolic-responses-in-human-chondrocytes
#12
Joe Hasei, Takeshi Teramura, Toshiyuki Takehara, Yuta Onodera, Takuro Horii, Merissa Olmer, Izuho Hatada, Kanji Fukuda, Toshifumi Ozaki, Martin K Lotz, Hiroshi Asahara
The objective was to investigate the levels of TWIST1 in normal and OA cartilage and examine its role in regulating gene expression in chondrocytes. Human cartilage tissues and chondrocytes were obtained at autopsy from normal knee joints and from OA-affected joints at the time of total knee arthroplasty. TWIST1 expression was increased in human OA knee cartilage compared to normal knee cartilage. TWIST1 induced matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) expression without direct binding to MMP3 promoter and increased the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) level at the MMP3 promoter...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218476/overexpression-of-tet-dioxygenases-in-seminomas-associates-with-low-levels-of-dna-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation
#13
Martina Benešová, Kateřina Trejbalová, Dana Kučerová, Zdenka Vernerová, Tomáš Hron, Arpád Szabó, Rachel Amouroux, Petr Klézl, Petra Hajkova, Jiří Hejnar
Germ cell tumors and particularly seminomas reflect the epigenomic features of their parental primordial germ cells, including genomic DNA hypomethylation and expression of pluripotent cell markers. Because the DNA hypomethylation might be a result of TET dioxygenase activity, we examined expression of TET1-3 enzymes and the level of their product, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, in a panel of histologically characterized seminomas and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. Expression of TET dioxygenase mRNAs was quantified by real-time PCR...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212500/cyto-genotoxic-and-dna-methylation-changes-induced-by-different-crystal-phases-of-tio2-np-in-bronchial-epithelial-16-hbe-cells
#14
Manosij Ghosh, Deniz Öner, Radu-Corneliu Duca, Stevan M Cokic, Sven Seys, Stef Kerkhofs, Kirsten Van Landuyt, Peter Hoet, Lode Godderis
With the increase in use of TiO2-np, a better understanding of their safety is important. In the present study the effect of different crystal phases of TiO2-np (anatase, rutile and anatase: rutile mixture; 20-26nm) were studied for cyto-genotoxicity and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. Cytotoxic response was observed at a concentration of 25μg/ml for the particles tested. Results of comet and micronucleus (with and without CytB) assays revealed significant genotoxic effect of these particles...
February 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193047/accurate-direct-and-high-throughput-analyses-of-a-broad-spectrum-of-endogenously-generated-dna-base-modifications-with-isotope-dilution-two-dimensional-ultraperformance-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-possible-clinical-implication
#15
Daniel Gackowski, Marta Starczak, Ewelina Zarakowska, Martyna Modrzejewska, Anna Szpila, Zbigniew Banaszkiewicz, Ryszard Olinski
Our hereby presented methodology is suitable for reliable assessment of the most common unavoidable DNA modifications which arise as a product of fundamental metabolic processes. 8-Oxoguanine, one of the oxidatively modified DNA bases, is a typical biomarker of oxidative stress. A noncanonical base, uracil, may be also present in small quantities in DNA. A set of ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are involved in oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine which can be further oxidized to 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192139/vitamin-c-down-regulate-apo-a-expression-via-tet2-dependent-dna-demethylation-in-hepg2-cells
#16
Kai Qu, Xiao-Feng Ma, Guo-Hua Li, Hai Zhang, Ya-Mi Liu, Kai Zhang, Jun-Fa Zeng, Jian-Jun Lei, Dang-Heng Wei, Zuo Wang
Lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)] is a risk factor for coronary heart diseases. However, the metabolism of this protein remains poorly understood. Efficient and specific drugs that can decrease high plasma levels of Lp(a) have not been developed yet. Vitamin C is responsible for maintaining the catalytic activity of a group of iron and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases and induces the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) via Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) dioxygenases. In addition, It has been reported vitamin C deficiency induces atherosclerosis and increases Lp(a) and apo(a) plasma levels in Lp(a)+ mice...
May 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192098/anti-leukemic-effects-of-hdaci-belinostat-and-hmti-3-deazaneplanocin-a-on-human-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-cells
#17
Giedrė Valiulienė, Ieva Stirblytė, Monika Jasnauskaitė, Veronika Borutinskaitė, Rūta Navakauskienė
Development of acute myeloid leukemia is usually sustained by deregulated epigenome. Alterations in DNA methylation and histone modifications are common manifestations of the disease. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is not an exception. Therefore, drugs that target epigenetic processes suggest an appealing strategy for APL treatment. In this study we tested the anti-leukemic activity of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) Belinostat (PXD101, (2E)-N-Hydroxy-3-[3-(phenylsulfamoyl)phenyl]prop-2-enamide), and histone methyltransferase inhibitor (HMTi) 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep, 5R-(4-amino-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-1-yl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-3-cyclopentene-1S,2R-diol) combined with retinoic acid (RA) in APL cells NB4 and HL-60...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178884/improved-post-thaw-function-and-epigenetic-changes-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-cryopreserved-using-multicomponent-osmolyte-solutions
#18
Kathryn Pollock, Rebekah M Samsonraj, Amel Dudakovic, Roman Thaler, Aron Stumbras, David H McKenna, Peter I Dosa, Andre J van Wijnen, Allison Hubel
Current methods for freezing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) result in poor post-thaw function, which limits the clinical utility of these cells. This investigation develops a novel approach to preserve MSCs using combinations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and small-molecule additives. MSCs frozen using these solutions exhibit improved post-thaw attachment and a more normal alignment of the actin cytoskeleton compared to cells exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation assays show that cells retain their mesenchymal lineage properties...
March 15, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176928/n-3-hydroxymethyl-%C3%AE-carboline-1-yl-ethyl-2-yl-l-phe-development-toward-a-nanoscaled-antitumor-drug-capable-of-treating-complicated-thrombosis-and-inflammation
#19
Jianhui Wu, Ming Zhao, Yuji Wang, Yaonan Wang, Haimei Zhu, Shurui Zhao, Lin Gui, Xiaoyi Zhang, Shiqi Peng
It is well documented that the surfaces of cancer cells, activated platelets and inflammatory cells are rich in P-selectin. N-(3-hydroxymethyl-β-carboline-1-yl-ethyl-2-yl)-l-Phe (HMCEF) is a P-selectin inhibitor capable of simultaneously inhibiting thrombosis and inflammation. Based on the knowledge that P-selectin is a common target for antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and antitumor drugs, the aim of this study article was to estimate the possibility of HMCEF as a nanoscaled antitumor drug. Images of transmission electron micro scopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy proved that HMCEF forms nanoparticles with a diameter of <120 nm that promote delivery in blood circulation...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153600/role-of-oxidative-stress-and-dna-hydroxymethylation-in-the-neurotoxicity-of-fine-particulate-matter
#20
Hongying Wei, Yan Feng, Fan Liang, Wei Cheng, Xiaomeng Wu, Ren Zhou, Yan Wang
Epidemiological studies have implicated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the influences of different components remain largely elusive. Here, we extended our previous work to investigate the role of oxidative stress and DNA hydroxymethylation in neuronal pathology of PM2.5. We found PM2.5 and its extracts (water-soluble extracts, organic extracts and carbon core component) differentially caused cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis and the cell proliferation inhibition in neuronal cells...
January 30, 2017: Toxicology
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