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Dna hydroxymethylation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794029/coordinate-regulation-of-tet2-and-ebna2-control-dna-methylation-state-of-latent-epstein-barr-virus
#1
Fang Lu, Andreas Wiedmer, Kayla A Martin, Priyankara J M S Wickramasinghe, Andrew V Kossenkov, Paul M Lieberman
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latency and its associated carcinogenesis are regulated by dynamic changes in DNA methylation of both virus and host genomes. We show here that the Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) gene, implicated in hydroxymethylation and active DNA demethylation, is a key regulator of EBV latency type DNA methylation patterning. EBV latency types are defined by DNA methylation patterns that restrict expression of viral latency genes. We show that TET2 mRNA and protein expression correlate with the highly demethylated EBV type III latency program permissive for expression of EBNA2, EBNA3s, and LMP transcripts...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769976/new-insights-into-5hmc-dna-modification-generation-distribution-and-function
#2
REVIEW
Dong-Qiao Shi, Iftikhar Ali, Jun Tang, Wei-Cai Yang
Dynamic DNA modifications, such as methylation/demethylation on cytosine, are major epigenetic mechanisms to modulate gene expression in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. In addition to the common methylation on the 5th position of the pyrimidine ring of cytosine (5mC), other types of modifications at the same position, such as 5-hydroxymethyl (5hmC), 5-formyl (5fC), and 5-carboxyl (5caC), are also important. Recently, 5hmC, a product of 5mC demethylation by the Ten-Eleven Translocation family proteins, was shown to regulate many cellular and developmental processes, including the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, neuron development, and tumorigenesis in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762673/interaction-between-maternal-and-paternal-shmt1-c1420t-predisposes-to-neural-tube-defects-in-the-fetus-evidence-from-case-control-and-family-based-triad-approaches
#3
Prasoona K Rebekah, Sunitha Tella, Srinadh Buragadda, Muni Kumari Tiruvatturu, Jyothy Akka
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are caused by the failure of neural tube formation which occurs during early embryonic development. NTDs are the most severe and leading cause of fetal mortality. Serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT1) provides one-carbon units necessary for embryogenesis and defects in one-carbon production result in specific pathological conditions during pregnancy. The present study is aimed to evaluate the association of SHMT1 C1420T with NTD risk in the fetus using fetal, maternal and paternal groups by applying both case-control and family-based triad approaches...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758896/chemo-brain-or-tumor-brain-that-is-the-question-the-presence-of-extracranial-tumors-profoundly-affects-molecular-processes-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-tumorgraft-mice
#4
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Svitlana Shpyleva, Stepan Melnyk, Igor Pogribny, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Olga Kovalchuk, Bryan Kolb
Cancer chemotherapy causes numerous persistent central nervous system complications. This condition is known as chemo brain. Cognitive impairments occur even before treatment, and hence are referred to as cancer associated cognitive changes, or tumor brain. There is much yet to be learned about the mechanisms of both chemo brain and tumor brain. The frequency and timing of chemo brain and tumor brain occurrence and persistence strongly suggest they may be epigenetic in nature and associated with altered gene expression...
July 29, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752494/epigenetics-in-sle
#5
REVIEW
Christian Michael Hedrich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a severe autoimmune/inflammatory condition of unknown pathophysiology. Though genetic predisposition is essential for disease expression, risk alleles in single genes are usually insufficient to confer disease. Epigenetic dysregulation has been suggested as the missing link between genetic risk and the development of clinically evident disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past decade, epigenetic events moved into the focus of research targeting the molecular pathophysiology of SLE...
September 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750404/altered-global-5-hydroxymethylation-status-in-hidradenitis-suppurativa-support-for-an-epigenetic-background
#6
Schapoor Hessam, Michael Sand, Kerstin Lang, Heiko U Käfferlein, Lisa Scholl, Thilo Gambichler, Marina Skrygan, Thomas Brüning, Eggert Stockfleth, Falk G Bechara
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), with its complex inflammatory network, is still elusive. Imbalances in DNA methylation can lead to genome destabilization and have been assumed to play a role in inflammatory diseases. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation have not been studied in HS yet. OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to investigate the global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation status in lesional and perilesional HS skin compared to healthy controls...
July 28, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745936/5-hydroxymethylcytosine-in-dna-repair-a-new-player-or-a-red-herring
#7
Omar L Kantidze, Sergey V Razin
Active DNA demethylation performed by ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes produces 5-hydroxymethylcytosines, 5-formylcytosines, and 5-carboxylcytosines. Recent observations suggest that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is a stable epigenetic mark rather than merely an intermediate of DNA demethylation. However, the clear functional role of this new epigenetic player is elusive. The contribution of 5-hydroxymethylation to DNA repair is being discussed currently. Recently Jiang and colleagues have demonstrated that DNA damage response-activated ATR kinase phosphorylates TET3 in mammalian cells and promotes DNA demethylation and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine accumulation...
July 26, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743666/biological-significance-of-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-in-oral-epithelial-dysplasia-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Maria Carolina Cuevas-Nunez, Camilla Borges F Gomes, Sook-Bin Woo, Matthew R Ramsey, Xiaoxin L Chen, Shuyun Xu, Ting Xu, Qian Zhan, George F Murphy, Christine G Lian
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the levels of 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5-hmC) in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared with those in benign, reactive inflammatory lesions and to explore whether DNA hydroxymethylation may serve as a novel biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. STUDY DESIGN: The study included normal mucosa from uninvolved margins of 9 fibromas, 10 oral lichen planus, 15 OED, and 23 OSCC...
June 16, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649282/asymmetric-dna-methylation-of-cpg-dyads-is-a-feature-of-secondary-dmrs-associated-with-the-dlk1-gtl2-imprinting-cluster-in-mouse
#9
Megan Guntrum, Ekaterina Vlasova, Tamara L Davis
BACKGROUND: Differential DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of imprinted genes. The differentially methylated state of the imprinting control region is inherited via the gametes at fertilization, and is stably maintained in somatic cells throughout development, influencing the expression of genes across the imprinting cluster. In contrast, DNA methylation patterns are more labile at secondary differentially methylated regions which are established at imprinted loci during post-implantation development...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648900/tet-catalyzed-5-hydroxymethylation-precedes-hnf4a-promoter-choice-during-differentiation-of-bipotent-liver-progenitors
#10
Pierre-Benoit Ancey, Szilvia Ecsedi, Marie-Pierre Lambert, Fazlur Rahman Talukdar, Marie-Pierre Cros, Denise Glaise, Diana Maria Narvaez, Veronique Chauvet, Zdenko Herceg, Anne Corlu, Hector Hernandez-Vargas
Understanding the processes that govern liver progenitor cell differentiation has important implications for the design of strategies targeting chronic liver diseases, whereby regeneration of liver tissue is critical. Although DNA methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) are highly dynamic during early embryonic development, less is known about their roles at later stages of differentiation. Using an in vitro model of hepatocyte differentiation, we show here that 5hmC precedes the expression of promoter 1 (P1)-dependent isoforms of HNF4A, a master transcription factor of hepatocyte identity...
July 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647531/a-rapid-mass-spectrometric-method-for-the-measurement-of-catalytic-activity-of-ten-eleven-translocation-enzymes
#11
Babu Sudhamalla, Debasis Dey, Megan Breski, Kabirul Islam
Enzymatic methylation at carbon five on cytosine (5mC) in DNA is a hallmark of mammalian epigenetic programming and is critical to gene regulation during early embryonic development. It has recently been shown that dynamic erasure of 5mC by three members of the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family plays a key role in cellular differentiation. TET enzymes belong to Fe (II)- and 2-ketoglutarate (2KG) dependent dioxygenases that successively oxidize 5mC to 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxycytosine (5CaC), thus providing a chemical basis for the removal of 5mC which once was thought to be a permanent mark in mammalian genome...
June 21, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642138/molecular-cloning-of-chicken-tet-family-genes-and-role-of-chicken-tet1-in-erythropoiesis
#12
Yuya Okuzaki, Hidenori Kaneoka, Ken-Ichi Nishijima, Seitaro Murakami, Yuki Ozawa, Shinji Iijima
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenase has potential as an active eraser to regulate the genomic DNA methylation status. We herein cloned chicken TET (cTET) family genes, and confirmed their functions. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed that cTET1 was strongly expressed in erythrocytes throughout development. This cTET1 expression pattern, together with the results of methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation, suggests that cTET1 contributes to demethylation around the promoter region of the definitive-type β-globin gene βΑ in erythroid cells...
August 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621264/dna-methylation-hydroxymethylation-in-melanoma
#13
REVIEW
Siqi Fu, Haijing Wu, Huiming Zhang, Christine G Lian, Qianjin Lu
Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes and is considered to be the most aggressive cancer among all skin diseases. The pathogenesis of melanoma has not been well documented, which may restrict the research and development of biomarkers and therapies. To date, several genetic and epigenetic factors have been identified as contributing to the development and progression of melanoma. Besides the findings on genetic susceptibilities, the recent progress in epigenetic studies has revealed that loss of the DNA hydroxymethylation mark, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), along with high levels of DNA methylation at promoter regions of several tumor suppressor genes in melanoma, may serve as biomarkers for melanoma...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617821/supplementation-with-small-extracellular-vesicles-from-ovarian-follicular-fluid-during-in-vitro-production-modulates-bovine-embryo-development
#14
Juliano C da Silveira, Gabriella M Andrade, Maite Del Collado, Rafael V Sampaio, Juliano R Sangalli, Luciano A Silva, Fábio V L Pinaffi, Izabelle B Jardim, Marcelo C Cesar, Marcelo F G Nogueira, Aline S M Cesar, Luiz L Coutinho, Rinaldo W Pereira, Felipe Perecin, Flávio V Meirelles
Pregnancy success results from the interaction of multiple factors, among them are folliculogenesis and early embryonic development. Failure during these different processes can lead to difficulties in conception. Alternatives to overcome these problems are based on assisted reproductive techniques. Extracellular vesicles are cell-secreted vesicles present in different body fluids and contain bioactive materials, such as messenger RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs), and proteins. Thus, our hypothesis is that extracellular vesicles from follicular fluid from 3-6 mm ovarian follicles can modulate bovine embryo development in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613929/dna-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation-profile-of-cd34-enriched-cell-products-intended-for-autologous-cd34-cell-transplantation
#15
Jasmina-Ziva Rozman, Maja Pohar Perme, Mojca Jez, Elvira Malicev, Metka Krasna, Bojan Vrtovec, Primoz Rozman
Epigenetic dysregulation has been shown to limit functional capacity of aging hematopoietic stem cells, which may contribute to impaired outcome of hematopoietic stem cell-based therapies. The aim of our study was to gain better insight into the epigenetic profile of CD34(+)-enriched cell products intended for autologous CD34(+) cell transplantation in patients with cardiomyopathy. We found global DNA methylation content significantly higher in immunoselected CD34(+) cells compared to leukocytes in leukapheresis products (2...
June 14, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611311/genome-wide-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-patterns-in-human-spermatogenesis-are-associated-with-semen-quality
#16
Olga A Efimova, Anna A Pendina, Andrei V Tikhonov, Sergey E Parfenyev, Irina D Mekina, Evgeniia M Komarova, Mariia A Mazilina, Eugene V Daev, Olga G Chiryaeva, Ilona A Galembo, Mikhail I Krapivin, Oleg S Glotov, Irina S Stepanova, Svetlana A Shlykova, Igor Yu. Kogan, Alexander M Gzgzyan, Tatyana V Kuznetzova, Vladislav S Baranov
We performed immunofluorescent analysis of DNA hydroxymethylation and methylation in human testicular spermatogenic cells from azoospermic patients and ejaculated spermatozoa from sperm donors and patients from infertile couples. In contrast to methylation which was present throughout spermatogenesis, hydroxymethylation was either high or almost undetectable in both spermatogenic cells and ejaculated spermatozoa. On testicular cytogenetic preparations, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine was undetectable in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes, and was present exclusively in interphase spermatogonia Ad and in a minor spermatid population...
June 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601635/silencing-hif-1%C3%AE-induces-tet2-expression-and-augments-ascorbic-acid-induced-5-hydroxymethylation-of-dna-in-human-metastatic-melanoma-cells
#17
Adam P Fischer, Sarah L Miles
Expression and function of Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes, which initiate DNA demethylation by catalyzing the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC) on methylated DNA, are frequently lost in malignant tissue. This ultimately results in lost expression of methylated tumor suppressor genes. Many malignancies, including melanoma, also aberrantly overexpress the oncogenic hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) transcription factor, however the association between HIF-1α and TET enzyme expression is largely uninvestigated...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590037/epigenetic-effects-of-an-adenosine-derivative-in-a-wistar-rat-model-of-liver-cirrhosis
#18
Jesús Rafael Rodríguez-Aguilera, Carlos Guerrero-Hernández, Rosario Pérez-Molina, Carla Elizabeth Cadena-Del-Castillo, Rebeca Pérez-Cabeza de Vaca, Nuria Guerrero-Celis, Mariana Domínguez-López, Adrián Rafael Murillo-de-Ozores, Rodrigo Arzate-Mejía, Félix Recillas-Targa, Victoria Chagoya de Sánchez
The pathological characteristic of cirrhosis is scarring which results in a structurally distorted and dysfunctional liver. Previously, we demonstrated that Col1a1 and Pparg genes are deregulated in CCl4 -induced cirrhosis but their normal expression levels are recovered upon treatment with IFC-305, an adenosine derivative. We observed that adenosine was able to modulate S-adenosylmethionine-dependent trans-methylation reactions, and recently, we found that IFC-305 modulates HDAC3 expression. Here, we investigated whether epigenetic mechanisms, involving DNA methylation processes and histone acetylation, could explain the re-establishment of gene expression mediated by IFC-305 in cirrhosis...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582417/genome-wide-alteration-in-dna-hydroxymethylation-in-the-sperm-from-bisphenol-a-exposed-men
#19
Huajun Zheng, Xiaoyu Zhou, De-Kun Li, Fen Yang, Hongjie Pan, Tianqi Li, Maohua Miao, Runsheng Li, Wei Yuan
Environmental BPA exposure has been shown to impact human sperm concentration and motility, as well as rodent spermatogenesis. However, it is unclear whether BPA exposure is associated with alteration in DNA hydroxymethylation, a marker for epigenetic modification, in human sperm. A genome-wide DNA hydroxymethylation study was performed using sperm samples of men who were occupationally exposed to BPA. Compared with controls who had no occupational BPA exposure, the total levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmc) increased significantly (19...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537228/-current-methods-of-extracellular-dna-methylation-analysis
#20
REVIEW
O E Bryzgunova, P P Laktionov
The discovery of the enormous role methylated cytosine plays in regulating gene expression has led to the development of a variety of techniques for detecting cytosine modification. A majority of these techniques are geared towards analyzing genomic DNA, which is typically available in large quantities. The concentration of cell-free DNAs (cfDNA) extracted from biological fluids including plasma, saliva, tears, or urine is relatively low and their degree of the fragmentation is high. Moreover, for noninvasive diagnostics of cancer, methylation patterns must be studied in minor cancer-specific fractions of DNA molecules substantially diluted by excess unmethylated molecules...
March 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
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