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Laura M Seske, William C Ralston, Louis J Muglia, James M Greenberg
Infant mortality rate is generally regarded as a fundamental indicator of population health and is often used to validate public health interventions. Hamilton County, Ohio, has one of the highest rates in the nation. Most deaths that do not occur in the hospital fall under the jurisdiction of a coroner/medical examiner. We reviewed all infant deaths evaluated by the Hamilton County Coroner from 2006 to 2013 in order to identify opportunities for public health interventions. We predicted that the majority of these infant deaths were unintentional, but preventable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
T Lavender, S Wakasiaka, L McGowan, M Moraa, J Omari, W Khisa
AIM: this study aimed to gain understanding of the views of community members in relation to obstetric fistula. DESIGN AND METHOD: a qualitative, grounded theory approach was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 45 community members. The constant comparison method enabled generation of codes and subsequent conceptualisations, from the data. SETTING: participants were from communities served by two hospitals in Kenya; Kisii and Kenyatta...
October 4, 2016: Midwifery
Sanna Rönkä, Anu Katainen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. METHODS: The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Alexa A Lopez, Marzena Hiler, Sarah Maloney, Thomas Eissenberg, Alison B Breland
BACKGROUND: Novel tobacco products entering the US market include electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) and products advertised to "heat, not burn" tobacco. There is a growing literature regarding the acute effects of ECIGs. Less is known about "heat, not burn" products. This study's purpose was to expand existing clinical laboratory methods to examine, in cigarette smokers, the acute effects of a "heat, not burn" "loose-leaf tobacco vaporizer" (LLTV). METHODS: Plasma nicotine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and tobacco abstinence symptom severity were measured before and after two 10-puff (30-s interpuff interval) product use bouts separated by 60min...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Rui Wang, Yan Dong, Jia Weng, Emily Z Kontos, Ronald D Chervin, Carol L Rosen, Carole L Marcus, Susan Redline
RATIONALE: Prior research found that individual-level environmental and social indicators did not explain the racial disparity in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Neighborhood socioeconomic variables, risk factors for a range of adverse behavioral and health outcomes, may better explain this racial disparity and help identify modifiable intervention targets. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic variables with obstructive sleep apnea severity and to assess whether the neighborhood variables explain the association between race and obstructive sleep apnea severity...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Olivier Taboureau, Karine Audouze
During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information and their disease relationships from the reported TDDB database...
October 21, 2016: ALTEX
Kelly R Moran, Sara Y Del Valle
Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions...
2016: PloS One
Hardeep Singh, Mark L Graber, Timothy P Hofer
Timely and accurate diagnosis is foundational to good clinical practice and an essential first step to achieving optimal patient outcomes. However, a recent Institute of Medicine report concluded that most of us will experience at least one diagnostic error in our lifetime. The report argues for efforts to improve the reliability of the diagnostic process through better measurement of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic process is a dynamic team-based activity that involves uncertainty, plays out over time, and requires effective communication and collaboration among multiple clinicians, diagnostic services, and the patient...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
David C Classen, William Munier, Nancy Verzier, Noel Eldridge, David Hunt, Mark Metersky, Chesley Richards, Yun Wang, P Jeffrey Brady, Amy Helwig, James Battles
The explicit declaration in the landmark 1999 Institute of Medicine report "To Err Is Human" that, in the United States, 44,000 to 98,000 patients die each year as a consequence of "medical errors" gave widespread validation to the magnitude of the patient safety problem and catalyzed a number of U.S. federal government programs to measure and improve the safety of the national healthcare system. After more than 10 years, one of those federal programs, the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS), has reached a level of maturity and stability that has made it useful for the consistent measurement of the safety of inpatient care...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
Kirsten Lerum Indrebø, Gerd Karin Natvig, John Roger Andersen
Ostomy-specific adjustment may or may not predict health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and/or overall quality of life (QoL). A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients recruited from the customer registers of 8 surgical suppliers and pharmacies across Norway between November 2010 and March 2011 to determine which of the 34 items of the Ostomy Adjustment Scale (OAS) are the strongest predictors for HRQoL and overall QoL and to determine the HRQoL and overall QoL of individuals with an ostomy compared to a control group representing the general population...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Ashly E Jordan, David C Perlman
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is hyperendemic among people who inject drugs; nonsterile drug injection is the principle risk for HCV acquisition. Due to gaps in the HCV care continuum, there have been recommendations in the United States emphasizing age-rather than risk-based testing strategies. The central research focus of this project is to explore the meanings and implications of the shift in emphasis from risk-based to age-based HCV testing with regard to people who use drugs...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Neena Kapoor, Daniel M Blumenthal, Stacy E Smith, Ivan K Ip, Ramin Khorasani
Purpose To determine whether there were sex differences in full professorship after accounting for factors known to influence academic advancement. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study, with waiver of informed consent. In this cross-sectional study, the authors used a comprehensive 2014 physician database (5089 academic radiologists, inclusive of all U.S. academic radiologists in 2014; 11.3% of all U.S. radiologists) containing information on physician age, years since residency, National Institutes of Health funding, scientific publications (first or last author and total), clinical trial investigation, and clinical volume measured according to 2013 Medicare reimbursement...
October 21, 2016: Radiology
Martie L Skinner, Kevin P Haggerty, Mary Casey-Goldstein, Ronald W Thompson, Laura Buddenberg, W Alex Mason
OBJECTIVES: The changes in Washington State and Colorado marijuana laws call for the development of new brief family-focused adolescent marijuana use preventive interventions that are relevant for and tailored to the context of legalization for retail sale. To that end, focus groups with parents and teens were conducted to find out about their concerns and needs in the context of legalization. METHODS: Six semi-structured focus groups (3 with parents, 3 with teens) were conducted in Washington State in 2013 related to consequences of teen marijuana use and messages that would be effective in helping to prevent teens from using marijuana in the context of legal adult use...
October 21, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Ariane Laplante-Lévesque, Harvey Abrams, Maja Bülow, Thomas Lunner, John Nelson, Søren Kamaric Riis, Filiep Vanpoucke
Purpose: This article describes the perspectives of hearing device manufacturers regarding the exciting developments that the Internet makes possible. Specifically, it proposes to join forces toward interoperability and standardization of Internet and audiology. Method: A summary of why such a collaborative effort is required is provided from historical and scientific perspectives. A roadmap toward interoperability and standardization is proposed. Results: Information and communication technologies improve the flow of health care data and pave the way to better health care...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Audiology
Mary Anne Purtzer, Carol J Hermansen-Kobulnicky
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To investigate oncology professionals' perspectives about, experience with, and envisioned feasibility of incorporating patient self-monitoring as a patient-centered practice. 
. RESEARCH APPROACH: An interpretive, descriptive study.
. SETTING: Four health systems and five cancer centers in three states. 
. PARTICIPANTS: 38 nurses, nurse practitioners, oncologists, physician assistants, and radiation therapists...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Rabeea'h W Aslam, Vickie Bates, Yenal Dundar, Juliet Hounsome, Marty Richardson, Ashma Krishan, Rumona Dickson, Angela Boland, Eleanor Kotas, Joanne Fisher, Sudip Sikdar, Louise Robinson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a growing public health concern, and is one of the most distinctive characteristics of all dementias. The timely recognition of dementia syndromes can be beneficial, as some causes of dementia are treatable and are fully or partially reversible. Several automated cognitive assessment tools for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are now available. Proponents of these tests cite as benefits the tests' repeatability and robustness and the saving of clinicians' time...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Gayathri Sivakumar, Marie-Louise Mares
How do patients respond when advice on health websites differs from advice given by a doctor? To test effects of advice concordance, 418 participants 25-80 years old were randomly assigned to read real websites that varied in quality of information about diabetes: high (medically accurate and complete), medium (accurate but incomplete), and low (inaccurate). The control group read travel sites. Participants then watched a video of a physician making treatment recommendations for a diabetic patient, and indicated how they would respond if they were the patient...
October 21, 2016: Health Communication
Richard D Holmes
Data sourcesAMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, ScienceDirect, SocINDEX, ASSIA, Social Policy and Practice, HMIC (Health Management Information Consortium), The Knowledge Network, Intute, MedNar, Copac, EPPI-Centre, EThOS, OpenGrey and TRIP databases. Searches were limited to publications in the English language published after 1994.Study selectionStudies set in general practice that investigated promoting good oral health in adult or child patients were considered. Study quality was assessed using NICE public health guidance checklists...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Khaled Ahmed
Data sourcesMedline, Web of Science, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (LILACS), Brazilian Library in Dentistry (BBO), the Cochrane Library, abstracts of the annual conference of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), System for Information on Grey literature in Europe (SIGLE), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Fulltext database as well as the Periódicos Capes Theses, Current Controlled Trials, International Clinical trials registry platform, the ClinicalTrials...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Nikisha Mehta, Zoe Marshman
BackgroundThis systematic appraisal was conducted to determine if the Evidence-Based Dentistry Journal (EBDJ) acts as a reliable and contemporary source of knowledge for practitioners across all disciplines within dentistry.ObjectivesThe main objectives were to determine i) the year the articles were published and included in the EBDJ; ii) if the articles published covered all fields equally within dentistry; iii) the type of study design of the articles reported in the journal and; iv) the level of expertise of the writers of the commentaries...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
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