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Pontus Plavén-Sigray, Granville James Matheson, Petter Gustavsson, Per Stenkrona, Christer Halldin, Lars Farde, Simon Cervenka
BACKGROUND: Associations between dopamine receptor levels and pro- and antisocial behavior have previously been demonstrated in human subjects using positron emission tomography (PET) and self-rated measures of personality traits. So far, only one study has focused on the dopamine D1-receptor (D1-R), finding a positive correlation with the trait social desirability, which is characterized by low dominant and high affiliative behavior, while physical aggression showed a negative correlation...
2018: PloS One
Hongjia Zhang, Tan Sui, Enrico Salvati, Dominik Daisenberger, Alexander J G Lunt, Kai Soon Fong, Xu Song, Alexander M Korsunsky
High energy 2D X-ray powder diffraction experiments are widely used for lattice strain measurement. The 2D to 1D conversion of diffraction patterns is a necessary step used to prepare the data for full pattern refinement, but is inefficient when only peak centre position information is required for lattice strain evaluation. The multi-step conversion process is likely to lead to increased errors associated with the 'caking' (radial binning) or fitting procedures. A new method is proposed here that relies on direct Digital Image Correlation analysis of 2D X-ray powder diffraction patterns (XRD-DIC, for short)...
March 15, 2018: Materials
Paulina Duckic, Robert B Hayes
Buildup factors are dimensionless multiplicative factors required by the point kernel method to account for scattered radiation through a shielding material. The accuracy of the point kernel method is strongly affected by the correspondence of analyzed parameters to experimental configurations, which is attempted to be simplified here. The point kernel method has not been found to have widespread practical use for neutron shielding calculations due to the complex neutron transport behavior through shielding materials (i...
March 14, 2018: Health Physics
Frederic Strobl, Anita Anderl, Ernst Hk Stelzer
Diploid transgenic organisms are either hemi- or homozygous. Genetic assays are, therefore, required to identify the genotype. Our AGameOfClones vector concept uses two clearly distinguishable transformation markers embedded in interweaved, but incompatible Lox site pairs. Cre-mediated recombination leads to hemizygous individuals that carry only one marker. In the following generation, heterozygous descendants are identified by the presence of both markers and produce homozygous progeny that are selected by the lack of one marker...
March 15, 2018: ELife
Alborz Karimzadeh, Vanessa M Scarfone, Erika Varady, Connie Chao, Karin Grathwohl, John W Fathman, David A Fruman, Thomas Serwold, Matthew A Inlay
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the self-renewing multipotent progenitors to all blood cell types. Identification and isolation of HSCs for study has depended on the expression of combinations of surface markers on HSCs that reliably distinguish them from other cell types. However, the increasing number of markers required to isolate HSCs has made it tedious, expensive, and difficult for newcomers, suggesting the need for a simpler panel of HSC markers. We previously showed that phenotypic HSCs could be separated based on expression of CD11a and that only the CD11a negative fraction contained true HSCs...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Junxiang Ke, Lilin Yi, Guangqiong Xia, Weisheng Hu
For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we experimentally demonstrate a successful 30-Gb/s signal transmission of a duobinary message hidden in a chaotic optical carrier over 100-km fiber. Thanks to the duobinary modulation format with high spectral efficiency, the 30-Gb/s signal can be encrypted by a 10-GHz-wide chaotic carrier. A digital signal processing technique can be used to convert duobinary data into binary data on the receiver side. This proposal lowers the requirement for wideband chaos generation and synchronization in high-speed long-distance chaotic optical communications, and fiber dispersion compensation can also be simplified, which has potential to be used in high-speed long-distance secure optical communications...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Rihui Wu, Adrian Jarabo, Jinli Suo, Feng Dai, Yongdong Zhang, Qionghai Dai, Diego Gutierrez
Introducing polarization into transient imaging improves depth estimation in participating media, by discriminating reflective from scattered light transport and calculating depth from the former component only. Previous works have leveraged this approach under the assumption of uniform polarization properties. However, the orientation and intensity of polarization inside scattering media is nonuniform, both in the spatial and temporal domains. As a result of this simplifying assumption, the accuracy of the estimated depth worsens significantly as the optical thickness of the medium increases...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
A V Kalinovskiy, D A Rzaev, K Yoshimitsu
INTRODUCTION: Modern neurosurgical practice is impossible without access to various information sources. The use of MRI and MSCT data during surgery is an integral part of the neurosurgeon's daily practice. Devices capable of managing an image viewer system without direct contact with equipment simplify working in the operating room. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To test operation of a non-contact MRI and MSCT image viewer system in the operating room and to evaluate the system effectiveness...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Arezoo Mohammadi Gazestani, Samideh Khoei, Sepideh Khoee, Soraya Emamgholizadeh Minaei, Manijeh Motevalian
Magnetite nanographene oxide has exhibited great potential in drug delivery and photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer treatment. Here we developed 5-fluorouracil-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coated magnetite nanographene oxide (NGO-SPION-PLGA-5-Fu) to simplify combined PTT and chemotherapy in one complex. The nanocarrier was synthesized using a modified O1 /W1 /O2 /W2 multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method and was characterized for size, zeta potential, drug loading, in vitro and in vivo release...
March 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Fenhong Song, Dapeng Ju, Fangwei Gu, Yan Liu, Yuan Ji, Yulin Ren, Xiaocong He, Baoyong Sha, Ben Q Li, Qingzhen Yang
Electric field induced micro/nano patterns in thin polymer film, sometimes referred as electrohydrodynamic patterning, is a promising technique to fabricate micro/nano structures. Extensive attentions have been attracted due to its advantages in micro contact (easy demolding) and low cost. Although considerable work has been done on this technique, including both experimental and theoretical ones, there still appears a requirement for understanding the mechanism of electrohydrodynamic patterning. Thus we systematically studied the effect of different parameters on electrohydrodynamic patterning with a numerical phase field model...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Glen M Blake, Tanuj Puri, Musib Siddique, Michelle L Frost, Amelia E B Moore, Ignac Fogelman
Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with fluorine-18 labelled sodium fluoride ([18 F]NaF) allows the quantitative assessment of regional bone formation by measuring the plasma clearance of fluoride to bone at any site in the skeleton. Today, hybrid PET and computed tomography (CT) dual-modality systems (PET/CT) are widely available, and [18 F]NaF PET/CT offers a convenient non-invasive method of studying bone formation at the important osteoporotic fracture sites at the hip and spine, as well as sites of pure cortical or trabecular bone...
February 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Cynthia Wong, Michal E Pawlowski, Alessandra Forcucci, Catherine E Majors, Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Tomasz S Tkaczyk
Fluorescence microscopy can be a powerful tool for cell-based diagnostic assays; however, imaging can be time consuming and labor intensive to perform. Tunable systems give the ability to electronically focus at user selected depths inside an object volume and may simplify the opto-mechanical design of the imaging system. We present a prototype of a universal, tunable, miniature fluorescence microscope built from poly(methyl methacrylate) singlets that incorporates miniature, electrowetted lenses for electronic focusing...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Xuan Zhang, Xiaohan Sun
We propose a time division multiplexing passive optical network (TDM-PON) monitoring scheme based on the optical pulse width modulation (OPWM) by using a simple asymmetric loop (AL) located near the optical network unit (ONU). Various pulse widths can be easily obtained by configuring the appropriate length of the patchcord used to generate the path difference between two branches of a 1 × 2 splitter. Different wavelengths can be assigned to the same pulse width, which can further increase the network size...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stephen Smith, Neil Dalchau
Synthesizing a genetic network which generates stable Turing patterns is one of the great challenges of synthetic biology, but a significant obstacle is the disconnect between the mathematical theory and the biological reality. Current mathematical understanding of patterning is typically restricted to systems of two or three chemical species, for which equations are tractable. However, when models seek to combine descriptions of intercellular signal diffusion and intracellular biochemistry, plausible genetic networks can consist of dozens of interacting species...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Jon T Einarsson, Minna Willim, Sofia Ernestam, Tore Saxne, Pierre Geborek, Meliha C Kapetanovic
Objectives: The aims of this national study in Sweden of patients with RA were to: examine the prevalence of sustained remission (SR), that is, remission lasting for at least 6 months; compare the prevalence of SR in patients with early RA and established RA; study the timing of onset of and time spent in SR; and study possible predictors of SR. Methods: Adult patients with RA included in the Swedish Rheumatology Quality registry were studied. The registry was searched for patients fulfilling remission criteria: DAS28-ESR, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) and ACR/EULAR remission for at least 6 months...
March 12, 2018: Rheumatology
Belén Cotes, Mónica González, Emilio Benítez, Eva De Mas, Gemma Clemente-Orta, Mercedes Campos, Estefanía Rodríguez
The promotion of native vegetation as a habitat for natural enemies, which could increase their abundance and fitness, is especially useful in highly simplified settings such as Mediterranean greenhouse landscapes. Spiders as generalist predators may also be involved in intra-guild predation. However, the niche complementarity provided by spiders as a group means that increased spider diversity may facilitate complementary control actions. In this study, the interactions between spiders, the two major horticultural pests, Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis , and their naturally occurring predators and parasitoids were evaluated in a mix of 21 newly planted shrubs selected for habitat management in a highly disturbed horticultural system...
March 14, 2018: Insects
Moran N Cabili, Knox Carey, Stephanie O M Dyke, Anthony J Brookes, Marc Fiume, Francis Jeanson, Giselle Kerry, Alex Lash, Heidi Sofia, Dylan Spalding, Anne-Marie Tasse, Susheel Varma, Ravi Pandya
The volume of genomics and health data is growing rapidly, driven by sequencing for both research and clinical use. However, under current practices, the data is fragmented into many distinct datasets, and researchers must go through a separate application process for each dataset. This is time-consuming both for the researchers and the data stewards, and it reduces the velocity of research and new discoveries that could improve human health. We propose to simplify this process, by introducing a standard Library Card that identifies and authenticates researchers across all participating datasets...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Data
Safi Dokmak, Béatrice Aussilhou, Tiziana Marchese, Nizar Kardoun, François Cauchy, Anne Sophie Schneck, Olivier Soubrane
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be complicated by major vascular invasion, and resection can be beneficial in some patients.1 Some of these patients are traditionally operated under total vascular exclusion (TVE), refrigeration, extracorporeal circulatory bypass, and cardiac surgery, with high morbidity and mortality.2 However, HCC thrombi are not adherent to the venous wall, and with advances in surgical techniques, resection can be simplified and performed during short-duration TVE alone...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ana G Pérez, Lorenzo León, Carlos Sanz, Raúl de la Rosa
Olive growing is mainly based on traditional varieties selected by the growers across the centuries. The few attempts so far reported to obtain new varieties by systematic breeding have been mainly focused on improving the olive adaptation to different growing systems, the productivity and the oil content. However, the improvement of oil quality has rarely been considered as selection criterion and only in the latter stages of the breeding programs. Due to their health promoting and organoleptic properties, phenolic compounds are one of the most important quality markers for Virgin olive oil (VOO) although they are not commonly used as quality traits in olive breeding programs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
George Cătălin Marinescu, Roua-Gabriela Popescu, Anca Dinischiotu
Over 12% of the world's health resources are spent on treating diabetes, as high blood glucose is the third cause of mortality worldwide. Insulin resistance is the basis of the most common form of diabetes: type 2 diabetes. Recent animal studies report successful attempts at reversing type 2 diabetes by the administering of the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). However, the current high price of this molecule urges for more efficient and cost-effective production methods. This work proposes a method for purifying NMN by Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) on silica with a covalently attached coating of poly(2-hydroxyethyl aspartamide) (PolyHEA) stationary phase using an isocratic elution with a denaturing mobile phase (50 mM formic acid) from a complex molecular mixture such as a fermentation broth...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
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