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Wadim Bowl, Robert Knobloch, Silke Schweinfurth, Kerstin Holve, Knut Stieger, Birgit Lorenz
PURPOSE: To correlate visual field assessment with saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP) in children with ganglion cell loss due to anterior pathway pathologies resulting in hemianopic visual field defects measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS: 5 young (aged 3-6 years) and 5 adult patients with hemianopia, 10 healthy preschoolers (mean age 4.4 years), and 10 healthy adults (mean age 25.3 years) were tested with SVOP and OCT (focusing on the ganglion cell layer, GCL+)...
January 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
Kabilar Gunalan, Bryan Howell, Cameron C McIntyre
Medical imaging has played a major role in defining the general anatomical targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapies. However, specifics on the underlying brain circuitry that is directly modulated by DBS electric fields remain relatively undefined. Detailed biophysical modeling of DBS provides an approach to quantify the theoretical responses to stimulation at the cellular level, and has established a key role for axonal activation in the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS. Estimates of DBS-induced axonal activation can then be coupled with advances in defining the structural connectome of the human brain to provide insight into the modulated brain circuitry and possible correlations with clinical outcomes...
January 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Hyeong Jin Chun, Saemi Kim, Yong Duk Han, Dong Woo Kim, Ka Ram Kim, Hyo-Sop Kim, Jae-Ho Kim, Hyun C Yoon
Herein, we report an optical sensing platform for mercury ions (Hg2+) in water based on the integration of Hg2+-mediated thymine-thymine (T-T) stabilization, a biotinylated stem-loop DNA probe, and a streptavidin-modified retroreflective Janus particle (SA-RJP). Two oligonucleotide probes, including a stem-loop DNA probe and an assistant DNA probe, were utilized. In the absence of Hg2+, the assistant DNA probe does not hybridize with the stem-loop probe due to their T-T mismatch, so the surface-immobilized stem-loop DNA probe remains a closed hairpin structure...
January 6, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Milica Popovic, Elisa Mazzega, Barbara Toffoletto, Ario de Marco
BACKGROUND: The thorough understanding of the physiological and pathological processes mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs) is challenged by purification methods which are cumbersome, not reproducible, or insufficient to yield homogeneous material. Chromatography based on both ion-exchange and immune-capture can represent an effective method to improve EV purification and successive analysis. METHODS: Cell culture supernatant was used as a model sample for assessing the capacity of anion-exchange chromatography to separate distinct EV fractions and to isolate nanobodies by direct panning on whole EVs to recover binders specific for the native conformation of EV-surface epitopes and suitable to develop EV immune-capture reagents...
January 13, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
Erik I Tellgren, Andre Laestadius, Trygve Helgaker, Simen Kvaal, Andrew M Teale
We construct a density-functional formalism adapted to uniform external magnetic fields that is intermediate between conventional density functional theory and Current-Density Functional Theory (CDFT). In the intermediate theory, which we term linear vector potential-DFT (LDFT), the basic variables are the density, the canonical momentum, and the paramagnetic contribution to the magnetic moment. Both a constrained-search formulation and a convex formulation in terms of Legendre-Fenchel transformations are constructed...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Qianjun Liu, Di Chen, Jiyuan Wu, Guangcai Yin, Qintie Lin, Min Zhang, Huawen Hu
A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure was designed to extract pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables with a high percentage of water. It has not been used extensively for the extraction of phthalate esters from sediments, soils and sludges. In this work, this procedure was combined with gas chromatography with mass spectrometry to determine 16 selected phthalate esters in soil. The extraction efficiency of the samples was improved by ultrasonic extraction and dissolution of the soil samples in ultra-pure water, which promoted the dispersion of the samples...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Satyaprakash Nayak, Oliver Sander, Nidal Al-Huniti, Dinesh de Alwis, Anne Chain, Marylore Chenel, Soujanya Sunkaraneni, Shruti Agrawal, Neeraj Gupta, Sandra A G Visser
Quantitative pharmacology (QP) applications in translational medicine, drug-development, and therapeutic use were crowd-sourced by the ASCPT Impact and Influence initiative. Highlighted QP case studies demonstrated faster access to innovative therapies for patients through 1) rational dose selection for pivotal trials; 2) reduced trial-burden for vulnerable populations; or 3) simplified posology. Critical success factors were proactive stakeholder engagement, alignment on the value of model-informed approaches, and utilizing foundational clinical pharmacology understanding of the therapy...
January 13, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jacopo Olivieri, Immacolata Attolico, Roberta Nuccorini, Sara Pasquina Pascale, Martina Chiarucci, Monica Poiani, Paolo Corradini, Lucia Farina, Gianluca Gaidano, Luca Nassi, Simona Sica, Nicola Piccirillo, Pietro Enrico Pioltelli, Massimo Martino, Tiziana Moscato, Massimo Pini, Francesco Zallio, Fabio Ciceri, Sarah Marktel, Andrea Mengarelli, Pellegrino Musto, Saveria Capria, Francesco Merli, Katia Codeluppi, Giuseppe Mele, Francesco Lanza, Giorgina Specchia, Domenico Pastore, Giuseppe Milone, Francesco Saraceni, Elvira Di Nardo, Paolo Perseghin, Attilio Olivieri
Predicting mobilization failure before it starts may enable patient-tailored strategies. Although consensus criteria for predicted PM (pPM) are available, their predictive performance has never been measured on real data. We retrospectively collected and analyzed 1318 mobilization procedures performed for MM and lymphoma patients in the plerixafor era. In our sample, 180/1318 (13.7%) were PM. The score resulting from published pPM criteria had sufficient performance for predicting PM, as measured by AUC (0...
January 12, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Serge Mignani, João Rodrigues, Helena Tomas, Rachid Jalal, Parvinder Pal Singh, Jean-Pierre Majoral, Ram A Vishwakarma
During the past decade, decreasing the attrition rate of drug development candidates reaching the market has become one of the major challenges in pharmaceutical research and drug development (R&D). To facilitate the decision-making process, and to increase the probability of rapidly finding and developing high-quality compounds, a variety of multiparametric guidelines, also known as rules and ligand efficiency (LE) metrics, have been developed. However, what are the 'best' descriptors and how far can we simplify these drug-likeness prediction tools in terms of the numerous, complex properties that they relate to?...
January 9, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Weiwei Cheng, Da-Wen Sun, Hongbin Pu, Qingyi Wei
Near-infrared (NIR) spectra contain abundant data, heterospectral two-dimensional correlation (H2D-CS) analysis offers a good way to interpret these data. For the first time, H2D-CS was used to correlate the NIR hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data with mid-infrared spectra and to identify feature-related wavebands for developing models for monitoring the oxidative damage of pork myofibrils during frozen storage. The HSI images were acquired at frozen state without thawing and the oxidative damage of myofibrils was assessed by carbonyl content...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Janet K Sluggett, Esa Y H Chen, Jenni Ilomäki, Megan Corlis, Sarah N Hilmer, Jan Van Emden, Choon Ean Ooi, Kim-Huong Nguyen, Tracy Comans, Michelle Hogan, Tessa Caporale, Susan Edwards, Lyntara Quirke, Allan Patching, J Simon Bell
BACKGROUND: Complex medication regimens are highly prevalent in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Strategies to reduce unnecessary complexity may be valuable because complex medication regimens can be burdensome for residents and are costly in terms of nursing time. The aim of this study is to investigate application of a structured process to simplify medication administration in RACFs. METHODS: SImplification of Medications Prescribed to Long-tErm care Residents (SIMPLER) is a non-blinded, matched-pair, cluster randomised controlled trial of a single multidisciplinary intervention to simplify medication regimens...
January 12, 2018: Trials
Sergio Luis-Lima, Consolación García-Contreras, Marta Vázquez-Gómez, Susana Astiz, Fabiola Carrara, Flavio Gaspari, Natalia Negrín-Mena, Alejandro Jiménez-Sosa, Hugo Jiménez-Hernández, Antonio González-Bulnes, Esteban Porrini
There is no simple method to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in swine, an established model for studying renal disease. We developed a protocol to measure GFR in conscious swine by using the plasma clearance of iohexol. We used two groups, test and validation, with eight animals each. Ten milliliters of iohexol (6.47 g) was injected into the marginal auricular vein and blood samples (3 mL) were collected from the orbital sinus at different points after injection. GFR was determined using two models: two-compartment (CL2: all samples) and one-compartment (CL1: the last six samples)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christopher L Blackford, Eric G Dennis, Robert A Keyzers, Claudia Schueuermann, Robert D Trengove, Paul K Boss
A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented...
January 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Xiaolin Zhu, Kexin Zhang, Nan Lu, Yangyang Yu, Xing Yuan, Jiunian Guan
o-Chlorophenol (OCP) is a priority pollutant that poses serious health threats to the public. The following study designs a simple electrochemical system to monitor the concentration and toxicity of OCP. This system was primarily characterized by the integration of both physicochemical and biological monitoring procedures that had a synergistic effect between the functionalized carbon nanotubes and rhodamine B. This resulted in excellent electrocatalytic activities toward OCP and cellular purine bases. The peak current of OCP was linear with concentrations ranging from 0...
January 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Liang Xu, Deting Xue, Xiaoyi Lv
A backward ray-tracing method is proposed for aero-optics simulation. Different from forward tracing, the backward tracing direction is from the internal sensor to the distant target. Along this direction, the tracing in turn goes through the internal gas region, the aero-optics flow field, and the freestream. The coordinate value, the density, and the refractive index are calculated at each tracing step. A stopping criterion is developed to ensure the tracing stops at the outer edge of the aero-optics flow field...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
Jianjia Yi, Sawyer D Campbell, Rui Feng, Shah Nawaz Burokur, Douglas H Werner
Complex electromagnetic structures can be designed by exploiting the concept of spatial coordinate transformations. In this paper, we define a coordinate transformation scheme that enables one to taper the electric field between two waveguides of different cross-sections. The electromagnetic field launched from the wide input waveguide is compressed in the proposed field tapering device and guided into the narrow output waveguide. In closed rectangular waveguide configurations, the taper can further play the role of a mode selector due to the output waveguide's cut-off frequency...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
Jeroen Beeckman, Tzu-Hsuan Yang, Inge Nys, John Puthenparampil George, Tsung-Hsien Lin, Kristiaan Neyts
Electrically tunable lenses offer the possibility to control the focal distance by applying an electric field. Different liquid crystal tunable lenses have been demonstrated. In order to minimize lens aberrations, multi-electrode designs allow us to fine-tune the applied voltages for every possible focal distance. In this Letter, we provide a novel multi-electrode design in which only one lithography step is necessary, thereby offering a greatly simplified fabrication procedure compared to earlier proposed designs...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Andy Ying Guey Fuh, Yi-Lin Tsai, Ching-Han Yang, Shing Trong Wu
This Letter demonstrates optical vortex lattices based on holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) films. The fabrication method uses a phase-only reflective spatial light modulator with numerically calculated phase profiles loaded on it to simplify multi-helical-wave interference. The beam profiles of the diffraction beams are simulated using the Fourier transform and compared with experimental results. The topological charges of the 1st-order diffraction beams reconstructed from the HPDLC films are examined using a Michelson interferometer...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Ling-Qiang Meng, Kun-Hao Ji, Qing-Qing Kong, Zhi-Gang Han, Hua Shen, Ri-Hong Zhu
In this paper, a new method, which is based on reconstructing the original intensity distribution of a laser with images captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD) in two orthogonal directions, is proposed for suppressing the influence of CCD vertical blooming on the measurement of the laser beam quality factor (M2). A simplified theoretical model for the distribution of CCD blooming is also proposed. With the proposed method and model, the influence of CCD vertical blooming on the measurement of M2 is simulated...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Piotr L Makowski, Weronika Zaperty, Tomasz Kozacki
A new framework for in-plane transformations of digital holograms (DHs) is proposed, which provides improved control over basic geometrical features of holographic images reconstructed optically in full color. The method is based on a Fourier hologram equivalent of the adaptive affine transformation technique [Opt. Express18, 8806 (2010)OPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.18.008806]. The solution includes four elementary geometrical transformations that can be performed independently on a full-color 3D image reconstructed from an RGB hologram: (i) transverse magnification; (ii) axial translation with minimized distortion; (iii) transverse translation; and (iv) viewing angle rotation...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
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