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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351672/high-treatment-success-rate-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-myanmar-2012-2014-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Myat K Thu, Ajay M V Kumar, Kyaw T Soe, Saw Saw, Saw Thein, Zaw Mynit, Htet M W Maung, Si T Aung
Background: Since 2011, Myanmar has adopted domiciliary care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients and implemented several patient-support measures such as community-based directly observed treatment, nutritional support and financial incentives for patients and providers. We assessed treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered for treatment in the Yangon and Mandalay Regions of Myanmar during 2012-2014 and factors associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349098/comparison-of-hiv-testing-among-children-and-adults-with-tuberculosis-vietnam
#2
Tyson Volkmann, Binh Nguyen, Ebelechukwu G Anyalechi, Kimberly N Chapman Hedges, Ho Van Anh, Pham Quang Tue, Nguyen Viet Nhung, Eleanor S Click
HIV testing among persons with tuberculosis (TB) results in high-yield identification of persons infected with HIV. To evaluate differences in HIV testing among children versus adults with TB in Vietnam, we collected and analyzed age-disaggregated facility and aggregated provincial data from the National Tuberculosis Program. HIV testing was incompletely documented for >70% of children, whereas adult testing data were >90% complete. Standardized training of personnel for universal HIV testing and documentation for children with TB could improve HIV case-detection and permit linking of children with HIV to antiretroviral treatment to prevent morbidity and mortality...
December 2017: Journal of Tuberculosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348388/disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-an-indonesian-hiv-positive-patient-a-case-diagnosed-by-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology
#3
Nungki Anggorowati, Rita C Sulistyaningsih, Ahmad Ghozali, Yanri W Subronto
A 30-year-old Javanese-Indonesian man was admitted with complaints of 3 months persistent fever, weight loss, and fatigue. He had never known his past history of unprotected HIV until the admission. His only risk factor is unsafe sex. The patient seemed well nourished. Physical examination revealed blood pressure 100/60 mmHg, pulse 100 beats per minute, respiratory rate 20 times per minute, and temperature 38.8°C. Multiple cervical and inguinal lymphadenopathies were also found. Electrocardiogram showed anterolateral ischemic finding, whereas chest X-ray were normal...
October 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348383/improving-diagnostic-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hiv-patients-by-bronchoscopy-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Prayudi Santoso, Arto Y Soeroto, Rianita Juniati, Yovita Hartantri, Rudi Wisaksana, Bachti Alisjabana, Heda M Nataprawira, Ida Parwati
BACKGROUND: diagnostic of pulmonary TB in HIV patients is a problem due to non specific clinical features, or radiological appearance. HIV patients with CD4≤200 cells/mL infected with M. tuberculosis have less capacity in containing M. tuberculosis, developing granulomas, casseous necrosis, or cavities. This condition is caused by weakend inflammatory which later reduced sputum production and may cause false negative result. This study aimed to assess differences in the positivity level of acid fast bacilli (AFB) and cultures of M...
October 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346413/genetic-diversity-and-potential-routes-of-transmission-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-mozambique
#5
Adelina Machado, Teresa Rito, Solomon Ghebremichael, Nuelma Muhate, Gabriel Maxhuza, Custodia Macuamule, Ivania Moiane, Baltazar Macucule, Angelica Suzana Marranangumbe, Jorge Baptista, Joaquim Manguele, Tuija Koivula, Elizabeth Maria Streicher, Robin Mark Warren, Gunilla Kallenius, Paul van Helden, Margarida Correia-Neves
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346384/histoplasmosis-in-africa-an-emerging-or-a-neglected-disease
#6
REVIEW
Rita O Oladele, Olusola O Ayanlowo, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Histoplasmosis in Africa has markedly increased since the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic but is under-recognised. Pulmonary histoplasmosis may be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB). In the last six decades (1952-2017), 470 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported. HIV-infected patients accounted for 38% (178) of the cases. West Africa had the highest number of recorded cases with 179; the majority (162 cases) were caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. dubuosii (Hcd). From the Southern African region, 150 cases have been reported, and the majority (119) were caused by H...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343463/the-impact-of-mhealth-interventions-systematic-review-of-systematic-reviews
#7
REVIEW
Milena Soriano Marcolino, João Antonio Queiroz Oliveira, Marcelo D'Agostino, Antonio Luiz Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz Moreira Alkmim, David Novillo-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Mobile phone usage has been rapidly increasing worldwide. mHealth could efficiently deliver high-quality health care, but the evidence supporting its current effectiveness is still mixed. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of systematic reviews to assess the impact or effectiveness of mobile health (mHealth) interventions in different health conditions and in the processes of health care service delivery. METHODS: We used a common search strategy of five major scientific databases, restricting the search by publication date, language, and parameters in methodology and content...
January 17, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343268/time-homogeneous-markov-process-for-hiv-aids-progression-under-a-combination-treatment-therapy-cohort-study-south-africa
#8
Claris Shoko, Delson Chikobvu
BACKGROUND: As HIV enters the human body, its main target is the CD4 cell which it turns into a factory that produces millions of other HIV particles. These HIV particles target new CD4 cells resulting in the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. A continuous depletion of CD4 cells results in opportunistic infections, for example tuberculosis (TB). The purpose of this study is to model and describe the progression of HIV/AIDS disease in an individual on antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow up using a continuous time homogeneous Markov process...
January 18, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341953/lethality-among-patients-with-hiv-aids-monitored-in-the-clinic-of-infectious-diseases-in-st-george-university-hospital-plovdiv-2010-2014
#9
Mariyana V Stoycheva, Nikolay T Vatev, Vania B Georgieva, Antonina P Dineva, Maria V Atanasova, Tatiana A Popova
BACKGROUND: The introduction of complex antiretroviral therapy has resulted in signifi cant decrease in the mortality rate of HIV positive patients, but it still remains unacceptably high, especially in some groups of patients. AIM: To investigate the death rate in patients with HIV/AIDS, lethality and mortality in co-infection, and the most common causes and predictors of fatal outcome, focused on early diagnosis and appropriate therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 53 deceased patients with HIV/AIDS, monitored at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in St George University Hospital, Plovdiv between 01...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340585/spinal-tuberculosis-clinicoradiological-findings-in-274-patients
#10
Suzaan Marais, Izanne Roos, Ayesha Mitha, Sepelong J Mabusha, Vinod Patel, Ahmed I Bhigjee
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of myelopathy and radiculopathy in high TB/HIV prevalent settings. However, a paucity of publications exists on the spectrum of neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of spinal tuberculosis in these populations. Methods: A retrospective study of adults with spinal tuberculosis conducted at a referral center for patients with spinal disease without bony involvement on plain film radiography in South Africa...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339504/complement-pathway-gene-activation-and-rising-circulating-immune-complexes-characterize-early-disease-in-hiv-associated-tuberculosis
#11
Hanif Esmail, Rachel P Lai, Maia Lesosky, Katalin A Wilkinson, Christine M Graham, Stuart Horswell, Anna K Coussens, Clifton E Barry, Anne O'Garra, Robert J Wilkinson
The transition between latent and active tuberculosis (TB) occurs before symptom onset. Better understanding of the early events in subclinical disease will facilitate the development of diagnostics and interventions that improve TB control. This is particularly relevant in the context of HIV-1 coinfection where progression of TB is more likely. In a recent study using [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) on 35 asymptomatic, HIV-1-infected adults, we identified 10 participants with radiographic evidence of subclinical disease, significantly more likely to progress than the 25 participants without...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338805/risk-factors-for-infectiousness-of-patients-with-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Y A Melsew, T N Doan, M Gambhir, A C Cheng, E McBryde, J M Trauer
We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies assessing tuberculosis (TB) patient-related risk factors for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Meta-analyses were conducted for sputum smear-positivity, lung cavitation and HIV seropositivity of index patients with both crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) pooled using random effect models. Thirty-seven studies were included in the review. We found that demographic characteristics such as age and sex were not significant risk factors, while behaviours such as smoking and alcohol intake were associated with infectiousness although inconsistently...
January 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338706/miliary-tuberculosis-with-co-existing-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-non-hiv-patient-without-underlying-diseases-a-case-report
#13
Toyomitsu Sawai, Takumi Nakao, Satoru Koga, Shotaro Ide, Sumako Yoshioka, Nobuko Matsuo, Hiroshi Mukae
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis and cryptococcosis co-infection usually occurs in immunosuppressed patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. However, there are few reports about such co-infection in non-HIV patients without underlying diseases. Here, we report a case of miliary tuberculosis with co-existing pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-HIV patient without underlying diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old Asian female presented to our hospital with complaints of a 1-week history of abdominal pain and appetite loss...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334886/factors-associated-with-recent-unsuppressed-viral-load-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-care-on-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#14
D Joseph Davey, Z Abrahams, M Feinberg, M Prins, C Serrao, B Medeossi, E Darkoh
Unsuppressed viral load (VL) in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) occurs when treatment fails to suppress a person's VL and is associated with decreased survival and increased HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with unsuppressed VL (VL > 400 copies/ml) in patients currently in care on first-line ART for ≥ 6 months attending South African public healthcare facilities. We analysed electronic medical records of ART patients with a VL result on record who started ART between January 2004 and April 2016 from 271 public health facilities...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334197/increased-non-aids-mortality-among-persons-with-aids-defining-events-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#15
April C Pettit, Mark J Giganti, Suzanne M Ingle, Margaret T May, Bryan E Shepherd, Michael J Gill, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Sophie Abgrall, Michael S Saag, Julia Del Amo, Amy C Justice, Jose M Miro, Matthias Cavasinni, François Dabis, Antonella D Monforte, Peter Reiss, Jodie Guest, David Moore, Leah Shepherd, Niels Obel, Heidi M Crane, Colette Smith, Ramon Teira, Robert Zangerle, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Timothy R Sterling
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: We included HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who initiated ART from 1996 to 2014. Causes of death were assigned using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332654/evaluation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tubercular-lymphadenitis-a-pilot-study
#16
Baijayantimala Mishra, Vinaykumar Hallur, Bijayini Behera, C Preetam, Priti Nanda Mishra, Jyotirmayee Turuk, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra
Tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLA) contributes to 30-40% of extrapulmonary TB cases in the immunocompetent individuals and 40-50% in people with HIV. Current diagnostic methods for TBLA like Gene-Xpert or PCR are costly and conventional methods like fine needle aspiration cytology, histopathology lack sensitivity and specificity. Culture which is considered as gold standard require high turnaround time. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been developed as a novel technique for nucleic acid amplification and has shown promising results in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332641/epidemiological-paradigm-tuberculosis-in-hiv-diabetes-and-smoking-in-north-east-india-an-impact-greater-than-sum-of-its-parts
#17
EDITORIAL
Lalit Kant, V K Arora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332619/clinical-characteristics-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-infections-in-bamako-mali
#18
B Kone, Y S Sarro, M Maiga, M Sanogo, A M Somboro, B Diarra, A C G Togo, N Coulibaly, B P P Dembele, D Goita, B Baya, A Kone, S Diabaté, M A Polis, M Belson, S Dao, S Orsega, C J Achenbach, R L Murphy, S Diallo, S Siddiqui
The global spread of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may be due to HIV/AIDS and other environmental factors. The symptoms of NTM and tuberculosis (TB) disease are indistinguishable, but their treatments are different. Lack of research on the epidemiology of NTM infections has led to underestimation of its prevalence within TB endemic countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of pulmonary NTM in Bamako. A cross-sectional study which include 439 suspected cases of pulmonary TB...
January 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330673/vacuum-assisted-closure-therapy-of-paradoxical-reaction-in-tuberculous-lymphadenopathy-caused-by-mycobacterium-africanum
#19
H F Geerdes-Fenge, P Pongratz, J Liese, E C Reisinger
A 26-year-old HIV-negative male from Ghana was treated for cervical, intrathoracic and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculous hepatitis. Penetration of the thoracic trachea by a mediastinal lymph node had caused bronchomucosal TB. Sputum culture grew M. africanum, sensitive to all first-line antituberculous drugs. Four weeks after the beginning of directly observed treatment with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, the right cervical lymph node increased in size, liquefied and caused a spontaneous fistula...
January 12, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330384/detection-of-apparent-cell-free-m-tuberculosis-dna-from-plasma
#20
E S Click, W Murithi, G S Ouma, K McCarthy, M Willby, S Musau, H Alexander, E Pevzner, J Posey, K P Cain
New diagnostics are needed to improve clinicians' ability to detect tuberculosis (TB) disease in key populations such as children and persons living with HIV and to rapidly detect drug resistance. Circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in plasma is a diagnostic target in new obstetric and oncologic applications, but its utility for diagnosing TB is not known. Here we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA can be detected in plasma of persons with sputum smear-positive TB, even in the absence of mycobacteremia...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
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