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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146608/closing-the-gap-in-surveillance-of-tuberculosis-and-hiv-co-infection-a-european-perspective-on-the-need-for-clinician-public-health-alliances
#1
EDITORIAL
Marieke J van der Werf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Masoud Dara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145454/reduction-of-hiv-associated-excess-mortality-by-antiretroviral-treatment-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-kenya
#2
Dickens O Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Kevin P Cain, Faith Ngari, Enos O Masini, Martien W Borgdorff
BACKGROUND: Mortality from TB continues to be a global public health challenge. TB ranks alongside Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as the leading infectious causes of death globally. HIV is a major driver of TB related morbidity and mortality while TB is the leading cause of mortality among people living with HIV/AIDS. We sought to determine excess mortality associated with HIV and the effect of antiretroviral therapy on reducing mortality among tuberculosis patients in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of Kenya national tuberculosis program data of patients enrolled from 2013 through 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141915/laboratory-screening-for-children-entering-foster-care
#4
Mary V Greiner, Sarah J Beal, Katie Nause, Mary Allen Staat, Judith W Dexheimer, Philip V Scribano
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of medical illness detected by laboratory screening in children entering foster care in a single, urban county. METHODS: All children entering foster care in a single county in Ohio were seen at a consultation foster care clinic and had laboratory screening, including testing for infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and tuberculosis as well as for hemoglobin and lead levels. RESULTS: Over a 3-year period (2012-2015), laboratory screening was performed on 1977 subjects entering foster care in a consultative foster care clinic...
November 15, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141727/point-of-care-ultrasound-for-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-india-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-presumptive-tuberculosis-patients
#5
Stefan F Weber, Kavitha Saravu, Tom Heller, Rajagopal Kadavigere, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Stephan Gehring, Sabine Bélard, And Pocus Eti Study Group
Diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated EPTB is applied in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed at evaluating the applicability of POCUS for diagnosing EPTB in HIV-positive and HIV-negative presumptive tuberculosis (TB) patients in India, a country of moderate relative TB and HIV burden. Presumptive TB patients at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India, prospectively underwent POCUS evaluating for pericardial, pleural and ascitic effusion, abdominal lymphadenopathy, and hepatic and splenic microabscesses...
October 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140946/comparison-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-with-tuberculin-skin-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-children
#6
Walter Dehority, Rolando M Viani, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Graciano Lopez, Stephen A Spector
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is facilitated by tuberculin skin testing (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays such as the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube (QTF-GIT) assays. Limited data exist on the utility of interferon-gamma release assays in HIV-infected children, which may be falsely negative due to immunosuppression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing TST to QTF-GIT for the diagnosis of suspected LTBI was performed in children in Tijuana, Mexico, and in San Diego, California...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140933/t-spot-tb%C3%A2-performance-in-routine-pediatric-practice-in-a-low-tb-burden-setting
#7
Anna M Mandalakas, Heather Y Highsmith, Nadine M Harris, Anna Pawlicka, H Lester Kirchner
BACKGROUND: The T-SPOT.TB, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), is an indirect test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Due to sparse and conflicting evidence, IGRA use is limited in young and HIV-infected children. We determined the prevalence of invalid, borderline, positive, and negative results and associations with key demographic variables during routine pediatric use in a TB low-burden setting. METHODS: For pediatric samples received at Oxford Diagnostic Laboratories from 2010-2015, the associations between initial test outcome and demographics were estimated by bivariate analysis and logistic regression...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138300/high-zika-virus-seroprevalence-in-salvador-northeastern-brazil-limits-the-potential-for-further-outbreaks
#8
Eduardo Martins Netto, Andres Moreira-Soto, Celia Pedroso, Christoph Höser, Sebastian Funk, Adam J Kucharski, Alexandra Rockstroh, Beate M Kümmerer, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Estela Luz, Sara Nunes Vaz, Juarez Pereira Dias, Fernanda Anjos Bastos, Renata Cabral, Thomas Kistemann, Sebastian Ulbert, Xavier de Lamballerie, Thomas Jaenisch, Oliver J Brady, Christian Drosten, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
During 2015 to 2016, Brazil reported more Zika virus (ZIKV) cases than any other country, yet population exposure remains unknown. Serological studies of ZIKV are hampered by cross-reactive immune responses against heterologous viruses. We conducted serosurveys for ZIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 633 individuals prospectively sampled during 2015 to 2016, including microcephaly and non-microcephaly pregnancies, HIV-infected patients, tuberculosis patients, and university staff in Salvador in northeastern Brazil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and plaque reduction neutralization tests...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137626/treatment-outcomes-of-mdr-tuberculosis-patients-in-brazil-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#9
Mayara Lisboa Bastos, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Geisa Fregona, Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Adelmo Inácio Bertolde, Eliana Zandonade, Mauro N Sanchez, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo, Afrânio Kritski, Anete Trajman, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST) are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting...
November 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136014/treatment-guidelines-and-early-loss-from-care-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Ingrid T Katz, Richard Kaplan, Garrett Fitzmaurice, Dominick Leone, David R Bangsberg, Linda-Gail Bekker, Catherine Orrell
BACKGROUND: South Africa has undergone multiple expansions in antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility from an initial CD4+ threshold of ≤200 cells/μl to providing ART for all people living with HIV (PLWH) as of September 2016. We evaluated the association of programmatic changes in ART eligibility with loss from care, both prior to ART initiation and within the first 16 weeks of starting treatment, during a period of programmatic expansion to ART treatment at CD4+ ≤ 350 cells/μl...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135655/neutrophil-activation-and-enhanced-release-of-granule-products-in-hiv-tb-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome
#11
Justine K Nakiwala, Naomi F Walker, Collin R Diedrich, William Worodria, Graeme Meintjes, Robert J Wilkinson, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Robert Colebunders, Luc Kestens, Katalin A Wilkinson, David M Lowe
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) remains incompletely understood. Neutrophils are implicated in tuberculosis pathology but detailed investigations in TB-IRIS are lacking. We sought to further explore the biology of TB-IRIS and in particular the role of neutrophils. SETTING: Two observational, prospective cohort studies in HIV/TB co-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy, one to analyze gene expression and subsequently one to explore neutrophil biology...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133560/levofloxacin-population-pharmacokinetics-in-south-african-children-treated-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#12
Paolo Denti, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Heather R Draper, Lubbe Wiesner, Jana Winckler, Stephanie Thee, Kelly E Dooley, Rada M Savic, Helen M McIlleron, H Simon Schaaf, Anneke C Hesseling
Background: Levofloxacin is increasingly used in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). There are limited paediatric pharmacokinetic data to inform dose selection for children.Methods: Children routinely receiving levofloxacin (250 mg adult tablets) for MDR-TB prophylaxis or disease in Cape Town, South Africa, underwent pharmacokinetic sampling following a 15 or 20 mg/kg dose, given as whole tablet(s) or crushed, orally, or by nasogastric tube. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-linear mixed effects modelling...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133558/pharmacokinetics-and-drug-drug-interactions-of-lopinavir-ritonavir-administered-with-first-and-second-line-antituberculosis-drugs-in-hiv-infected-children-treated-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#13
Louvina E van der Laan, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, H Simon Schaaf, Tjokosela Tikiso, Lubbe Wiesner, Mine de Kock, Jana Winckler, Jennifer Norman, Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti, Anneke C Hesseling
Background Lopinavir/ritonavir forms the backbone of current first-line antiretroviral regimens in young HIV-infected children. As multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) frequently occurs in young children in high-burden TB settings, it is important to identify potential interactions between MDR-TB treatment and lopinavir/ritonavir. We describe the pharmacokinetics of and potential drug-drug interactions between lopinavir/ritonavir and routine drugs used for MDR-TB treatment in HIV-infected children.Methods A combined population pharmacokinetic model was developed to jointly describe the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir and ritonavir in 32 HIV-infected children (16 on MDR-TB treatment with combinations of high-dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, ethionamide, terizidone, a fluoroquinolone, and amikacin: and 16 without TB), who were established on a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing antiretroviral regimen...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132418/indoor-air-pollution-from-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-solid-fuels-and-kerosene-in-homes-with-active-tuberculosis-disease-in-south-africa
#14
Jessica L Elf, Onyinyechi Eke, Modiehi Rakgokong, Ebrahim Variava, Yudesh Baliram, Katlego Motlhaoleng, Limakatso Lebina, Adrienne E Shapiro, Patrick N Breysse, Jonathan E Golub, Neil Martinson
OBJECTIVES: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), use of solid fuels, and kerosene may play an important role in perpetuating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) from these sources in homes of someone with TB in a high HIV-prevalence setting. A convenience sample of homes and household members participating in an ongoing active case-finding study in Matlosana district townships surrounding Klerksdorp, South Africa were included...
November 13, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132400/hospitalization-causes-and-outcomes-in-hiv-patients-in-the-late-antiretroviral-era-in-colombia
#15
María Fernanda Álvarez Barreneche, Carlos Andrés Restrepo Castro, Alicia Hidrón Botero, Juan Pablo Villa Franco, Ivan Mauricio Trompa Romero, Laura Restrepo Carvajal, Alejandro Eusse García, Adriana Ocampo Mesa, Lina María Echeverri Toro, Glenys Patricia Porras Fernández de Castro, Jaime Mauricio Ramírez Rivera, Carlos Andrés Agudelo Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the natural history of HIV-infection: the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) has decreased and mortality associated to HIV has improved dramatically. The reasons for hospitalization have changed; OIs are no longer the most common reason for admission. This study describes the patient population, admission diagnosis and hospital course of HIV patients in Colombia in the ART era. METHODS: Patients admitted with HIV/AIDS at six hospitals in Medellin, Colombia between August 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015 were included...
November 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132380/addressing-challenges-in-scaling-up-tb-and-hiv-treatment-integration-in-rural-primary-healthcare-clinics-in-south-africa-suthi-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-protocol
#16
Kogieleum Naidoo, Santhanalakshmi Gengiah, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Nesri Padayatchi, Pierre Barker, Andrew Nunn, Priashni Subrayen, Salim S Abdool Karim
BACKGROUND: A large and compelling clinical evidence base has shown that integrated TB and HIV services leads to reduction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and tuberculosis (TB)-associated mortality and morbidity. Despite official policies and guidelines recommending TB and HIV care integration, its poor implementation has resulted in TB and HIV remaining the commonest causes of death in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. This study aims to reduce mortality due to TB-HIV co-infection through a quality improvement strategy for scaling up of TB and HIV treatment integration in rural primary healthcare clinics in South Africa...
November 13, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132287/a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-barriers-to-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-among-children-2-to-18-months-of-age-in-swaziland
#17
Charisse V Ahmed, Pauline Jolly, Luz Padilla, Musa Malinga, Chantal Harris, Nobuhle Mthethwa, Inessa Ba, Amy Styles, Sarah Perry, Raina Brooks, Florence Naluyinda-Kitabire, Makhosini Mamba, Peter Preko
HIV/AIDS remains one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years old in Swaziland. Although studies have shown that early initiation of infants and children diagnosed with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly reduces mortality, many children do not initiate ART until the later stages of disease. This study was designed to collect qualitative data from mothers and caregivers of HIV-positive children to identify the barriers to ART initiation. Focus group discussion (FGD) sessions were conducted in siSwati between July and September 2014 among caregivers of aged children 2-18 months in Swaziland who did or did not initiate ART between January 2011 and December 2012 after HIV DNA PCR-positive diagnosis of the infants...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132283/predictors-of-survival-among-hiv-positive-children-on-art-in-swaziland
#18
Patrick Shabangu, Andy Beke, Samuel Manda, Nobuhle Mthethwa
The objective of the study was to determine predictors of survival among HIV-positive children (<15 years) in Swaziland. A retrospective cohort analysis of medical records for 4 167 children living with HIV who were initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2004 and 2008, and followed up until 2014 was conducted in clinical settings at 36 health facilities. The Kaplan Meier Estimator, signed-ranks test, and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were applied to determine survival probabilities, significant difference among stratified survival functions and adjusted hazard ratios respectively...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126226/optimizing-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-hiv-infected-inpatients-meeting-the-criteria-of-seriously-ill-in-the-who-algorithm
#19
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Molebogeng X Rangaka, Mark P Nicol, Andre P Kengne, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: The WHO algorithm for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in seriously ill HIV-infected patients lacks a firm evidence base. We aimed to develop a clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and to determine the diagnostic utility of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in seriously ill HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study among HIV-infected inpatients with any cough duration and WHO-defined danger signs. Culture-positive tuberculosis from any site was the reference standard...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122384/strengthening-global-vaccine-access-for-adolescents-and-adults
#20
REVIEW
Angeline Nanni, Stefanie Meredith, Stephanie Gati, Karin Holm, Tom Harmon, Ann Ginsberg
Global immunization efforts to date have heavily focused on infants and children, with noted success on public health. Healthy adolescents and adults contribute to the economic growth and development of countries but efforts to ensure vaccine coverage for these groups receive inadequate global attention and resources. Emerging epidemics for a number of infectious diseases including Ebola, Zika, dengue, malaria and the continuing epidemics of tuberculosis and several sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, HPV and Hepatitis B, have high incidence and prevalence in adolescents and adults...
November 6, 2017: Vaccine
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