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Motor neuron development

Yassine Ait-Bali, Saadia Ba-M'hamed, Mohammed Bennis
In the present work, we investigated developmental toxicity of Paraquat (PQ), from the 1st or 6th day of mating and throughout the gestation period. We have examined several parameters, including toxicity indices, reproductive performance, sensorimotor development, as well as anxiety and cognitive performance of the offspring. Our results showed that exposure to 20mg/kg of Paraquat during the first days of pregnancy completely prevents pregnancy in treated mice, but from the 6th day of pregnancy, an alteration in fertility and reproductive parameters was observed...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Neila Maria R de Lima, Emerson de O Ferreira, Mara Yone S D Fernandes, Francisco Arnaldo V de Lima, Kelly Rose T Neves, Marta Regina S do Carmo, Geanne M de Andrade
Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of ischemic brain damage. Astrocyte activation promotes the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α and iNOS. Eventually, neuronal death occurs, leading to the development of motor and memory deficits in patients. Boldine is the main alkaloid in the leaves and bark of the Peumus boldus Molina, and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of boldine on neuroinflammation and memory deficits induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) in mice...
October 19, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Laurence D Picton, Keith T Sillar
Dopamine plays important roles in the development and modulation of motor control circuits. Here we show that dopamine exerts potent effects on the central pattern generator circuit controlling locomotory swimming in post-embryonic Xenopus tadpoles. Dopamine (0.5-100 μM) reduced fictive swim bout occurrence and caused both spontaneous and evoked episodes to become shorter, slower and weaker. The D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole mimicked this repertoire of inhibitory effects on swimming, whilst the D4 receptor antagonist, L745,870, had the opposite effects...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Paulo Victor Sgobbi de Souza, Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto, Flávio Moura Rezende, Acary Souza Bulle Oliveira
Motor neuron disease is one of the major groups of neurodegenerative diseases, mainly represented by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite wide genetic and biochemical data regarding its pathophysiological mechanisms, motor neuron disease develops under a complex network of mechanisms not restricted to the unique functions of the alpha motor neurons but which actually involve diverse functions of glial cell interaction. This review aims to expose some of the leading roles of glial cells in the physiological mechanisms of neuron-glial cell interactions and the mechanisms related to motor neuron survival linked to glial cell functions...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Yasuyuki Osanai, Takeshi Shimizu, Takuma Mori, Yumiko Yoshimura, Nobuhiko Hatanaka, Atsushi Nambu, Yoshitaka Kimori, Shinsuke Koyama, Kenta Kobayashi, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Oligodendrocytes myelinate neuronal axons during development and increase conduction velocity of neuronal impulses in the central nervous system. Neuronal axons extend from multiple brain regions and pass through the white matter; however, whether oligodendrocytes ensheath a particular set of axons or do so randomly within the mammalian brain remains unclear. We developed a novel method to visualize individual oligodendrocytes and axon derived from a particular brain region in mouse white matter using a combinational injection of attenuated rabies virus and adeno-associated virus...
October 19, 2016: Glia
Lovish Marwaha, Yashika Bansal, Raghunath Singh, Priyanka Saroj, Rupinder Kaur Sodhi, Anurag Kuhad
TRP channels have been discovered as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons involved in the detection of noxious stimuli. Desensitization of TRPV1 located on dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia exhibits analgesic effect and makes it potential therapeutic target for treatment of neuropathic pain. With this background, the present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of niflumic acid, a TRPV1 modulator, on stavudine (STV)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Stavudine (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via tail vein in rats to induce neuropathic pain...
October 18, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Heiko Braak, Albert C Ludolph, Manuela Neumann, John Ravits, Kelly Del Tredici
Two nerve cells types, Betz cells in layer Vb of the primary motor neocortex and α-motoneurons of the lower brainstem and spinal cord, become involved at the beginning of the pathological cascade underlying sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS). In both neuronal types, the cell nuclei forfeit their normal (non-phosphorylated) expression of the 43-kDa transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43). Here, we present initial evidence that in α-motoneurons the loss of normal nuclear TDP-43 expression is followed by the formation of phosphorylated TDP-43 aggregates (pTDP-43) within the cytoplasm, whereas in Betz cells, by contrast, the loss of normal nuclear TDP-43 expression remains mostly unaccompanied by the development of cytoplasmic aggregations...
October 18, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
Cinzia Nasuti, Gloria Brunori, Piera Eusepi, Lisa Marinelli, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Rosita Gabbianelli
INTRODUCTION: Oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein changes, mitochondrial complex I defects and dopamine loss, observed in the striatum of rats exposed to the pesticide permethrin in early life, could represent neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, an animal model of PD should also fulfill criteria of face and predictive validities. This study was designed to: 1) verify dopaminergic status in the striatum and substantia nigra pars compacta; 2) recognize non-motor symptoms; 3) investigate the time-course development of motor disabilities; 4) assess L-Dopa effectiveness on motor symptoms in rats previously exposed to permethrin in early life...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Stefano Schiaffino, Bert Blaauw, Kenneth A Dyar
The circadian oscillations of muscle genes are controlled either directly by the intrinsic muscle clock or by extrinsic factors, such as feeding, hormonal signals, or neural influences, which are in turn regulated by the central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. A unique feature of circadian rhythms in skeletal muscle is motor neuron-dependent contractile activity, which can affect the oscillation of a number of muscle genes independently of the muscle clock. The role of the intrinsic muscle clock has been investigated using different Bmal1 knockout (KO) models...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Mara Cavallin, Emilia K Bijlsma, Adrienne El Morjani, Sébastien Moutton, Els A J Peeters, Camille Maillard, Jean Michel Pedespan, Anne-Marie Guerrot, Valérie Drouin-Garaud, Christine Coubes, David Genevieve, Christine Bole-Feysot, Cecile Fourrage, Julie Steffann, Nadia Bahi-Buisson
Kinesins play a critical role in the organization and dynamics of the microtubule cytoskeleton, making them central players in neuronal proliferation, neuronal migration, and postmigrational development. Recently, KIF2A mutations were identified in cortical malformation syndromes associated with microcephaly. Here, we detected two de novo p.Ser317Asn and p.His321Pro mutations in KIF2A in two patients with lissencephaly and microcephaly. In parallel, we re-evaluated the two previously reported cases showing de novo mutations of the same residues...
October 17, 2016: Neurogenetics
Thomas Broggini, Lisa Schnell, Ali Ghoochani, José María Mateos, Michael Buchfelder, Kurt Wiendieck, Michael K Schäfer, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai E Savaskan
The Plasticity Related Gene family covers five, brain-specific, transmembrane proteins (PRG1-5, also termed LPPR1-5) that operate in neuronal plasticity during development, aging and brain trauma. Here we investigated the role of the PRG family on axonal and filopodia outgrowth. Comparative analysis revealed the strongest outgrowth induced by PRG3 (LPPR1). During development, PRG3 is ubiquitously located at the tip of neuronal processes and at the plasma membrane and declines with age. In utero electroporation of PRG3 induced dendritic protrusions and accelerated spine formations in cortical pyramidal neurons...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Luis R Hernandez-Miranda, Thomas Müller, Carmen Birchmeier
Neurons of the dorsal hindbrain and spinal cord are central in receiving, processing and relaying sensory perception and participate in the coordination of sensory-motor output. Numerous cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal development in both regions of the nervous system are shared. We discuss here the mechanisms that generate neuronal diversity in the dorsal spinal cord and hindbrain, and emphasize similarities in patterning and neuronal specification. Insight into the developmental mechanisms has provided tools that can help to assign functions to small subpopulations of neurons...
October 11, 2016: Developmental Biology
Pil Sung Gu, Minho Moon, Jin Gyu Choi, Myung Sook Oh
Mulberry fruit, which has been long used in traditional oriental medicine, was reported to ameliorate motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neuronal degeneration via antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). More than 95% of PD patients exhibit nonmotor problems such as olfactory dysfunction and gastrointestinal constipation, which are generally considered to be early symptoms of PD. However, few studies have actually examined potential drugs to treat early PD symptoms...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Bumpei Samata, Daisuke Doi, Kaneyasu Nishimura, Tetsuhiro Kikuchi, Akira Watanabe, Yoshimasa Sakamoto, Jungo Kakuta, Yuichi Ono, Jun Takahashi
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, iPSC-derived donor cells inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. To eliminate these unwanted cells, cell sorting using antibodies for specific markers such as CORIN or ALCAM has been developed, but neither marker is specific for ventral midbrain. Here we employ a double selection strategy for cells expressing both CORIN and LMX1A::GFP, and report a cell surface marker to enrich mDA progenitors, LRTM1...
October 14, 2016: Nature Communications
Henrik Gezelius, Guillermina Lopez-Bendito
The thalamus is a central structure of the brain, primarily recognized for the relay of incoming sensory and motor information to the cerebral cortex but also key in high order intracortical communication. It consists of glutamatergic projection neurons organized in several distinct nuclei, each having a stereotype connectivity pattern and functional roles. In the adult these nuclei can be appreciated by architectural boundaries, though their developmental origin and specification is only recently beginning to be revealed...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Paul Strecker, Susann Ludewig, Marco Rust, Tabea A Mundinger, Andreas Görlich, Elisa G Krächan, Christina Mehrfeld, Joachim Herz, Martin Korte, Suzanne Y Guénette, Stefan Kins
The FE65 adaptor proteins (FE65, FE65L1 and FE65L2) bind proteins that function in diverse cellular pathways and are essential for specific biological processes. Mice lacking both FE65 and FE65L1 exhibit ectopic neuronal positioning in the cortex and muscle weakness. p97FE65-KO mice, expressing a shorter FE65 isoform able to bind amyloid precursor protein family members (APP, APLP1, APLP2), develop defective long-term potentiation (LTP) and aged mice display spatial learning and memory deficits that are absent from young mice...
May 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Alex S Mauss, Alexander Borst
Drosophila has emerged as an important model organism for the study of the neural basis of behavior. Its main asset is the experimental accessibility of identified neurons by genetic manipulation and physiological recordings. Drosophila therefore offers the opportunity to reach an integrative understanding of the development and neural underpinnings of behavior at all processing stages, from sensing to motor control, in a single species. Here, we will provide an account of the procedures involved in recording the electrical potential of individual neurons in the visual system of adult Drosophila using the whole-cell patch-clamp method...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jess E Reynolds, Sophie Kerrigan, Catherine Elliott, Brendan S Lay, Melissa K Licari
It has been hypothesized that deficits in imitation, linked to abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS), may contribute to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The authors aimed to examine imitation of complex novel postures and sequences of gestures in children with and without probable DCD (pDCD), using the postural praxis and sequencing praxis subtests of the Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (Ayres, 1989 ). Participants were 29 boys with pDCD between 6...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
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