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Motor neuron development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#1
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666910/ontogeny-and-development-of-the-tritocerebral-commissure-giant-tcg-an-identified-neuron-in-the-brain-of-the-grasshopper-schistocerca-gregaria
#2
George Stephen Boyan, Leslie Williams, Tobias Müller, Jonathan P Bacon
The tritocerebral commissure giant (TCG) of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria is one of the best anatomically and physiologically described arthropod brain neurons. A member of the so-called Ventral Giant cluster of cells, it integrates sensory information from visual, antennal and hair receptors, and synapses with thoracic motor neurons in order to initiate and regulate flight behavior. Its ontogeny, however, remains unclear. In this study, we use bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cyclin labeling to reveal proliferative neuroblasts in the region of the embryonic brain where the ventral giant cluster is located...
April 17, 2018: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666277/disparate-binding-kinetics-by-an-intrinsically-disordered-domain-enables-temporal-regulation-of-transcriptional-complex-formation
#3
Neil O Robertson, Ngaio C Smith, Athina Manakas, Mahiar Mahjoub, Gordon McDonald, Ann H Kwan, Jacqueline M Matthews
Intrinsically disordered regions are highly represented among mammalian transcription factors, where they often contribute to the formation of multiprotein complexes that regulate gene expression. An example of this occurs with LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) proteins in the developing spinal cord. The LIM-HD protein LHX3 and the LIM-HD cofactor LDB1 form a binary complex that gives rise to interneurons, whereas in adjacent cell populations, LHX3 and LDB1 form a rearranged ternary complex with the LIM-HD protein ISL1, resulting in motor neurons...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665540/information-theoretic-decomposition-of-embodied-and-situated-systems
#4
Federico Da Rold
The embodied and situated view of cognition stresses the importance of real-time and nonlinear bodily interaction with the environment for developing concepts and structuring knowledge. In this article, populations of robots controlled by an artificial neural network learn a wall-following task through artificial evolution. At the end of the evolutionary process, time series are recorded from perceptual and motor neurons of selected robots. Information-theoretic measures are estimated on pairings of variables to unveil nonlinear interactions that structure the agent-environment system...
March 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665503/zebrafish-extracellular-matrix-improves-neuronal-viability-and-network-formation-in-a-3-dimensional-culture
#5
Sung-Min Kim, Daniel Ward Long, Michael Wai Kok Tsang, Yadong Wang
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has limited capacity for regeneration. CNS injuries cause life-long debilitation and lead to $50 billion in healthcare costs in U.S. alone each year. Despite numerous efforts in the last few decades, CNS-related injuries remain as detrimental as they were 50 years ago. Some functional recovery can occur, but most regeneration are limited by an extracellular matrix (ECM) that actively inhibits axonal repair and promotes glial scarring. In most tissues, the ECM is an architectural foundation that plays an active role in supporting cellular development and regenerative response after injury...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663708/the-postmigratory-alar-topography-of-visceral-cranial-nerve-efferents-challenges-the-classical-model-of-hindbrain-columns
#6
Luis Puelles, Petr Tvrdik, Margaret Martínez-de-la-Torre
The classic columnar model of cranial nerve central representation assumes that all motor and sensory hindbrain neurons develop within four radial migration domains, held to be separated by a sulcal alar-basal boundary (sulcus limitans). This essay reviews a number of developmental data that challenge these concepts. These results are interpreted within the framework of present day neuromeric conception of the brainstem (the prosomeric model). Advances in dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord and hindbrain now show that there exist up to eight alar microzones and five basal microzones (molecularly and histogenetically distinct longitudinal progenitor domains)...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663410/the-negotiated-equilibrium-model-of-spinal-cord-function
#7
Jonathan R Wolpaw
The belief that the spinal cord is hardwired is no longer tenable. Like the rest of the CNS, the spinal cord changes during growth and aging, when new motor behaviours are acquired, and in response to trauma and disease. This paper describes a new model of spinal cord function that reconciles its recently appreciated plasticity with its long recognized reliability as the final common pathway for behaviour. According to this model, the substrate of each motor behaviour comprises brain and spinal plasticity: the plasticity in the brain induces and maintains the plasticity in the spinal cord...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659809/a-new-mouse-model-of-arx-dup24-recapitulates-the-patients-behavioural-and-fine-motor-alterations
#8
Aline Dubos, Hamid Meziane, Giovanni Iacono, Aurore Curie, Fabrice Riet, Christelle Martin, Nadège Loaëc, Marie-Christine Birling, Mohammed Selloum, Elisabeth Normand, Guillaume Pavlovic, Tania Sorg, Henk G Stunnenberg, Jamel Chelly, Yann Humeau, Gaëlle Friocourt, Yann Hérault
The Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) transcription factor is involved in the development of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. ARX mutations have been associated with a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, among which the most frequent, a 24bp duplication in the polyalanine tract 2 (c.428_451dup24), gives rise to intellectual disability, fine motor defects with or without epilepsy. To understand the functional consequences of this mutation, we generated a partially humanized mouse model carrying the c...
April 5, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659159/spinal-accessory-motor-neurons-in-the-mouse-a-special-type-of-branchial-motor-neuron
#9
Charles Watson, Petr Tvrdik
The spinal accessory nerve arises from motor neurons in the upper cervical spinal cord. The axons of these motor neurons exit dorsal to the ligamentum denticulatum and form the spinal accessory nerve. The nerve ascends in the spinal subarachnoid space to enter the posterior cranial fossa through the foramen magnum. The spinal accessory nerve then turns caudally to exit through the jugular foramen alongside the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves, and then travels to supply the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles in the neck...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656343/lateralisation-in-parkinson-disease
#10
REVIEW
P Riederer, K A Jellinger, P Kolber, G Hipp, J Sian-Hülsmann, R Krüger
Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson's disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes for this striking clinicopathological feature are not yet fully understood. There is increasing evidence that lateralisation of disease is due to a complex interplay of hereditary and environmental factors that are reflected not only in the concept of dominant hemispheres and handedness but also in specific susceptibilities of neuronal subpopulations within the substantia nigra...
April 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653250/pluripotent-stem-cell-based-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease-current-status-and-future-prospects
#11
REVIEW
Kai-C Sonntag, Bin Song, Nayeon Lee, Jin Hyuk Jung, Young Cha, Pierre Leblanc, Carolyn Neff, Sek Won Kong, Bob S Carter, Jeffrey Schweitzer, Kwang-Soo Kim
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which affects about 0.3% of the general population. As the population in the developed world ages, this creates an escalating burden on society both in economic terms and in quality of life for these patients and for the families that support them. Although currently available pharmacological or surgical treatments may significantly improve the quality of life of many patients with PD, these are symptomatic treatments that do not slow or stop the progressive course of the disease...
April 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652734/being-yourself-and-thinking-about-the-future-in-people-with-motor-neuron-disease-a-grounded-theory-of-self-care-processes
#12
Barbara Bassola, Valeria Ada Sansone, Maura Lusignani
INTRODUCTION: Self-care is a crucial aspect in the management of people with motor neuron disease (MND). Nurses and healthcare professionals must know the processes used by patients in performing self-care to identify problems and help them. Decision-making processes, self-understanding, and political and social support influence the self-care process in chronic diseases. Little is known about the self-care process in MND. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to gain insight on the self-care processes in people with MND...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649521/modelling-motor-neuron-disease-in-fruit-flies-lessons-from-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#13
Beppe Aquilina, Ruben J Cauchi
Motor neuron disease (MND) is characterised by muscle weakness and paralysis downstream of motor neuron degeneration. Genetic factors play a major role in disease pathogenesis and progression. This is best underscored by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common MND affecting children. Although SMA is caused by homozygous mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, partial compensation by the paralogous SMN2 gene and/or genetic modifiers influence age of onset and disease severity. SMA is also the first MND that is treatable thanks to the recent development of a molecular-based therapy...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649217/the-ubr-1-ubiquitin-ligase-regulates-glutamate-metabolism-to-generate-coordinated-motor-pattern-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Jyothsna Chitturi, Wesley Hung, Anas M Abdel Rahman, Min Wu, Maria A Lim, John Calarco, Renee Baran, Xun Huang, James W Dennis, Mei Zhen
UBR1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase best known for its ability to target protein degradation by the N-end rule. The physiological functions of UBR family proteins, however, remain not fully understood. We found that the functional loss of C. elegans UBR-1 leads to a specific motor deficit: when adult animals generate reversal movements, A-class motor neurons exhibit synchronized activation, preventing body bending. This motor deficit is rescued by removing GOT-1, a transaminase that converts aspartate to glutamate...
April 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648983/enhancement-of-brain-d-serine-mediates-recovery-of-cognitive-function-after-tbi
#15
Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Barbara Slusher, Dana Atrakchi-Baranes, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Yael Friedman Levi, Efrat Leah Kesner, Alcino J Silva, Anat Biegon, Esther Shohami
Cognitive deficits, especially memory loss, are common and devastating neuropsychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The deficits may persist for a long time and may be accompanied by increased risk of developing early onset dementia. Past attempts to reverse the neuropsychological effects of brain injury with glutamate-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists failed to show any benefits or worsened the outcome, suggesting activation, rather than blockage, of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) may be useful in the sub-acute period after TBI and stroke...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644797/altered-gastrointestinal-motility-involving-autoantibodies-in-the-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#16
E T Spear, E A Holt, E J Joyce, M M Haag, S M Mawe, G W Hennig, B Lavoie, A M Applebee, C Teuscher, G M Mawe
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that, in addition to motor, sensory, and cognitive symptoms, also causes constipation, which is poorly understood. Here, we characterize gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS and evaluate whether autoantibodies target the enteric nervous system (ENS) and cause dysmotility. METHODS: EAE was induced in male SJL and B6 mice...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628395/hpsc-derived-striatal-cells-generated-using-a-scalable-3d-hydrogel-promote-recovery-in-a-huntington-disease-mouse-model
#17
Maroof M Adil, Thomas Gaj, Antara T Rao, Rishikesh U Kulkarni, Christina M Fuentes, Gokul N Ramadoss, Freja K Ekman, Evan W Miller, David V Schaffer
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited, progressive neurological disorder characterized by degenerating striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). One promising approach for treating HD is cell replacement therapy, where lost cells are replaced by MSN progenitors derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While there has been remarkable progress in generating hPSC-derived MSNs, current production methods rely on two-dimensional culture systems that can include poorly defined components, limit scalability, and yield differing preclinical results...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626993/jack-bean-urease-modulates-neurotransmitter-release-at-insect-neuromuscular-junctions
#18
Thiago Carrazoni, Christine Nguyen, Lucas F Maciel, Andres Delgado-Cañedo, Bryan A Stewart, Angela B Lange, Chariston A Dal Belo, Celia R Carlini, Ian Orchard
BACKGROUND: Plants have developed a vast range of mechanisms to compete with phytophagous insects, including entomotoxic proteins such as ureases. The legume Canavalia ensiformis produces several urease isoforms, of which the more abundant is called Jack Bean Urease (JBU). Previews work has demonstrated the potential insecticidal effects of JBU, by mechanisms so far not entirely elucidated. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the JBU-induced activity upon neurotransmitter release on insect neuromuscular junctions...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621637/exploiting-natural-polysaccharides-to-enhance-in-vitro-bio-constructs-of-primary-neurons-and-progenitor-cells
#19
Manuela Medelin, Davide Porrelli, Emily Rose Aurand, Denis Scaini, Andrea Travan, Massimiliano Antonio Borgogna, Michela Cok, Ivan Donati, Eleonora Marsich, Chiara Scopa, Raffaella Scardigli, Sergio Paoletti, Laura Ballerini
Current strategies in Central Nervous System (CNS) repair focus on the engineering of artificial scaffolds for guiding and promoting neuronal tissue regrowth. Ideally, one should combine such synthetic structures with stem cell therapies, encapsulating progenitor cells and instructing their differentiation and growth. We used developments in the design, synthesis, and characterization of polysaccharide-based bioactive polymeric materials for testing the ideal composite supporting neuronal network growth, synapse formation and stem cell differentiation into neurons and motor neurons...
April 2, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620520/synapse-specific-and-compartmentalized-expression-of-presynaptic-homeostatic-potentiation
#20
Xiling Li, Pragya Goel, Catherine Chen, Varun Angajala, Xun Chen, Dion K Dickman
Postsynaptic compartments can be specifically modulated during various forms of synaptic plasticity, but it is unclear whether this precision is shared at presynaptic terminals. Presynaptic Homeostatic Plasticity (PHP) stabilizes neurotransmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where a retrograde enhancement of presynaptic neurotransmitter release compensates for diminished postsynaptic receptor functionality. To test the specificity of PHP induction and expression, we have developed a genetic manipulation to reduce postsynaptic receptor expression at one of the two muscles innervated by a single motor neuron...
April 5, 2018: ELife
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