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Tania E Sakanaka, Jaspret Gill, Martin D Lakie, Raymond F Reynolds
Individuals may stand with a range of ankle angles. Furthermore, shoes or floor surfaces may elevate or depress their heels. Here we ask how these situations impact ankle stiffness and balance. We performed two studies (each with 10 participants) in which the triceps surae, Achilles tendon and aponeurosis were stretched either passively, by rotating the support surface, or actively by leaning forward. Participants stood freely on footplates which could rotate around the ankle joint axis. Brief, small stiffness-measuring perturbations (<0...
2018: PloS One
Joshua M Peterson, Carolyn Chlebek, Ashley M Clough, Alexandra K Wells, Kathleen E Batzinger, John M Houston, Katerina Kradinova, Joseph C Glennon, Darryl J DiRisio, Eric H Ledet
STUDY DESIGN: Real time in vivo measurement of forces in the cervical spine of goats following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). OBJECTIVE: To measure interbody forces in the cervical spine during the time course of fusion following ACDF with plates of different stiffnesses. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Following ACDF, the biomechanics of the arthrodesis is largely dictated by the plate. The properties of the plate prescribe the extent of load-sharing through the disc space versus the extent of stress-shielding...
March 19, 2018: Spine
Hongbo Tan, Dean Wang, Amir H Lebaschi, Ian D Hutchinson, Liang Ying, Xiang-Hua Deng, Scott A Rodeo, Russell F Warren
BACKGROUND: Many orthopaedic surgical procedures involve reattachment of a single tendon to bone. Whether tendon-to-bone healing is better facilitated by tendon fixation within a bone tunnel or on a cortical surface is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tendon-healing within a bone tunnel compared with that on the cortical surface in a rabbit model of biceps tenodesis. METHODS: Thirty-two rabbits (24 weeks of age) underwent unilateral proximal biceps tenodesis with tendon fixation within a bone tunnel (BT group) or on the cortical surface (SA [surface attachment] group)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Nazarii Kobyliak, Ludovico Abenavoli, Galyna Mykhalchyshyn, Liudmyla Kononenko, Luigi Boccuto, Dmytro Kyriienko, Oleg Dynnyk
BACKGROUND: Probiotics have a beneficial effect on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in animal models. Randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in NAFLD are still lacking in humans despite a large number of data from animal research. AIM: We performed a double-blind single center RCT of live multi-strain probiotic vs. placebo in type 2 diabetes patients with NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 58 patients met the criteria for inclusion. They were randomly assigned to receive the multi-probiotic "Symbiter" (concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Propionibacterium) or placebo for 8-weeks administered as a sachet formulation in double-blind treatment...
March 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Eun Jee Song, Yu-Mee Sohn, Mirinae Seo
OBJECTIVE: To correlate clinico-radiologic and pathologic features of breast cancer with quantitative and qualitative shear wave elastographic parameters. METHODS: 82 breast cancers in 75 patients examined by B-mode ultrasound (US) and shear wave elastography (SWE) were included. SWE parameters including quantitative factors [maximum elasticity (Emax ), mean elasticity (Emean ), elasticity ratio (Eratio ) and standard deviation (SD)] and qualitative factor (color pattern) were correlated with clinico-radiologic and pathological features using univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Alberto Avolio, Mi Ok Kim, Audrey Adji, Sumudu Gangoda, Bhargava Avadhanam, Isabella Tan, Mark Butlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concepts of pulsatile arterial haemodynamics, including relationships between oscillatory blood pressure and flow in systemic arteries, arterial stiffness and wave propagation phenomena have provided basic understanding of underlying haemodynamic mechanisms associated with elevated arterial blood pressure as a major factor of cardiovascular risk, particularly the deleterious effects of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. This topical review assesses the effects of pulsatility of blood pressure and flow in the systemic arteries on the brain...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Gui-Yun Hang, Wen-Li Yu, Tao Wang, Zhen Li
In this work, a CL-20/DNB cocrystal explosive model was established and six different kinds of fluoropolymers, i.e., PVDF, PCTFE, F2311 , F2312 , F2313 and F2314 were added into the (1 0 0), (0 1 0), (0 0 1) crystal orientations to obtain the corresponding polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). The influence of fluoropolymers on PBX properties (energetic property, stability and mechanical properties) was investigated and evaluated using molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The results reveal a decrease in engineering moduli, an increase in Cauchy pressure (i...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Christopher James Yiachos, Subrata Saha
We investigated how load bearing capacity (LBC) of long bone differs with a bicortical drill hole in a compressive/tensile location vs. a neutral location. Group I had a hole drilled through 0°/180° ([compressive at 0°/maximum tensile at 180°]), Group II at 90°/270° ([neutral]), and Group III at 135°/315° ([tensile at 135°/compressive at 315°]). Maximum load at failure and stiffness was measured. A significant ([ p  < 0.05]) decrease in LBC of all Group I and Group III bones was observed. Loss of strength for Group II was statistically insignificant ([ p  > 0...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Alireza Ghaemi, Narjes Hosseini, Saeed Osati, Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh, Azizallah Dehghan, Elham Ehrampoush, Behnam Honarvar, Reza Homayounfar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an example of pathological fat accumulation in the liver and one of the major health conditions in the world. This study aimed to examine the independent role of dietary patterns in the development of NAFLD. In a cross-sectional study, 1500 individuals referred to a nutrition clinic were randomly selected, their demographic, anthropometric and blood metabolic indices were obtained, and food frequency questionnaires were completed for them. Liver stiffness was calculated using the NAFLD score formula and fibroscan...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brent James Raiteri, Andrew Graham Cresswell, Glen Anthony Lichtwark
The factors that drive variable aponeurosis behaviors in active versus passive muscle may alter the longitudinal stiffness of the aponeurosis during contraction, which may change the fascicle strains for a given muscle force. However, it remains unknown whether these factors can drive variable aponeurosis behaviors across different muscle-tendon unit (MTU) lengths and influence the subsequent fascicle strains during contraction. Here, we used ultrasound and elastography techniques to examine in vivo muscle fascicle behavior and central aponeurosis deformations of human tibialis anterior (TA) during force-matched voluntary isometric dorsiflexion contractions at three MTU lengths...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alejandro Lizaur-Utrilla, Daniel Martinez-Mendez, Santiago Gonzalez-Parreño, Luis Marco-Gomez, Francisco A Miralles Muñoz, Fernando A Lopez-Prats
BACKGROUND: Few studies have analyzed the outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with prior anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, and the reported outcomes are controversial. The purpose of this study is to assess if prior ACL reconstruction had any impact on the outcome of subsequent TKA. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted in patients who underwent TKA, including 37 with prior ACL reconstruction and 37 patients without ACL reconstruction...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Mitchell Kuss, Jiyoung Kim, Dianjun Qi, Shaohua Wu, Yuguo Lei, Soonkyu Chung, Bin Duan
Obesity and its related health complications cause billions of dollars in healthcare costs annually in the United States, and there are yet to be safe and long-lasting anti-obesity approaches. Using brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising approach, as it uses fats for energy expenditure. However, the effect of the microenvironment on human thermogenic brown adipogenesis and how to generate clinically relevant sized and functioning BAT are still unknown. In our current study, we evaluated the effects of endothelial growth medium exposure on brown adipogenesis of human brown adipose progenitors (BAP)...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Wei-Dong Lü, Rui-Fang Sun, Ye-Rong Hu, Jan-Rong Lu, Lu Gu, Zhi-Gang Liu, Guang-Yan Lei, Zhun Qiang, Lin Cai
Acellular tumor extracellular matrices (ECMs) have limitations when employed as three-dimensional scaffolds for tumor engineering. In this work, methylene blue-mediated photooxidation was used to crosslink acellular tumor ECMs. Photooxidative crosslinking greatly increased the stiffness of acellular tumor ECM scaffolds but barely altered the Amide III band of the secondary structure of polypeptides and proteins. MCF-7, HepG2 and A549 cells cultured on photooxidatively crosslinked acellular tumor ECM scaffolds exhibited greater cell number per scaffold, more IL-8 and VEGF secretion, and increase migration and invasion abilities than cells cultured on uncrosslinked acellular tumor ECM scaffolds...
March 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Béatrice Bouhanick, Jacques Amar, Laurence Amar, Philippe Gosse, Xavier Girerd, Yves Reznik, Claire Mounier-Vehier, Jean Philippe Baguet, Pierre Boutouyrie, Benoit Lepage, Pierre Lantelme, Bernard Chamontin
BACKGROUND: Predictive factors associated with normal blood pressure (BP) after unilateral adrenalectomy for primary aldosteronism (PA) are not clearly identified. AIMS: To evaluate the predictive value of arterial stiffness before surgery on BP after surgery. METHODS: During 2009-2013, 96 patients with PA due to unilateral adrenal adenoma who underwent surgery were enrolled in a multicentre open-label, prospective study. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was assessed before surgery...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Ziyang Sun, Hao Xiong, Cunyi Fan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and prediabetes are worldwide public health problems and are considered predisposing factors for adverse functional outcomes after various orthopedic operations. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the impact of glucose metabolism status on functional outcomes and complications after open arthrolysis for post-traumatic elbow stiffness. METHODS: The study included 152 patients with post-traumatic elbow stiffness undergoing arthrolysis, including 120 in the normoglycemic group, 21 in the impaired glucose regulation group, and 11 in the diabetes mellitus group...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
William McCartney, Bryan MacDonald, Ciprian Andrei Ober, Rubén Lostado-Lorza, Fátima Somovilla Gómez
BACKGROUND: Finite element analysis was used to compare fixation methods for double pelvic osteotomy (DPO). Using 3D scanning a stereolithography (stl) image was produced of a canine pelvis and this was subsequently refined in computer aided design (CAD). Using the CAD files, the images were imported in MSC Marc software to produce a working finite element (FE) model with 3 dimensional tetrahedral elements with linear shaped functions. The dimensions of a precontoured pelvic osteotomy plate with eight screws and a twisted seven screw straight plate were used to build the 2 fixations implants for the FE models...
March 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Myeongsang Lee, Hyunsung Choi, Gwonchan Yoon, Sungsoo Na
Experimental force spectroscopy has been effectively utilized for measuring structural characterization of biomolecules and mechanical properties of biomaterials. Specifically, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used to portray biomolecular characterization in single-molecule experiment by observing the unfolding behavior of the proteins. Not only the experimental techniques enable us to characterize globular protein, but computational methods like molecular dynamics (MD) also gives insight into understanding biomolecular structures...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Jill G Putnam, Anikar Chhabra, Paulo Castañeda, J Brock Walker, Collin C Barber, James A Lendrum, David E Hartigan
BACKGROUND: Greater trochanter decortication is frequently performed at the time of abductor tendon repair to theoretically increase healing potential. No previous studies have determined the effect that greater trochanter decortication has on the pullout strength of suture anchors. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether greater trochanter decortication and bone mineral density affect suture anchor pullout strength in abductor tendon repair. The authors hypothesize that both will have a significant detrimental effect on suture anchor pullout strength...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Matthew D LaPrade, Samantha L Kallenbach, Zachary S Aman, Gilbert Moatshe, Hunter W Storaci, Travis Lee Turnbull, Elizabeth A Arendt, Jorge Chahla, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: Quantification of the biomechanical properties of each individual medial patellar ligament will facilitate an understanding of injury patterns and enhance anatomic reconstruction techniques by improving the selection of grafts possessing appropriate biomechanical properties for each ligament. PURPOSE: To determine the ultimate failure load, stiffness, and mechanism of failure of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), medial patellotibial ligament (MPTL), and medial patellomeniscal ligament (MPML) to assist with selection of graft tissue for anatomic reconstructions...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Yuuki Hata, Toshiki Sawada, Takamasa Sakai, Takeshi Serizawa
The dispersion stabilization of colloidal particles and subsequent construction of functional materials are of great interest in areas ranging from colloid chemistry to materials science. A promising strategy is the spatial immobilization of colloidal particles within gel scaffolds. However, conventional gels readily deform and even collapse when changes in environmental conditions occur. Herein, we describe the enzyme-catalyzed bottom-up synthesis of mechanically and physicochemically stable nanoribbon network hydrogels composed of crystalline cellulose oligomers in which cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as model colloidal particles are immobilized spatially...
March 19, 2018: Biomacromolecules
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