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Mechanosensing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049720/icap-1-monoubiquitination-coordinates-matrix-density-and-rigidity-sensing-for-cell-migration-through-rock2-mrck%C3%AE-balance
#1
Anne-Pascale Bouin, Alexander Kyurmurkov, Myriam Régent-Kloeckner, Anne-Sophie Ribba, Eva Faurobert, Henri-Noël Fournier, Ingrid Bourrin-Reynard, Sandra Manet-Dupé, Christiane Oddou, Martial Balland, Emmanuelle Planus, Corinne Albiges-Rizo
Cell migration is a complex process requiring density and rigidity sensing of the microenvironment to adapt cell migratory speed through focal adhesion and actin cytoskeleton regulation. ICAP-1, a β1 integrin partner, is essential for ensuring integrin activation cycle and focal adhesion formation. We show that ICAP-1 is monoubiquitinated by Smurf1, preventing ICAP-1 binding to β1 integrin. The non-ubiquitinable form of ICAP-1 modifies β1 integrin focal adhesion organization and interferes with fibronectin density sensing...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043971/mechanosensing-by-the-nucleus-from-pathways-to-scaling-relationships
#2
REVIEW
Sangkyun Cho, Jerome Irianto, Dennis E Discher
The nucleus is linked mechanically to the extracellular matrix via multiple polymers that transmit forces to the nuclear envelope and into the nuclear interior. Here, we review some of the emerging mechanisms of nuclear mechanosensing, which range from changes in protein conformation and transcription factor localization to chromosome reorganization and membrane dilation up to rupture. Nuclear mechanosensing encompasses biophysically complex pathways that often converge on the main structural proteins of the nucleus, the lamins...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036174/mechanosensitive-gold-colloidal-membranes-mediated-by-supramolecular-interfacial-self-assembly
#3
Joao Paulo Coelho, Maria Jose Mayoral, Luis Camacho, María T Martín-Romero, Gloria Tardajos, Iván López-Montero, Eduardo Sanz, David Avila Brande, Juan Jose Giner-Casares, Gustavo Fernández, Andrés Guerrero-Martínez
The ability to respond towards mechanical stimuli is a fundamental property of biological organisms both at the macroscopic and cellular level, yet it has been considerably less observed in artificial supramolecular and colloidal homologues. An archetypal example in this regard is cellular mechanosensation, a process by which mechanical forces applied on the cell membrane are converted into biochemical or electrical signals through nanometer-scale changes in molecular conformations. In this article, we report an artificial gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-discrete π-conjugated molecule hybrid system that mimics the mechanical behavior of biological membranes and is able to self-assemble into colloidal gold nanoclusters or membranes in a controlled and reversible fashion by changing the concentration or the mechanical force (pressure) applied...
December 30, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981364/synergistic-interplay-of-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-dictates-kv7-4-channel-activity
#4
Oleksandr V Povstyan, Vincenzo Barrese, Jennifer B Stott, Iain A Greenwood
Kv7.4 channels are key determinants of arterial contractility and cochlear mechanosensation that, like all Kv7 channels, have an obligatory requirement for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). βγ G proteins (Gβγ) have been identified as novel positive regulators of Kv7.4. The present study ascertained whether Gβγ increased Kv7.4 open probability through an increased sensitivity to PIP2. In HEK cells stably expressing Kv7.4, PIP2 or Gβγ increased open probability in a concentration dependent manner...
December 15, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981237/dipicolinic-acid-release-by-germinating-clostridium-difficile-spores-occurs-through-a-mechanosensing-mechanism
#5
Michael B Francis, Joseph A Sorg
Classically, dormant endospores are defined by their resistance properties, particularly their resistance to heat. Much of the heat resistance is due to the large amount of dipicolinic acid (DPA) stored within the spore core. During spore germination, DPA is released and allows for rehydration of the otherwise-dehydrated core. In Bacillus subtilis, 7 proteins are encoded by the spoVA operon and are important for DPA release. These proteins receive a signal from the activated germinant receptor and release DPA...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976674/kinetic-disruption-of-lipid-rafts-is-a-mechanosensor-for-phospholipase-d
#6
E Nicholas Petersen, Hae-Won Chung, Arman Nayebosadri, Scott B Hansen
The sensing of physical force, mechanosensation, underlies two of five human senses-touch and hearing. How transduction of force in a membrane occurs remains unclear. We asked if a biological membrane could employ kinetic energy to transduce a signal absent tension. Here we show that lipid rafts are dynamic compartments that inactivate the signalling enzyme phospholipase D2 (PLD2) by sequestering the enzyme from its substrate. Mechanical disruption of the lipid rafts activates PLD2 by mixing the enzyme with its substrate to produce the signalling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA)...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940346/spectator-no-more-the-role-of-the-membrane-in-regulating-ion-channel-function
#7
REVIEW
Christos Pliotas, James H Naismith
A pressure gradient across a curved lipid bilayer leads to a lateral force within the bilayer. Following ground breaking work on eukaryotic ion channels, it is now known that many proteins sense this change in the lateral tension and alter their functions in response. It has been proposed that responding to pressure differentials may be one of the oldest signaling mechanisms in biology. The most well characterized mechanosensing ion channels are the bacterial ones which open when the pressure differential hits a threshold...
December 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901466/differentiation-alters-stem-cell-nuclear-architecture-mechanics-and-mechano-sensitivity
#8
Su-Jin Heo, Tristan P Driscoll, Stephen D Thorpe, Nandan L Nerurkar, Brendon M Baker, Michael T Yang, Christopher S Chen, David A Lee, Robert L Mauck
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation is mediated by soluble and physical cues. In this study, we investigated differentiation-induced transformations in MSC cellular and nuclear biophysical properties and queried their role in mechanosensation. Our data show that nuclei in differentiated bovine and human MSCs stiffen and become resistant to deformation. This attenuated nuclear deformation was governed by restructuring of Lamin A/C and increased heterochromatin content. This change in nuclear stiffness sensitized MSCs to mechanical-loading-induced calcium signaling and differentiated marker expression...
November 30, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900823/high-frequency-mechanostimulation-of-cell-adhesion
#9
Laith F Kadem, K Grace Suana, Michelle Holz, Wei Wang, Hannes Westerhaus, Rainer Herges, Christine Selhuber-Unkel
Cell adhesion is regulated by molecularly defined protein interactions and by mechanical forces, which can activate a dynamic restructuring of adhesion sites. Previous attempts to explore the response of cell adhesion to forces have been limited to applying mechanical stimuli that involve the cytoskeleton. In contrast, we here apply a new, oscillatory type of stimulus through push-pull azobenzenes. Push-pull azobenzenes perform a high-frequency, molecular oscillation upon irradiation with visible light that has frequently been applied in polymer surface relief grating...
January 2, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900292/hypoxia-inhibits-primary-cilia-formation-and-reduces-cell-mediated-contraction-in-stress-deprived-rat-tail-tendon-fascicles
#10
Michael Lavagnino, Anna N Oslapas, Keri L Gardner, Steven P Arnoczky
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia, which is associated with chronic tendinopathy, has recently been shown to decrease the mechanosensitivity of some cells. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hypoxia on the formation of elongated primary cilia (a mechanosensing organelle of tendon cells) in vitro and to determine the effect of hypoxia on cell-mediated contraction of stress-deprived rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTfs). METHODS: Tendon cells isolated from RTTfs were cultured under normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions for 24 hours...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899696/selective-antagonism-of-trpa1-produces-limited-efficacy-in-models-of-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-induced-mechanical-hypersensitivity-in-rats
#11
Sonya G Lehto, Andy D Weyer, Beth D Youngblood, Maosheng Zhang, Ruoyuan Yin, Weiya Wang, Yohannes Teffera, Melanie Cooke, Cheryl L Stucky, Laurie Schenkel, Stephanie Geuns-Meyer, Bryan D Moyer, Kenneth D Wild, Narender R Gavva
The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel has been implicated in pathophysiological processes that include asthma, cough, and inflammatory pain. Agonists of TRPA1 such as mustard oil and its key component allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) cause pain and neurogenic inflammation in humans and rodents, and TRPA1 antagonists have been reported to be effective in rodent models of pain. In our pursuit of TRPA1 antagonists as potential therapeutics, we generated AMG0902, a potent (IC90 of 300 nM against rat TRPA1), selective, brain penetrant (brain to plasma ratio of 0...
2016: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891534/graphene-oxide-nanosheets-stimulate-ruffling-and-shedding-of-mammalian-cell-plasma-membranes
#12
Chao Sun, Devin L Wakefield, Yimo Han, David A Muller, David A Holowka, Barbara A Baird, William R Dichtel
Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted intense interest for use in living systems and environmental applications. GO's compatibility with mammalian cells is sometimes inferred from its low cytotoxicity, but such conclusions ignore non-lethal effects that will influence GO's utility. Here we demonstrate, with rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, profound plasma membrane (PM) ruffling and shedding induced by GO using confocal and live cell fluorescence microscopy, as well as scanning electron microscopy. These membrane structures contain immunoglobulin E receptors, are resistant to detergents, and lack detectable fluorescence labeling of F-actin and fibronectin...
August 11, 2016: Chem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885188/-mechanisms-of-vascular-dynamic-homeostasis
#13
Kimiko Yamamoto, Joji Ando
Vascular endothelial cells(ECs)play a critical role in controlling a variety of vascular functions including maintenance of the vascular tone, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, and selective permeability of proteins. It has recently become apparent that ECs respond to hemodynamic forces, namely, shear stress and stretch, by altering their morphology, functions and gene expression profile. These responses also play important roles in maintaining normal circulatory system functions and homeostasis, and their impairment leads to various vascular diseases, including hypertension, aneurysm and atherosclerosis...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885185/-therapeutic-strategy-targeting-membrane-molecular-meshanosensing
#14
Tetsushi Furukawa
Our bodies possess systems to detect various mechanical stimuli, called mechanosensing. Mechanosensing taking place in the membrane can be classified into to ion channel-dependent one and ion channel-independent one. Ion channel-dependent mechanosensing is a relatively rapid response, involving various mechanosen sensitive channels, including recently identified pannexin. In contrast, ion-channel-independent mechanosensing is a slow response, such as tissue remodeling, and the mechanism via integrin-actin interaction at the focal adhesion is well known...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885176/-short-history-on-the-birth-of-mechanobiology
#15
Masahiro Sokabe
In the last decade a new scientific discipline called "Mechanobiology" has emerged. It aims at elucidation of roles and mechanisms of mechanical forces in organisms as well as applications of the obtained fruits to human beings. Mechanobiology deals with a wide variety of objectives, including molecules, cells, tissues, organs and individuals, in which "Cell Mechanosesing" forms the core concept. Starting with a definition of cell mechanosensing, this short review gives an outline of the history of mechanobiology and perspectives on the mechanobiology in the near future...
2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884786/osteopontin-and-the-dento-osseous-pathobiology-of-x-linked-hypophosphatemia
#16
Tchilalo Boukpessi, Betty Hoac, Benjamin R Coyac, Thibaut Leger, Camille Garcia, Philippe Wicart, Michael P Whyte, Francis H Glorieux, Agnès Linglart, Catherine Chaussain, Marc D McKee
Seven young patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH, having inactivating PHEX mutations) were discovered to accumulate osteopontin (OPN) at the sites of defective bone mineralization near osteocytes - the so-called hallmark periosteocytic (lacunar) "halos" of XLH. OPN was also localized in the pericanalicular matrix extending beyond the osteocyte lacunae, as well as in the hypomineralized matrix of tooth dentin. OPN, a potent inhibitor of mineralization normally degraded by PHEX, is a member of a family of acidic, phosphorylated, calcium-binding, extracellular matrix proteins known to regulate dental, skeletal, and pathologic mineralization...
November 21, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874267/human-digital-meissner-corpuscles-display-immunoreactivity-for-the-multifunctional-ion-channels-trpc6-and-trpv4
#17
P Alonso-González, R Cabo, I San José, A Gago, I C Suazo, O García-Suárez, J Cobo, J A Vega
Ion channels are at the basis of the sensory processes including mechanosensing. Some members of the transient receptor (TRP) ion channel superfamily have been proposed as mechanosensors, but their putative role in mechanotransduction is controversial. Among them there are TRP canonical 6 (TRPC6) and TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channels, which are known to cooperate in mechanical hyperalgesia. Here we investigated the occurrence, distribution and possible co-localization of TRPC6 and TRPV4 in human digital Meissner sensory corpuscles using immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence (associate with markers for specific corpuscular constituents)...
November 22, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871065/mechanical-remodeling-of-normally-sized-mammalian-cells-under-a-gravity-vector
#18
Chen Zhang, Lüwen Zhou, Fan Zhang, Dongyuan Lü, Ning Li, Lu Zheng, Yanhong Xu, Zhan Li, Shujin Sun, Mian Long
Translocation of the dense nucleus along a gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a cell, but the underlying mechanisms of cytoskeletal network and focal adhesion complex (FAC) reorganization in a mammalian cell remain unclear. We quantified the remodeling of an MC3T3-E1 cell placed in upward-, downward-, or edge-on-orientated substrate. Nucleus longitudinal translocation presents a high value in downward orientation at 24 h or in edge-on orientation at 72 h, which is consistent with orientation-dependent distribution of perinuclear actin stress fibers and vimentin cords...
November 8, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864905/polyacrylamide-gel-as-a-culture-substrate-improves-in-vitro-oocyte-growth-from-porcine-early-antral-follicles
#19
Yasuhisa Munakata, Ryouka Kawahara-Miki, Koumei Shirasuna, Takehito Kuwayama, Hisataka Iwata
A major difference between in vivo and in vitro follicle culture is the stiffness of the substrate in which the follicles grow. In this study, we examined the effect of polyacrylamide gel (PAG), as a culture substrate, on the development of porcine oocytes derived from early antral follicles. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were collected from the early antral follicles of gilts, and incubated individually for 14 days in a 96-well culture plate with or without PAG. We then evaluated the number of granulosa cells present in OGCs as well as the abundance of ATP, lipid, and acetylated lysine in oocytes...
November 19, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843126/biallelic-loss-of-proprioception-related-piezo2-causes-muscular-atrophy-with-perinatal-respiratory-distress-arthrogryposis-and-scoliosis
#20
Andrea Delle Vedove, Markus Storbeck, Raoul Heller, Irmgard Hölker, Malavika Hebbar, Anju Shukla, Olafur Magnusson, Sebahattin Cirak, Katta M Girisha, Mary O'Driscoll, Bart Loeys, Brunhilde Wirth
We report ten individuals of four independent consanguineous families from Turkey, India, Libya, and Pakistan with a variable clinical phenotype that comprises arthrogryposis, spontaneously resolving respiratory insufficiency at birth, muscular atrophy predominantly of the distal lower limbs, scoliosis, and mild distal sensory involvement. Using whole-exome sequencing, SNPchip-based linkage analysis, DNA microarray, and Sanger sequencing, we identified three independent homozygous frameshift mutations and a homozygous deletion of two exons in PIEZO2 that segregated in all affected individuals of the respective family...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
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