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Mechanosensing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302906/distinct-focal-adhesion-protein-modules-control-different-aspects-of-mechanotransduction
#1
Ben Stutchbury, Paul Atherton, Ricky Tsang, De-Yao Wang, Christoph Ballestrem
Focal adhesions (FAs) are macromolecular complexes that regulate cell adhesion and mechanotransduction. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss after photoactivation (FLAP), we found that the mobility of core FA proteins correlates with protein function. Structural proteins such as tensin, talin and vinculin are significantly less mobile in FAs than signaling proteins such as FAK and paxillin. The mobilities of the structural proteins are directly influenced by substrate stiffness, suggesting they are involved in sensing the rigidity of the extracellular environment...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298485/mcak-mediated-regulation-of-endothelial-cell-microtubule-dynamics-is-mechano-sensitive-to-myosin-ii-contractility
#2
Lauren D'Angelo, Nicole M Myer, Kenneth A Myers
Compliance and dimensionality mechanosensing, the processes by which cells sense the physical attributes of the extracellular environment (ECM), are known to drive cell branching and shape change largely through a myosin-II-mediated reorganization of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons. Subcellular regulation of MT dynamics is spatially controlled through a Rac1-Aurora-A kinase pathway that locally inhibits the MT depolymerizing activity of MCAK, thereby promoting leading-edge MT growth and cell polarization...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285999/evolution-of-multiple-sensory-systems-drives-novel-egg-laying-behavior-in-the-fruit-pest-drosophila-suzukii
#3
Marianthi Karageorgi, Lasse B Bräcker, Sébastien Lebreton, Caroline Minervino, Matthieu Cavey, K P Siju, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow, Nicolas Gompel, Benjamin Prud'homme
The rise of a pest species represents a unique opportunity to address how species evolve new behaviors and adapt to novel ecological niches [1]. We address this question by studying the egg-laying behavior of Drosophila suzukii, an invasive agricultural pest species that has spread from Southeast Asia to Europe and North America in the last decade [2]. While most closely related Drosophila species lay their eggs on decaying plant substrates, D. suzukii oviposits on ripening fruit, thereby causing substantial economic losses to the fruit industry [3-8]...
March 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271209/tgf-%C3%AE-1-impairs-mechanosensation-of-human-osteoblasts-via-hdac6-mediated-shortening-and-distortion-of-primary-cilia
#4
Sabrina Ehnert, Vrinda Sreekumar, Romina H Aspera-Werz, Sahar O Sajadian, Elke Wintermeyer, Gunther H Sandmann, Christian Bahrs, Jan G Hengstler, Patricio Godoy, Andreas K Nussler
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a critical regulator of bone density owing to its multiple effects on cell growth and differentiation. Recently, we have shown that TGF-β1 effectively blocks bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induced maturation of osteoblasts by upregulating histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of rhTGF-β1 treatment on the expression of specific HDACs and their cellular effects, e.g., microtubule structures (primary cilia) and mechanosensation...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265101/myosin-filament-activation-in-the-heart-is-tuned-to-the-mechanical-task
#5
Massimo Reconditi, Marco Caremani, Francesca Pinzauti, Joseph D Powers, Theyencheri Narayanan, Ger J M Stienen, Marco Linari, Vincenzo Lombardi, Gabriella Piazzesi
The mammalian heart pumps blood through the vessels, maintaining the dynamic equilibrium in a circulatory system driven by two pumps in series. This vital function is based on the fine-tuning of cardiac performance by the Frank-Starling mechanism that relates the pressure exerted by the contracting ventricle (end systolic pressure) to its volume (end systolic volume). At the level of the sarcomere, the structural unit of the cardiac myocytes, the Frank-Starling mechanism consists of the increase in active force with the increase of sarcomere length (length-dependent activation)...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256237/two-distinct-actin-networks-mediate-traction-oscillations-to-confer-focal-adhesion-mechanosensing
#6
Zhanghan Wu, Sergey V Plotnikov, Abdiwahab Y Moalim, Clare M Waterman, Jian Liu
Focal adhesions (FAs) are integrin-based transmembrane assemblies that connect a cell to its extracellular matrix (ECM). They are mechanosensors through which cells exert actin cytoskeleton-mediated traction forces to sense the ECM stiffness. Interestingly, FAs themselves are dynamic structures that adapt their growth in response to mechanical force. It is unclear how the cell manages the plasticity of the FA structure and the associated traction force to accurately sense ECM stiffness. Strikingly, FA traction forces oscillate in time and space, and govern the cell mechanosensing of ECM stiffness...
February 28, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255710/probing-synaptic-biomechanics-using-micropillar-arrays
#7
Weiyang Jin, Charles T Black, Lance C Kam, Morgan Huse
Recent insights into the importance of mechanosensing and force transmission at the immune synapse have spurred increased interest in the mechanical properties of leukocyte cell-cell interactions. In this chapter, we describe an imaging-based strategy for measuring cellular forces that utilizes optically transparent arrays of flexible micropillars. This approach has several distinct advantages over standard traction force microscopy, and we anticipate that it will prove very useful for investigators who wish not only to quantify ligand-induced forces with high spatiotemporal resolution but also to place those forces within the context of a broader cell biological response...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248230/extracellular-matrix-proteome-and-phosphoproteome-of-potato-reveals-functionally-distinct-and-diverse-canonical-and-non-canonical-proteoforms
#8
Eman Elagamey, Kanika Narula, Arunima Sinha, Pooja Rani Aggarwal, Sudip Ghosh, Niranjan Chakraborty, Subhra Chakraborty
The extracellular matrix (ECM) has a molecular machinery composed of diverse proteins and proteoforms that combine properties of tensile strength with extensibility exhibiting growth-regulatory functions and self- and non-self-recognition. The identification of ECM proteoforms is the prerequisite towards a comprehensive understanding of biological functions accomplished by the outermost layer of the cell. Regulatory mechanisms of protein functions rely on post-translational modifications, phosphorylation in particular, affecting enzymatic activity, interaction, localization and stability...
June 24, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223315/the-focal-adhesion-targeting-fat-domain-of-p130-crk-associated-substrate-p130cas-confers-mechanosensing-function
#9
Peta M Bradbury, Kylie Turner, Camilla Mitchell, Kaitlyn R Griffin, Shiloh Middlemiss, Loretta Lau, Rebecca Dagg, Elena Taran, Justin Cooper-White, Ben Fabry, Geraldine M O'Neill
The Cas family of focal adhesion proteins contain a highly conserved C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain. To determine the role of the FAT domain we compared wildtype exogenous NEDD9 with a hybrid construct in which the NEDD9 FAT domain is exchanged for the p130Cas FAT domain. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) revealed significantly slowed exchange of the fusion protein at focal adhesions and significantly slower 2D migration. No differences were detected in cell stiffness measured with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and cell adhesion forces measured with a magnetic tweezer device...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167176/do-exercises-with-the-foam-roller-have-a-short-term-impact-on-the-thoracolumbar-fascia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Annika Griefahn, Jan Oehlmann, Christoff Zalpour, Harry von Piekartz
Due to new research results in the past few years, interest in the fascia of the human body has increased. Dysfunctions of the fascia are indicated by various symptoms, amongst others, musculoskeletal pain. As a result stronger focus has been put on researching therapeutic approaches in this area. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Foam Roll exercises on the mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). Study has been conducted in a randomized and controlled trial which sampled 38 healthy athletic active men and women...
January 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164414/microfluidic-traction-force-microscopy-to-study-mechanotransduction-in-angiogenesis
#11
Luke Boldock, Claudia Wittkowske, Cecile M Perrault
The formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, angiogenesis, is driven by coordinated endothelial cell migration and matrix remodelling in response to local signals. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that mechanotransduction, along with chemotransduction, is a major regulator of angiogenesis. Mechanical signals, such as fluid shear stress and substrate mechanics, influence sprouting and network formation, but the mechanisms behind this relationship are still unclear. Here, we present cellular traction forces as possible effectors activated by mechanosensing to mediate matrix remodelling, and encourage the use of traction force microscopy to study mechanotransduction in angiogenesis...
February 6, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129208/cell-mechanics-a-dialogue
#12
Jiaxiang Tao, Yizeng Li, Dhruv K Vig, Sean X Sun
Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary...
January 27, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110070/mesoscale-porosity-at-the-dentin-enamel-junction-could-affect-the-biomechanical-properties-of-teeth
#13
Elsa Vennat, Wenlong Wang, Rachel Genthial, Bertrand David, Elisabeth Dursun, Aurélien Gourrier
In this paper, the 3D-morphology of the porosity in dentin is investigated within the first 350μm from the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) by fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). We found that the porous microstructure exhibits a much more complex geometry than classically described, which may impact our fundamental understanding of the mechanical behavior of teeth and could have practical consequences for dental surgery. Our 3D observations reveal numerous fine branches stemming from the tubules which may play a role in cellular communication or mechanosensing during the early stages of dentinogenesis...
January 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109865/a-survey-of-membrane-receptor-regulation-in-valvular-interstitial-cells-cultured-under-mechanical-stresses
#14
Mir S Ali, Xinmei Wang, Carla M R Lacerda
Degenerative valvular diseases have been linked to the action of abnormal forces on valve tissues during each cardiac cycle. It is now accepted that the degenerative behavior of valvular cells can be induced mechanically in vitro. This approach of in vitro modeling of valvular cells in culture constitutes a powerful tool to study, characterize, and develop predictors of heart valve degeneration in vivo. Using such in vitro systems, we expect to determine the exact signaling mechanisms that trigger and mediate propagation of degenerative signals...
February 15, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096266/desmosomes-and-intermediate-filaments-their-consequences-for-tissue-mechanics
#15
Mechthild Hatzfeld, René Keil, Thomas M Magin
Adherens junctions (AJs) and desmosomes connect the actin and keratin filament networks of adjacent cells into a mechanical unit. Whereas AJs function in mechanosensing and in transducing mechanical forces between the plasma membrane and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, desmosomes and intermediate filaments (IFs) provide mechanical stability required to maintain tissue architecture and integrity when the tissues are exposed to mechanical stress. Desmosomes are essential for stable intercellular cohesion, whereas keratins determine cell mechanics but are not involved in generating tension...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091965/deformability-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-dependent-on-vimentin-intermediate-filaments
#16
Poonam Sharma, Zachary T Bolten, Diane R Wagner, Adam H Hsieh
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being studied extensively due to their potential as a therapeutic cell source for many load-bearing tissues. Compression of tissues and the subsequent deformation of cells are just one type physical strain MSCs will need to withstand in vivo. Mechanotransduction by MSCs and their mechanical properties are partially controlled by the cytoskeleton, including vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs). Vimentin IF deficiency has been tied to changes in mechanosensing and mechanical properties of cells in some cell types...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049720/icap-1-monoubiquitylation-coordinates-matrix-density-and-rigidity-sensing-for-cell-migration-through-rock2-mrck%C3%AE-balance
#17
Anne-Pascale Bouin, Alexander Kyurmurkov, Myriam Régent-Kloeckner, Anne-Sophie Ribba, Eva Faurobert, Henri-Noël Fournier, Ingrid Bourrin-Reynard, Sandra Manet-Dupé, Christiane Oddou, Martial Balland, Emmanuelle Planus, Corinne Albiges-Rizo
Cell migration is a complex process requiring density and rigidity sensing of the microenvironment to adapt cell migratory speed through focal adhesion and actin cytoskeleton regulation. ICAP-1 (also known as ITGB1BP1), a β1 integrin partner, is essential for ensuring integrin activation cycle and focal adhesion formation. We show that ICAP-1 is monoubiquitylated by Smurf1, preventing ICAP-1 binding to β1 integrin. The non-ubiquitylatable form of ICAP-1 modifies β1 integrin focal adhesion organization and interferes with fibronectin density sensing...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043971/mechanosensing-by-the-nucleus-from-pathways-to-scaling-relationships
#18
REVIEW
Sangkyun Cho, Jerome Irianto, Dennis E Discher
The nucleus is linked mechanically to the extracellular matrix via multiple polymers that transmit forces to the nuclear envelope and into the nuclear interior. Here, we review some of the emerging mechanisms of nuclear mechanosensing, which range from changes in protein conformation and transcription factor localization to chromosome reorganization and membrane dilation up to rupture. Nuclear mechanosensing encompasses biophysically complex pathways that often converge on the main structural proteins of the nucleus, the lamins...
February 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036174/mechanosensitive-gold-colloidal-membranes-mediated-by-supramolecular-interfacial-self-assembly
#19
João Paulo Coelho, María José Mayoral, Luis Camacho, María T Martín-Romero, Gloria Tardajos, Iván López-Montero, Eduardo Sanz, David Ávila-Brande, Juan José Giner-Casares, Gustavo Fernández, Andrés Guerrero-Martínez
The ability to respond toward mechanical stimuli is a fundamental property of biological organisms at both the macroscopic and cellular levels, yet it has been considerably less observed in artificial supramolecular and colloidal homologues. An archetypal example in this regard is cellular mechanosensation, a process by which mechanical forces applied on the cell membrane are converted into biochemical or electrical signals through nanometer-scale changes in molecular conformations. In this article, we report an artificial gold nanoparticle (Au NP)-discrete π-conjugated molecule hybrid system that mimics the mechanical behavior of biological membranes and is able to self-assemble into colloidal gold nanoclusters or membranes in a controlled and reversible fashion by changing the concentration or the mechanical force (pressure) applied...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981364/synergistic-interplay-of-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-dictates-kv7-4-channel-activity
#20
Oleksandr V Povstyan, Vincenzo Barrese, Jennifer B Stott, Iain A Greenwood
Kv7.4 channels are key determinants of arterial contractility and cochlear mechanosensation that, like all Kv7 channels, have an obligatory requirement for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). βγ G proteins (Gβγ) have been identified as novel positive regulators of Kv7.4. The present study ascertained whether Gβγ increased Kv7.4 open probability through an increased sensitivity to PIP2. In HEK cells stably expressing Kv7.4, PIP2 or Gβγ increased open probability in a concentration dependent manner...
February 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
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