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Mechanosensing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923939/asymmetric-mechanosensitivity-in-a-eukaryotic-ion-channel
#1
Michael V Clausen, Viwan Jarerattanachat, Elisabeth P Carpenter, Mark S P Sansom, Stephen J Tucker
Living organisms perceive and respond to a diverse range of mechanical stimuli. A variety of mechanosensitive ion channels have evolved to facilitate these responses, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their exquisite sensitivity to different forces within the membrane remains unclear. TREK-2 is a mammalian two-pore domain (K2P) K(+) channel important for mechanosensation, and recent studies have shown how increased membrane tension favors a more expanded conformation of the channel within the membrane...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918946/cooperative-behavior-emerges-among-drosophila-larvae
#2
Mark Dombrovski, Leanne Poussard, Kamilia Moalem, Lucia Kmecova, Nic Hogan, Elisabeth Schott, Andrea Vaccari, Scott Acton, Barry Condron
Spectacular examples of cooperative behavior emerge among a variety of animals and may serve critical roles in fitness [1, 2]. However, the rules governing such behavior have been difficult to elucidate [2]. Drosophila larvae are known to socially aggregate [3, 4] and use vision, mechanosensation, and gustation to recognize each other [5-8]. We describe here a model experimental system of cooperative behavior involving Drosophila larvae. While foraging in liquid food, larvae are observed to align themselves and coordinate their movements in order to drag a common air cavity and dig deeper...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914311/comparing-caenorhabditis-elegans-gentle-and-harsh-touch-response-behavior-using-a-multiplexed-hydraulic-microfluidic-device
#3
Patrick D McClanahan, Joyce H Xu, Christopher Fang-Yen
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model system for understanding the genetics and physiology of touch. Classical assays for C. elegans touch, which involve manually touching the animal with a probe and observing its response, are limited by their low throughput and qualitative nature. We developed a microfluidic device in which several dozen animals are subject to spatially localized mechanical stimuli with variable amplitude. The device contains 64 sinusoidal channels through which worms crawl, and hydraulic valves that deliver touch stimuli to the worms...
September 15, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905996/merkel-cells-and-meissner-s-corpuscles-in-human-digital-skin-display-piezo2-immunoreactivity
#4
Y García-Mesa, J García-Piqueras, B García, J Feito, R Cabo, J Cobo, J A Vega, O García-Suárez
The transformation of mechanical energy into electrical signals is the first step in mechanotransduction in the peripheral sensory nervous system and relies on the presence of mechanically gated ion channels within specialized sensory organs called mechanoreceptors. Piezo2 is a vertebrate stretch-gated ion channel necessary for mechanosensitive channels in mammalian cells. Functionally, it is related to light touch, which has been detected in murine cutaneous Merkel cell-neurite complexes, Meissner-like corpuscles and lanceolate nerve endings...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904136/neural-evidence-supports-a-dual-sensory-motor-role-for-insect-wings
#5
Brandon Pratt, Tanvi Deora, Thomas Mohren, Thomas Daniel
Flying insects use feedback from various sensory modalities including vision and mechanosensation to navigate through their environment. The rapid speed of mechanosensory information acquisition and processing compensates for the slower processing times associated with vision, particularly under low light conditions. While halteres in dipteran species are well known to provide such information for flight control, less is understood about the mechanosensory roles of their evolutionary antecedent, wings. The features that wing mechanosensory neurons (campaniform sensilla) encode remains relatively unexplored...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903319/loss-of-giant-obscurins-alters-breast-epithelial-cell-mechanosensing-of-matrix-stiffness
#6
Kimberly M Stroka, Bin Sheng Wong, Marey Shriver, Jude M Phillip, Denis Wirtz, Aikaterini Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
Obscurins are a family of RhoGEF-containing proteins with tumor and metastasis suppressing roles in breast epithelium. Downregulation of giant obscurins in normal breast epithelial cells leads to reduced levels of active RhoA and of its downstream effectors. Herein, we elucidate how depletion of giant obscurins affects the response of breast epithelial cells to changes in the mechanical properties of the microenvironment. We find that knockdown of obscurins increases cell morphodynamics, migration speed, and diffusivity on polyacrylamide gels of ≥ 1 kPa, presumably by decreasing focal adhesion area and density as well as cell traction forces...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891009/aging-osteocytes-and-mechanotransduction
#7
REVIEW
Haniyeh Hemmatian, Astrid D Bakker, Jenneke Klein-Nulend, G Harry van Lenthe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The bone is able to adapt its structure to mechanical signals via the bone remodeling process governed by mechanosensitive osteocytes. With aging, an imbalance in bone remodeling results in osteoporosis. In this review, we hypothesized that changes in lacunar morphology underlie the decreased bone mechanoresponsiveness to mechanical loading with aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have reported considerable variations in the shape of osteocytes and their lacunae with aging...
September 11, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890169/how-can-we-predict-cellular-mechanosensation-comment-on-cellular-mechanosensing-of-the-biophysical-microenvironment-a-review-of-mathematical-models-of-biophysical-regulation-of-cell-responses-by-bo-cheng-et-al
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887547/uncovering-the-effect-of-low-frequency-static-magnetic-field-on-tendon-derived-cells-from-mechanosensing-to-tenogenesis
#9
Tamagno Pesqueira, Raquel Costa-Almeida, Manuela E Gomes
Magnetotherapy has been receiving increased attention as an attractive strategy for modulating cell physiology directly at the site of injury, thereby providing the medical community with a safe and non-invasive therapy. Yet, how magnetic field influences tendon cells both at the cellular and molecular levels remains unclear. Thus, the influence of a low-frequency static magnetic field (2 Hz, 350 mT) on human tendon-derived cells was studied using different exposure times (4 and 8 h; short-term studies) and different regimens of exposure to an 8h-period of magnetic stimulation (continuous, every 24 h or every 48 h; long-term studies)...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860131/clasp1-regulates-endothelial-cell-branching-morphology-and-directed-migration
#10
Nicole M Myer, Kenneth A Myers
Endothelial cell (EC) branching is critically dependent upon the dynamic nature of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. Extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanosensing is a prominent mechanism by which cytoskeletal reorganization is achieved; yet how ECM-induced signaling is able to target cytoskeletal reorganization intracellularly to facilitate productive EC branching morphogenesis is not known. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that the composition and density of the ECM drive the regulation of MT growth dynamics in ECs by targeting the MT stabilizing protein, CLASP1...
August 31, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855375/shear-stress-induces-non-canonical-autophagic-flux-in-intestinal-epithelial-monolayers
#11
Sun Wook Kim, Jonathan Ehrman, Mok-Ryeon Ahn, Jumpei Kondo, Andrea A Mancheno Lopez, Yun Sik Oh, Hanjune X Kim, Scott W Crawley, James R Goldenring, Matthew J Tyska, Erin C Rericha, Ken S Lau
Flow of fluids through the gut, such as milk from a neonatal diet, generates a shear stress on the unilaminar epithelium lining the lumen.  We report that exposure to physiological levels of fluid shear stress leads to the formation of large vacuoles, containing extracellular content, within polarizing intestinal epithelial cell monolayers.  These observations lead to two questions: how can cells lacking primary cilia transduce shear stress, and what molecular pathways support the formation of vacuoles that can exceed 80% of the cell volume...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841292/remote-control-of-multimodal-nanoscale-ligand-oscillations-regulates-stem-cell-adhesion-and-differentiation
#12
Heemin Kang, Dexter Siu Hong Wong, Xiaohui Yan, Hee Joon Jung, Sungkyu Kim, Sien Lin, Kongchang Wei, Gang Li, Vinayak P Dravid, Liming Bian
Cellular adhesion is regulated by the dynamic ligation process of surface receptors, such as integrin, to adhesive motifs, such as Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). Remote control of adhesive ligand presentation using external stimuli is an appealing strategy for the temporal regulation of cell-implant interactions in vivo and was recently demonstrated using photochemical reaction. However, the limited tissue penetration of light potentially hampers the widespread applications of this method in vivo. Here, we present a strategy for modulating the nanoscale oscillations of an integrin ligand simply and solely by adjusting the frequency of an oscillating magnetic field to regulate the adhesion and differentiation of stem cells...
August 30, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830744/mechanosensing-in-the-immune-response
#13
REVIEW
Arpita Upadhyaya
Cells have a remarkable ability to sense and respond to the mechanical properties of their environment. Mechanosensing is essential for many phenomena from cell movements and tissue rearrangements to cell differentiation and the immune response. Cells of the immune system get activated when membrane receptors bind to cognate antigen on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Both T and B lymphocyte signaling has been shown to be responsive to physical forces and mechanical cues. Cytoskeletal forces exerted by cells likely mediate this mechanical modulation...
August 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827528/optical-%C3%A2%C2%B5-printing-of-cellular-scale-microscaffold-arrays-for-3d-cell-culture
#14
Xia Ouyang, Kunyu Zhang, Jushuai Wu, Dexter Siu-Hong Wong, Qian Feng, Liming Bian, A Ping Zhang
Guiding cell culture via engineering extracellular microenvironment has attracted tremendous attention due to its appealing potentials in the repair, maintenance, and development of tissues or even whole organs. However, conventional biofabrication technologies are usually less productive in fabricating microscale three-dimensional (3D) constructs because of the strident requirements in processing precision and complexity. Here we present an optical µ-printing technology to rapidly fabricate 3D microscaffold arrays for 3D cell culture and cell-scaffold interaction studies on a single chip...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819695/theoretical-modeling-of-mechanical-homeostasis-of-a-mammalian-cell-under-gravity-directed-vector
#15
Lüwen Zhou, Chen Zhang, Fan Zhang, Shouqin Lü, Shujin Sun, Dongyuan Lü, Mian Long
Translocation of dense nucleus along gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a eukaryotic cell. In our previous experiments, we quantified the impact of gravity vector on cell remodeling by placing an MC3T3-E1 cell onto upward (U)-, downward (D)-, or edge-on (E)- orientated substrate. Our experimental data demonstrate that orientation dependence of nucleus longitudinal translocation is positively correlated with cytoskeletal (CSK) remodeling of their expressions and structures and also is associated with rearrangement of focal adhesion complex (FAC)...
August 17, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818939/preventing-mussel-adhesion-using-lubricant-infused-materials
#16
Shahrouz Amini, Stefan Kolle, Luigi Petrone, Onyemaechi Ahanotu, Steffi Sunny, Clarinda N Sutanto, Shawn Hoon, Lucas Cohen, James C Weaver, Joanna Aizenberg, Nicolas Vogel, Ali Miserez
Mussels are opportunistic macrofouling organisms that can attach to most immersed solid surfaces, leading to serious economic and ecological consequences for the maritime and aquaculture industries. We demonstrate that lubricant-infused coatings exhibit very low preferential mussel attachment and ultralow adhesive strengths under both controlled laboratory conditions and in marine field studies. Detailed investigations across multiple length scales-from the molecular-scale characterization of deposited adhesive proteins to nanoscale contact mechanics to macroscale live observations-suggest that lubricant infusion considerably reduces fouling by deceiving the mechanosensing ability of mussels, deterring secretion of adhesive threads, and decreasing the molecular work of adhesion...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811527/atherosusceptible-shear-stress-activates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-to-promote-endothelial-inflammation
#17
Keith A Bailey, Fawaz G Haj, Scott I Simon, Anthony G Passerini
Atherosclerosis impacts arteries where disturbed blood flow renders the endothelium susceptible to inflammation. Cytokine activation of endothelial cells (EC) upregulates VCAM-1 receptors that target monocyte recruitment to atherosusceptible regions. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress elicits EC dysregulation in metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that ER plays a central role in mechanosensing of atherosusceptible shear stress (SS) by signaling enhanced inflammation. Aortic EC were stimulated with low-dose TNFα (0...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811364/mechanosensing-drives-acuity-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-recognition
#18
Yinnian Feng, Kristine N Brazin, Eiji Kobayashi, Robert J Mallis, Ellis L Reinherz, Matthew J Lang
T lymphocytes use surface [Formula: see text] T-cell receptors (TCRs) to recognize peptides bound to MHC molecules (pMHCs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). How the exquisite specificity of high-avidity T cells is achieved is unknown but essential, given the paucity of foreign pMHC ligands relative to the ubiquitous self-pMHC array on an APC. Using optical traps, we determine physicochemical triggering thresholds based on load and force direction. Strikingly, chemical thresholds in the absence of external load require orders of magnitude higher pMHC numbers than observed physiologically...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811261/mechanosensing-from-proteins-to-tissues
#19
EDITORIAL
Ronen Zaidel-Bar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808010/voltage-gated-calcium-flux-mediates-escherichia-coli-mechanosensation
#20
Giancarlo N Bruni, R Andrew Weekley, Benjamin J T Dodd, Joel M Kralj
Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria...
August 29, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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