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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162213/composition-of-marsupial-zona-pellucida-a-molecular-and-phylogenetic-approach
#1
Carla Moros-Nicolás, Pascale Chevret, María José Izquierdo-Rico, William V Holt, Daniela Esteban-Díaz, Manel López-Béjar, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Maria A Nilsson, José Ballesta, Manuel Avilés
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix that surrounds mammalian oocytes. In eutherians it is formed from three or four proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZP4). In the few marsupials that have been studied, however, only three of these have been characterised (ZP2, ZP3, ZP4). Nevertheless, the composition in marsupials may be more complex, since a duplication of the ZP3 gene was recently described in one species. The aim of this work was to elucidate the ZP composition in marsupials and relate it to the evolution of the ZP gene family...
November 22, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159605/outcomes-of-emergency-laparotomy-el-care-protocol-at-tertiary-care-center-from-low-middle-income-country-lmic
#2
Nitin Vashistha, Dinesh Singhal, Sandeep Budhiraja, Bharat Aggarwal, Raj Tobin, Kamal Fotedar
BACKGROUND: Emergency laparotomy mortality ranges between 10 and 20% in best of Western healthcare systems and is currently a major focus for quality improvement programs. In contrast, emergency surgery scenario in LMIC is largely undefined, often neglected and complex (large burden of diseases but only limited capacity for adequate treatment). We evaluated the efficacy of 'EL care protocol' aimed at cost-effective optimal utilization of best available local expertise and infrastructure...
November 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157368/livestock-as-sentinels-for-an-infectious-disease-in-a-sympatric-or-adjacent-living-wildlife-reservoir-host
#3
D P Anderson, A M Gormley, M Bosson, P G Livingstone, G Nugent
A central question to address in managing wildlife diseases is how much effort and resources are required to reduce infection prevalence to below a requisite threshold? This requires surveillance for infection in at least one species involved in the infection cycle, a process that is often expensive and time-consuming but one which could be enhanced using additional sources of readily-obtainable surveillance data. We demonstrate how surveillance data from ruminant livestock monitored for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in New Zealand can be employed in spatially-explicit modelling to help predict the probability of freedom from Mycobacterium bovis infection in a sympatric wildlife reservoir species, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094030/mortality-risk-factor-analysis-in-colonic-perforation-would-retroperitoneal-contamination-increase-mortality-in-colonic-perforation
#4
Ri Na Yoo, Bong-Hyeon Kye, Gun Kim, Hyung Jin Kim, Hyeon-Min Cho
Purpose: Colonic perforation is a lethal condition presenting high morbidity and mortality in spite of urgent surgical treatment. This study investigated the surgical outcome of patients with colonic perforation associated with retroperitoneal contamination. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 patients diagnosed with colonic perforation caused by either inflammation or ischemia who underwent urgent surgical treatment in our facility from January 2005 to December 2014...
October 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057865/genetic-rescue-increases-fitness-and-aids-rapid-recovery-of-an-endangered-marsupial-population
#5
Andrew R Weeks, Dean Heinze, Louise Perrin, Jakub Stoklosa, Ary A Hoffmann, Anthony van Rooyen, Tom Kelly, Ian Mansergh
Genetic rescue has now been attempted in several threatened species, but the contribution of genetics per se to any increase in population health can be hard to identify. Rescue is expected to be particularly useful when individuals are introduced into small isolated populations with low levels of genetic variation. Here we consider such a situation by documenting genetic rescue in the mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus. Rapid population recovery occurred in the target population after the introduction of a small number of males from a large genetically diverged population...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974065/predicting-postoperative-morbidity-in-adult-elective-surgical-patients-using-the-surgical-outcome-risk-tool-sort
#6
D J N Wong, C M Oliver, S R Moonesinghe
Background: The Surgical Outcome Risk Tool (SORT) is a risk stratification instrument used to predict perioperative mortality. We wanted to evaluate and refine SORT for better prediction of the risk of postoperative morbidity. Methods: We analysed prospectively collected data from a single-centre cohort of adult patients undergoing major elective surgery. The data set was split randomly into derivation and validation samples. We used logistic regression to construct a model in the derivation sample to predict postoperative morbidity as defined using the validated Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS) assessed at 1 week after surgery...
July 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967720/current-multivariate-risk-scores-in-patients-undergoing-non-cardiac-surgery
#7
Gian Francesco Mureddu
Several indexes to predict perioperative cardiovascular risk have been proposed overtime. The most widely used is the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) developed by Lee since 1999. It predicts major cardiac outcomes from five independent clinical determinants: history of ischemic heart disease, history of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and chronic renal failure (i.e. serum creatinine >2 mg/dl). In external validation studies, the RCRI showed high negative predictive value in all groups of age, indicating that it may be used to identify people at low risk for perioperative adverse cardiovascular events in noncardiac surgery...
July 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948335/damage-control-surgery-for-non-traumatic-abdominal-emergencies
#8
Edouard Girard, Julio Abba, Bastien Boussat, Bertrand Trilling, Adrian Mancini, Pierre Bouzat, Christian Létoublon, Mircea Chirica, Catherine Arvieux
BACKGROUND: Damage control surgery (DCS) was a major paradigm change in the management of critically ill trauma patients and has gradually expanded in the general surgery arena, but data in this setting are still scarce. The study aim was to evaluate outcomes of DCS in patients with general surgery emergencies. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2015, 164 patients (104 men, age 66) underwent DCS for non-traumatic abdominal emergencies. The decision to perform DCS was triggered by the presence of at least one trauma DCS criterion: hypotension (<70 mmHg), hypothermia (<35 °C), acidosis (pH < 7...
September 25, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929609/benchmarking-against-the-national-emergency-laparotomy-audit-recommendations
#9
Yiu Ming Ho, Julie Cappello, Ramin Kousary, Brian McGowan, Arkadiusz P Wysocki
BACKGROUND: The Royal College of Anaesthetists published the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) to describe and compare inpatient care and outcomes of major emergency abdominal surgery in England and Wales in 2015 and 2016. The purpose of this article is to compare emergency abdominal surgical care and mortality in a regional hospital (Logan Hospital, Queensland, Australia) with NELA results. METHODS: Data were extracted from two databases. All deaths from May 2010 to April 2015 were reviewed and patients who had an emergency abdominal operation within 30 days of death were identified...
September 19, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903538/possum-a-bioinformatics-toolkit-for-generating-numerical-sequence-feature-descriptors-based-on-pssm-profiles
#10
Jiawei Wang, Bingjiao Yang, Jerico Revote, André Leier, Tatiana T Marquez-Lago, Geoffrey Webb, Jiangning Song, Kuo-Chen Chou, Trevor Lithgow
Summary: Evolutionary information in the form of a Position-Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) is a widely used and highly informative representation of protein sequences. Accordingly, PSSM-based feature descriptors have been successfully applied to improve the performance of various predictors of protein attributes. Even though a number of algorithms have been proposed in previous studies, there is currently no universal web server or toolkit available for generating this wide variety of descriptors...
September 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888636/efficacy-of-oral-bcg-vaccination-in-protecting-free-ranging-cattle-from-natural-infection-by-mycobacterium-bovis
#11
Graham Nugent, Ivor J Yockney, Jackie Whitford, Frank E Aldwell, Bryce M Buddle
Vaccination of cattle against bovine tuberculosis could be a valuable control strategy, particularly in countries faced with intractable ongoing infection from a disease reservoir in wildlife. A field vaccination trial was undertaken in New Zealand. The trial included 1286 effectively free-ranging cattle stocked at low densities in a remote 7600ha area, with 55% of them vaccinated using Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Danish strain 1311). Vaccine was administered orally in all but 34 cases (where it was injected)...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883294/potential-risk-factors-for-postoperative-complications-and-deaths-after-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-in-the-elderly
#12
Manabu Sato, Koujin Endo, Akihiko Harada, Shinichi Yabuuchi
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is performed for gallbladder stones and cholecystitis in a large number of elderly patients. However, the safety of LC in the elderly is questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate predictive factors for the incidence of postoperative complications and deaths after LC in patients aged 80 years and older. Data from 85 elderly patients who underwent LC between January 2005 and December 2015 were prospectively collected in a database at our hospital. The following factors were compared for the occurrence of postoperative complications and deaths:age, gender, Body Mass Index, laboratory date, severity grade of cholecystitis, comorbidity of choledocholithiasis, conversion to open cholecystectomy, early or delayed LC, amount of time from onset to LC, operative duration, blood loss, and the following scoring systems for predicting risk of surgery:ECOG-PS, ASA, SIRS, CONUT, POSSUM, SAS, E-PASS...
2017: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880703/the-association-between-surgical-complications-and-the-possum-score-in-head-and-neck-reconstruction-a-retrospective-single-center-study
#13
Yohjiroh Makino, Katsuhiro Ishida, Keita Kishi, Hiroki Kodama, Takeshi Miyawaki
The Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) is widely used to predict surgical complications affecting various organs. However, there are few reports about objective evaluation methods for head and neck surgery. In this study, we retrospectively examined the association between POSSUM score and actual surgical complications of head and neck reconstruction surgery. In total, 711 patients who underwent head and neck reconstruction after cancer extirpation between January 2007 and January 2015 were studied...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758231/redefining-the-stress-cortisol-response-to-surgery
#14
Bernard Khoo, Piers R Boshier, Alexander Freethy, George Tharakan, Samerah Saeed, Neil Hill, Emma L Williams, Krishna Moorthy, Neil Tolley, Long R Jiao, Duncan Spalding, Fausto Palazzo, Karim Meeran, Tricia Tan
BACKGROUND: Cortisol levels rise with the physiological stress of surgery. Previous studies have used older, less-specific assays, have not differentiated by severity or only studied procedures of a defined type. The aim of this study was to examine this phenomenon in surgeries of varying severity using a widely used cortisol immunoassay. METHODS: Euadrenal patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled prospectively. Serum samples were taken at 8 am on surgical day, induction and 1 hour, 2 hour, 4 hour and 8 hour after...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704730/consistent-patterns-of-vehicle-collision-risk-for-six-mammal-species
#15
Casey Visintin, Rodney van der Ree, Michael A McCarthy
The occurrence and rate of wildlife-vehicle collisions are related to both anthropocentric and environmental variables, however, few studies compare collision risks for multiple species within a model framework that is adaptable and transferable. Our research compares collision risk for multiple species across a large geographic area using a conceptually simple risk framework. We used six species of native terrestrial mammal often involved with wildlife-vehicle collisions in south-east Australia. We related collisions reported to a wildlife organisation to the co-occurrence of each species and a threatening process (presence and movement of road vehicles)...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688214/uterine-molecular-changes-for-non-invasive-embryonic-attachment-in-the-marsupials-macropus-eugenii-macropodidae-and-trichosurus-vulpecula-phalangeridae
#16
Melanie K Laird, Jessica R Dargan, Lillian Paterson, Christopher R Murphy, Bronwyn M McAllan, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree, Michael B Thompson
Pregnancy in mammals requires remodeling of the uterus to become receptive to the implanting embryo. Remarkably similar morphological changes to the uterine epithelium occur in both eutherian and marsupial mammals, irrespective of placental type. Nevertheless, molecular differences in uterine remodeling indicate that the marsupial uterus employs maternal defences, including molecular reinforcement of the uterine epithelium, to regulate embryonic invasion. Non-invasive (epitheliochorial) embryonic attachment in marsupials likely evolved secondarily from invasive attachment, so uterine defences in these species may prevent embryonic invasion...
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644586/medical-record-weight-mrw-a-new-reliable-predictor-of-hospital-stay-morbidity-and-mortality-in-the-hip-fracture-population
#17
P Calpin, K Taheny, J F Baker, J Green, J P McCabe
We sought to compare the weight of patient's medical records (MRW) to that of standardised surgical risk scoring systems in predicting postoperative hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality in patients with hip fracture. Patients admitted for surgical treatment of a newly diagnosed hip fracture over a 3-month period were enrolled. Patients with documented morbidity or mortality had significantly heavier medical records. The MRW was equivalent to the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index and better than the American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status score (ASA), the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM,) and Portsmouth-POSSUM score (P-POSSUM) in correlation with length of hospital admission, p = ...
December 12, 2016: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628459/francisella-tularensis-ssp-holarctica-in-ringtail-possums-australia
#18
John-Sebastian Eden, Karrie Rose, Jimmy Ng, Mang Shi, Qinning Wang, Vitali Sintchenko, Edward C Holmes
The occurrence of Francisella tularensis outside of endemic areas, such as North America and Eurasia, has been enigmatic. We report the metagenomic discovery and isolation of F. tularensis ssp. holarctica biovar japonica from diseased ringtail possums in Sydney, Australia. This finding confirms the presence of F. tularensis in the Southern Hemisphere.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616504/q-fever-in-an-endemic-region-of-north-queensland-australia-a-10%C3%A2-year-review
#19
Pirathaban Sivabalan, Apoorva Saboo, James Yew, Robert Norton
BACKGROUND: Q fever is a zoonotic infection caused by Coxiella burnetii. Endemic Q fever has long been recognised in north Queensland, with north Queensland previously acknowledged to have the highest rate of notification in Australia. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the demographics and exposure of patients diagnosed with Q fever in an endemic region of north Queensland, to identify trends and exposure factors for the acquisition of Q fever. METHODS: A retrospective study looking at patients in the region that had tested positive for Q fever by case ascertainment between 2004 and 2014...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576823/heart-rate-dynamics-in-a-marsupial-hibernator
#20
Steven J Swoap, Gerhard Körtner, Fritz Geiser
The eastern pygmy possum (Cercartetus nanus) is a small marsupial that can express spontaneous short bouts of torpor, as well as multi-day bouts of deep hibernation. To examine heart rate (fH) control at various stages of torpor in a marsupial hibernator, and to see whether fH variability differs from that of deep placental hibernators, we used radiotelemetry to measure ECG and body temperature (Tb) while measuring the rate of O2 consumption and ventilation. fH and O2 consumption rate during euthermia were at a minimum (321±34 beats min(-1), 0...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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