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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330956/craniomandibular-variation-in-phalangeriform-marsupials-functional-comparisons-with-primates
#1
Elizabeth M St Clair, Nicholas Reback, Jonathan M G Perry
Phalangeriform marsupials have often been compared with primates because of similarity in the range of external morphology, ecological niches, and body size between the two radiations. We explore morphological convergence in the masticatory anatomy of strepsirrhine primates and phalangeriforms, through osteological measurements of the mandible and facial skeleton, and through dissection of the masticatory musculature, presenting new data on the arrangement and proportions of jaw adductors in phalangeriforms...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308252/spatial-utilization-predicts-animal-social-contact-networks-are-not-scale-free
#2
Alex James, Jeanette C McLeod, Carlos Rouco, Kyle S Richardson, Daniel M Tompkins
While heterogeneity in social behaviour has been described in many human contexts it is often assumed to be less common in the animal kingdom even though scale-free networks are observed. This homogeneity raises the question of whether the patterns of behaviour necessary to account for scale-free social contact networks, where the degree distribution follows a power law, i.e. a few individuals are very highly connected but most have only a few connections, occur in animals, or whether other mechanisms are needed to produce realistic contact network architectures...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297829/occurrence-of-pasteurellaceae-bacteria-in-the-oral-cavity-of-selected-marsupial-species
#3
Mie Johanne Hansen, Mads F Bertelsen, Androo Kelly, Anders Miki Bojesen
Eighty-two Pasteurellaceae isolates from marsupials characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequences formed five distinct groups. Twenty-one strains from long-nosed potoroos ( Potorous tridactylus apicalis), spotted-tailed quolls ( Dasyurus maculatus), and eastern quolls ( Dasyurus viverrinus) made up group 1, which classified with Frederiksenia canicola. Group 2, 15 strains from Tasmanian devils ( Sarcophilus harrisii), common wombats ( Vombatus ursinus), common ring-tailed possums ( Pseudocheirus peregrinus), and eastern quolls, grouped with Pasteurella multocida...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277590/feasibility-of-a-modified-e-pass-and-possum-system-for-postoperative-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-spinal-disease
#4
Dong Hyun Chun, Do Young Kim, Sun Kyu Choi, Dong Ah Shin, Yoon Ha, Keung Nyun Kim, Do Heum Yoon, Seong Yi
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case control study OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using Estimation of Physiological Ability and Surgical Stress (E-PASS) and Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) systems in patients undergoing spinal surgical procedures. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Degenerative spine disease has increased in incidence in aging societies, as has the number of older adult patients undergoing spinal surgery...
December 22, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243855/non-invasive-placentation-in-the-marsupials-macropus-eugenii-macropodidae-and-trichosurus-vulpecula-phalangeridae-involves-redistribution-of-uterine-desmoglein-2
#5
Melanie K Laird, Hanon McShea, Christopher R Murphy, Bronwyn M McAllan, Geoff Shaw, Marilyn B Renfree, Michael B Thompson
In mammalian pregnancy, the uterus is remodelled to become receptive to embryonic implantation. Since non-invasive placentation in marsupials is likely derived from invasive placentation, and is underpinned by intra-uterine conflict between mother and embryo, species with non-invasive placentation may employ a variety of molecular mechanisms to maintain an intact uterine epithelium and to prevent embryonic invasion. Identifying such modifications to the uterine epithelium of marsupial species with non-invasive placentation is key to understanding how conflict is mediated during pregnancy in different mammalian groups...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234116/the-response-of-an-arboreal-mammal-to-livestock-grazing-is-habitat-dependant
#6
Heather Neilly, Lin Schwarzkopf
Inappropriate livestock grazing is implicated in the decline of vertebrate fauna species globally. Faunal responses to grazing can interact with the vegetation community in which they occur. We measured the response of an arboreal marsupial, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula vulpecula) to different cattle grazing strategies and vegetation types, and examined whether micro-habitat selection is driving this response. We hypothesised that where arboreal habitat is intact, brushtail possums would be resistant to the impacts of heavy grazing...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209932/intraspecific-variation-in-nutritional-composition-affects-the-leaf-age-preferences-of-a-mammalian-herbivore
#7
Karen J Marsh, Jessica Ward, Ian R Wallis, William J Foley
Ecologists have long been interested in how the nutritional composition of leaves changes as they age, and whether this affects herbivore feeding preferences. As a consequence, the literature abounds with reports that younger leaves contain higher concentrations of nitrogen and plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) than do older leaves. Most of these studies, however, base their conclusions on average values that often mean little to herbivores. We examined this issue in the well-studied marsupial-eucalypt system, using Eucalyptus melliodora and captive common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) offered branches from individual trees containing both young and mature leaves...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191635/o-possum-score-predicts-morbidity-and-mortality-in-patients-undergoing-hip-fracture-surgery
#8
Elena Blay-Domínguez, Francisco Lajara-Marco, Pablo Federico Bernáldez-Silvetti, Eva María Veracruz-Gálvez, Beatriz Muela-Pérez, Miguel Ángel Palazón-Banegas, José Eduardo Salinas-Gilabert, Juan Antonio Lozano-Requena
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the O-POSSUM score capacity to predict the morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients older than 65years old, operated on for hip fractures between January 2012 and December 2013. Of 229 patients, the mean age was 82.3years and 170 were women. We collected comorbidities, type of surgery, and expected morbidity and mortality O-POSSUM values...
November 27, 2017: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188899/utility-of-three-prognostic-risk-scores-in-predicting-outcomes-in-elderly-non-malignant-patients-after-percutaneous-gastrostomy
#9
Ç Kalkan, A Ç Kartal, F Karakaya, A Tüzün, I Soykan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a method of providing enteral feeding to patients who cannot take adequate oral nutrition. The aims of this study were to determine the performance of malnutrition and mortality scoring systems for predicting short and long-term mortality in elderly patients who had undergone gastrostomy procedure due to non-malignant conditions. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: University hospital in Turkey...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169796/physiological-and-operative-severity-score-for-the-enumeration-of-mortality-and-morbidity-possum-system-for-outcome-prediction-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-major-vascular-surgery
#10
Inês M Teixeira, Ana R Teles, José M Castro, Luís F Azevedo, Joana B Mourão
OBJECTIVE: POSSUM system is widely used and validated for 30-day mortality and morbidity prediction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of five POSSUM's equations (POSSUM, P-POSSUM, V-POSSUM, V-POSSUM physiology and V-POSSUM Cambridge) on predicting 30-day mortality and morbidity in elderly patients undergoing major elective vascular surgery. DESIGN: A retrospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: A study conducted at an University Hospital...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162213/composition-of-marsupial-zona-pellucida-a-molecular-and-phylogenetic-approach
#11
Carla Moros-Nicolás, Pascale Chevret, María José Izquierdo-Rico, William V Holt, Daniela Esteban-Díaz, Manel López-Béjar, Eva Martínez-Nevado, Maria A Nilsson, José Ballesta, Manuel Avilés
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular matrix that surrounds mammalian oocytes. In eutherians it is formed from three or four proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, ZP4). In the few marsupials that have been studied, however, only three of these have been characterised (ZP2, ZP3, ZP4). Nevertheless, the composition in marsupials may be more complex, since a duplication of the ZP3 gene was recently described in one species. The aim of this work was to elucidate the ZP composition in marsupials and relate it to the evolution of the ZP gene family...
November 22, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159605/outcomes-of-emergency-laparotomy-el-care-protocol-at-tertiary-care-center-from-low-middle-income-country-lmic
#12
Nitin Vashistha, Dinesh Singhal, Sandeep Budhiraja, Bharat Aggarwal, Raj Tobin, Kamal Fotedar
BACKGROUND: Emergency laparotomy mortality ranges between 10 and 20% in best of Western healthcare systems and is currently a major focus for quality improvement programs. In contrast, emergency surgery scenario in LMIC is largely undefined, often neglected and complex (large burden of diseases but only limited capacity for adequate treatment). We evaluated the efficacy of 'EL care protocol' aimed at cost-effective optimal utilization of best available local expertise and infrastructure...
November 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157368/livestock-as-sentinels-for-an-infectious-disease-in-a-sympatric-or-adjacent-living-wildlife-reservoir-host
#13
D P Anderson, A M Gormley, M Bosson, P G Livingstone, G Nugent
A central question to address in managing wildlife diseases is how much effort and resources are required to reduce infection prevalence to below a requisite threshold? This requires surveillance for infection in at least one species involved in the infection cycle, a process that is often expensive and time-consuming but one which could be enhanced using additional sources of readily-obtainable surveillance data. We demonstrate how surveillance data from ruminant livestock monitored for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in New Zealand can be employed in spatially-explicit modelling to help predict the probability of freedom from Mycobacterium bovis infection in a sympatric wildlife reservoir species, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094030/mortality-risk-factor-analysis-in-colonic-perforation-would-retroperitoneal-contamination-increase-mortality-in-colonic-perforation
#14
Ri Na Yoo, Bong-Hyeon Kye, Gun Kim, Hyung Jin Kim, Hyeon-Min Cho
Purpose: Colonic perforation is a lethal condition presenting high morbidity and mortality in spite of urgent surgical treatment. This study investigated the surgical outcome of patients with colonic perforation associated with retroperitoneal contamination. Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed for 30 patients diagnosed with colonic perforation caused by either inflammation or ischemia who underwent urgent surgical treatment in our facility from January 2005 to December 2014...
October 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057865/genetic-rescue-increases-fitness-and-aids-rapid-recovery-of-an-endangered-marsupial-population
#15
Andrew R Weeks, Dean Heinze, Louise Perrin, Jakub Stoklosa, Ary A Hoffmann, Anthony van Rooyen, Tom Kelly, Ian Mansergh
Genetic rescue has now been attempted in several threatened species, but the contribution of genetics per se to any increase in population health can be hard to identify. Rescue is expected to be particularly useful when individuals are introduced into small isolated populations with low levels of genetic variation. Here we consider such a situation by documenting genetic rescue in the mountain pygmy possum, Burramys parvus. Rapid population recovery occurred in the target population after the introduction of a small number of males from a large genetically diverged population...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974065/predicting-postoperative-morbidity-in-adult-elective-surgical-patients-using-the-surgical-outcome-risk-tool-sort
#16
D J N Wong, C M Oliver, S R Moonesinghe
Background: The Surgical Outcome Risk Tool (SORT) is a risk stratification instrument used to predict perioperative mortality. We wanted to evaluate and refine SORT for better prediction of the risk of postoperative morbidity. Methods: We analysed prospectively collected data from a single-centre cohort of adult patients undergoing major elective surgery. The data set was split randomly into derivation and validation samples. We used logistic regression to construct a model in the derivation sample to predict postoperative morbidity as defined using the validated Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS) assessed at 1 week after surgery...
July 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967720/current-multivariate-risk-scores-in-patients-undergoing-non-cardiac-surgery
#17
Gian Francesco Mureddu
Several indexes to predict perioperative cardiovascular risk have been proposed overtime. The most widely used is the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) developed by Lee since 1999. It predicts major cardiac outcomes from five independent clinical determinants: history of ischemic heart disease, history of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and chronic renal failure (i.e. serum creatinine >2 mg/dl). In external validation studies, the RCRI showed high negative predictive value in all groups of age, indicating that it may be used to identify people at low risk for perioperative adverse cardiovascular events in noncardiac surgery...
July 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948335/damage-control-surgery-for-non-traumatic-abdominal-emergencies
#18
Edouard Girard, Julio Abba, Bastien Boussat, Bertrand Trilling, Adrian Mancini, Pierre Bouzat, Christian Létoublon, Mircea Chirica, Catherine Arvieux
BACKGROUND: Damage control surgery (DCS) was a major paradigm change in the management of critically ill trauma patients and has gradually expanded in the general surgery arena, but data in this setting are still scarce. The study aim was to evaluate outcomes of DCS in patients with general surgery emergencies. METHODS: Between 2005 and 2015, 164 patients (104 men, age 66) underwent DCS for non-traumatic abdominal emergencies. The decision to perform DCS was triggered by the presence of at least one trauma DCS criterion: hypotension (<70 mmHg), hypothermia (<35 °C), acidosis (pH < 7...
September 25, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929609/benchmarking-against-the-national-emergency-laparotomy-audit-recommendations
#19
Yiu Ming Ho, Julie Cappello, Ramin Kousary, Brian McGowan, Arkadiusz P Wysocki
BACKGROUND: The Royal College of Anaesthetists published the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) to describe and compare inpatient care and outcomes of major emergency abdominal surgery in England and Wales in 2015 and 2016. The purpose of this article is to compare emergency abdominal surgical care and mortality in a regional hospital (Logan Hospital, Queensland, Australia) with NELA results. METHODS: Data were extracted from two databases. All deaths from May 2010 to April 2015 were reviewed and patients who had an emergency abdominal operation within 30 days of death were identified...
September 19, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903538/possum-a-bioinformatics-toolkit-for-generating-numerical-sequence-feature-descriptors-based-on-pssm-profiles
#20
Jiawei Wang, Bingjiao Yang, Jerico Revote, André Leier, Tatiana T Marquez-Lago, Geoffrey Webb, Jiangning Song, Kuo-Chen Chou, Trevor Lithgow
Summary: Evolutionary information in the form of a Position-Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) is a widely used and highly informative representation of protein sequences. Accordingly, PSSM-based feature descriptors have been successfully applied to improve the performance of various predictors of protein attributes. Even though a number of algorithms have been proposed in previous studies, there is currently no universal web server or toolkit available for generating this wide variety of descriptors...
September 1, 2017: Bioinformatics
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