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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226343/-diagnosis-and-risk-assessment-of-postoperative-complications-of-gastric-cancer-in-japan-and-korea
#1
Xiang Hu, Chi Zhang
Radical surgery of gastric cancer (D2 lymph node dissection) as the standard operation is widely used in clinical practice and satisfactory prognosis can be obtained in patients who receive radical gastrectomy. But surgical invasion can cause high morbidity of complications and mortality. The data of large-scale evidence-based medical clinical trials and large databases in Japan and Korea showed that anastomotic leakage, pancreatic leakage and abdominal abscess were the most common complications after gastrectomy, and the morbidity of complication was about 20% and mortality was about 1%...
February 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209138/using-whole-genome-sequencing-to-investigate-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system-bovine-tuberculosis-in-new-zealand
#2
Joseph Crispell, Ruth N Zadoks, Simon R Harris, Brent Paterson, Desmond M Collins, Geoffrey W de-Lisle, Paul Livingstone, Mark A Neill, Roman Biek, Samantha J Lycett, Rowland R Kao, Marian Price-Carter
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an important livestock disease raising public health and economic concerns around the world. In New Zealand, a number of wildlife species are implicated in the spread and persistence of bTB in cattle populations, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Whole Genome Sequenced (WGS) M. bovis isolates sourced from infected cattle and wildlife across New Zealand were analysed. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted to estimate the substitution rate of the sampled population and investigate the role of wildlife...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194619/how-herbivore-browsing-strategy-affects-whole-plant-photosynthetic-capacity
#3
E Penelope Holland, Julie Mugford, Rachelle N Binny, Alex James
If a browse damage index indicates that a tree has been 50% browsed by herbivores, does this mean half the leaves are entirely eaten or are all the leaves half eaten? Were the affected leaves old or young? Large or small? In sunshine or shade? Understanding what effect browsing will have on the photosynthetic capacity and the plant's survival ability clearly requires a greater understanding of browsing strategy across the canopy than can be given by a single index value. We developed stochastic models of leaf production, growth and consumption using data from kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa) trees in New Zealand which have been browsed by possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), to ascertain which of six feasible browsing strategies possums are most likely to be employing...
February 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173840/morphological-and-molecular-description-of-ixodes-woyliei-n-sp-ixodidae-with-consideration-for-co-extinction-with-its-critically-endangered-marsupial-host
#4
Amanda Ash, Aileen Elliot, Stephanie Godfrey, Halina Burmej, Mohammad Yazid Abdad, Amy Northover, Adrian Wayne, Keith Morris, Peta Clode, Alan Lymbery, R C Andrew Thompson
BACKGROUND: Taxonomic identification of ticks obtained during a longitudinal survey of the critically endangered marsupial, Bettongia penicillata Gray, 1837 (woylie, brush-tailed bettong) revealed a new species of Ixodes Latrielle, 1795. Here we provide morphological data for the female and nymphal life stages of this novel species (Ixodes woyliei n. sp.), in combination with molecular characterisation using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). In addition, molecular characterisation was conducted on several described Ixodes species and used to provide phylogenetic context...
February 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133047/-risk-evaluation-and-prognostic-prediction-of-colorectal-cancer-in-elderly-patients-over-80-years-of-age
#5
Shinji Ohki, Koji Kase, Shun Chida, Suguru Hayase, Shotaro Fujita, Tomoyuki Monma, Masashi Takawa, Koji Kono, Toru Ohtake, Seiichi Takenoshita
This study aimed to investigate risk factors and prognosis ofcolorectal cancer in patients over 80 years ofage. Surgical risk was evaluated by colorectal POSSUM(CR-POSSUM)and prognosis by Glasgow prognostic score(GPS). The analysis included 56 patients aged over 80 years with colorectal cancer during 2002-2012. Mean operation time, blood loss, and period ofhospitalization were 130 min, 111 mL, and 19.9 days, respectively. Postoperative complications occurred in 26 patients (46.4%; complications group). The 5-year overall survival rate for patients with complication scores above 2 was 51...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128541/fenestrated-and-chimney-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-versus-open-surgery-for-complex-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#6
Vicente A Sala-Almonacil, José M Zaragozá-García, Mauricio Ramírez-Montoya, Vicente Molina-Nácher, Inmaculada Martínez-Perelló, Francisco J Gómez-Palonés
BACKGROUND: Many patients with complex abdominal aortic aneurysms are unfit for open repair. New endovascular technologies and bailout techniques are being used for managing those complex anatomies. The purpose of this study is to compare the results obtained with advanced endovascular aneurysm repair techniques (fenestrated and chimney endografts) to those obtained with open repair for the treatment of complex abdominal aortic aneurysms not anatomically suitable for standard endovascular exclusion (infrarenal neck <10 mm, juxtarenal, suprarenal and Crawford's type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysms)...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121984/improving-the-design-of-a-conservation-reserve-for-a-critically-endangered-species
#7
Chris Taylor, Natasha Cadenhead, David B Lindenmayer, Brendan A Wintle
Setting aside protected areas is a key strategy for tackling biodiversity loss. Reserve effectiveness depends on the extent to which protected areas capture both known occurrences and areas likely to support the species. We assessed the effectiveness of the existing reserve network for Leadbeater's Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) and other forest-dependent species, and compared the existing reserve system to a set of plausible reserve expansion options based on area targets implied in a recent Population Viability Analysis (PVA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053107/domain-organization-and-evolution-of-the-highly-divergent-5-coding-region-of-genomes-of-arteriviruses-including-the-novel-possum-nidovirus
#8
Anastasia Gulyaeva, Magdalena Dunowska, Erik Hoogendoorn, Julia Giles, Dmitry Samborskiy, Alexander E Gorbalenya
: In five experimentally characterized arterivirus species, the 5' -end genome coding region comprises most divergent nonstructural proteins (nsp) 1 and 2 that include papain-like proteases (PLPs) and other poorly characterized domains. They are involved in regulation of transcription, polyprotein processing, and virus-host interaction. Here, we present results of bioinformatics analysis of this region of 14 arterivirus species, including that of the most distantly related wobbly possum disease virus (WPDV), determined by a modified 5' RACE protocol...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012389/valuing-conservation-benefits-of-disease-control-in-wildlife-a-choice-experiment-approach-to-bovine-tuberculosis-management-in-new-zealand-s-native-forests
#9
Peter Tait, Caroline Saunders, Graham Nugent, Paul Rutherford
We assess the non-monetary environmental benefits that accrue incidentally in New Zealand (NZ) from pest management conducted primarily to control an animal disease, bovine tuberculosis (TB). TB is an infectious disease that is one of the world's most serious animal health problems and, in many parts of the developing world, still a major mortality risk for humans. The incidence of TB in New Zealand (NZ) farmed livestock has been reduced progressively over the last 20 years, largely due to extensive and sustained population control of the main wildlife reservoir of disease, the introduced brushtail possum...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003671/observational-study-to-assess-and-predict-serious-adverse-events-after-major-surgery
#10
Kyoko Shiozaki, Hiroshi Morimatsu, Takashi Matsusaki, Tatsuo Iwasaki
Many patients suffer from postoperative serious adverse events (SAEs). Here we sought to determine the incidence of SAEs, assess the accuracy of currently used scoring systems in predicting postoperative SAEs, and determine whether a combination of scoring systems would better predict postoperative SAEs. We prospectively evaluated patients who underwent major surgery. We calculated 4 scores: American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA-PS) score, the Charlson Score, the POSSUM (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity) score, and the Surgical Apgar Score (SAS)...
December 2016: Acta Medica Okayama
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999663/implementation-of-goal-directed-fluid-therapy-during-hip-revision-arthroplasty-a-matched-cohort-study
#11
Marit Habicher, Felix Balzer, Viktor Mezger, Jennifer Niclas, Michael Müller, Carsten Perka, Michael Krämer, Michael Sander
BACKGROUND: Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) can decrease postsurgical complications in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. However, very few studies have demonstrated the value of goal-directed therapy (GDT) in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery and confirmed it is as useful in real-life conditions. Therefore, we initiated a GDFT implementation programme in patients undergoing hip revision arthroplasty in order to assess its effects on postoperative complications (e...
2016: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974672/long-term-outcomes-and-propensity-score-matching-analysis-rectal-cancer-resection-for-patients-with-elevated-preoperative-risk
#12
Hao Feng, Tobias S Schiergens, Zhi-Hai Mao, Jingkun Zhao, Xiaohui Shen, Ai-Guo Lu, Wolfgang E Thasler
BACKGROUND: It is still controversial about the treatment strategy for rectal cancer patients with elevated operative risk and elder rectal cancer patients. METHODS: This study presented a retrospective single center experience in rectal cancer proctectomy for high operative risk patients. High operative risk patient was defined as Cr-POSSUM > 5% combined with associated risk factors. 220 in 1477 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: 132 patients were selected (66:66) after propensity score matching...
December 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927910/validation-of-various-parasite-detection-tests-for-use-in-the-australian-marsupials-quenda-isoodon-obesulus-and-brushtail-possums-trichosurus-vulpecula
#13
Alison E Hillman, Amanda L Ash, Amanda R Kristancic, Aileen D Elliot, Alan J Lymbery, Ian D Robertson, R C Andrew Thompson
We aimed to validate the use of 1) the modified agglutination test and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol in detecting Toxoplasma gondii infection in quenda ( Isoodon obesulus) and brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula); 2) immunofluorescence microscopy of feces and a PCR and sequencing protocol in detecting Giardia spp. infection in quenda; and 3) a fecal flotation protocol in detecting gastrointestinal helminth infections of quenda. Quenda and brushtail possum carcasses, and samples from trapped quenda, were tested with 2 parasite detection tests per parasite, and results were modeled using Bayesian latent class analysis to estimate test sensitivity and specificity...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918150/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-for-leptospira-seropositivity-in-beef-cattle-sheep-and-deer-farmers-in-new-zealand
#14
J M Sanhueza, C Heuer, P R Wilson, J Benschop, J M Collins-Emerson
Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira...
December 5, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893793/field-trial-of-an-aerially-distributed-tuberculosis-vaccine-in-a-low-density-wildlife-population-of-brushtail-possums-trichosurus-vulpecula
#15
Graham Nugent, Ivor J Yockney, E Jackie Whitford, Martin L Cross, Frank E Aldwell, Bryce M Buddle
Oral-delivery Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in a lipid matrix has been shown to confer protection against M. bovis infection and reduce the severity of tuberculosis (TB) when fed to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the major wildlife vector of bovine TB in New Zealand. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of aerial delivery of this live vaccine in bait form to an M. bovis-infected wild possum population, and subsequently assess vaccine uptake and field efficacy. Pre-trial studies indicated a resident possum population at very low density (<0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890043/epidemic-host-community-contribution-to-mosquito-borne-disease-transmission-ross-river-virus
#16
I S Koolhof, S Carver
Most vector-borne diseases infect multiple host species, but disentangling the relative importance of different host species to transmission can be complex. Here we study how host species' abundance and competence (duration and titre of parasitaemia) influence host importance during epidemic scenarios. We evaluate this theory using Ross River virus (RRV, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a multi-host mosquito-borne disease with significant human health impacts across Australia and Papua New Guinea. We used host contribution models to find the importance of key hosts (possums, wallabies, kangaroos, horses, humans) in typical mammal communities around five Australian epidemic centres...
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795763/-the-possum-a-good-scoring-system-for-predicting-mortality-in-elderly-patients-undergoing-emergency-surgery
#17
Zeineb Mzoughi, Rached Bayar, Achref Djebbi, Ghofrane Talbi, Hayfa Romdhane, Wafa Aloui, Gharbi Lassaad, Mohamed Taher Khalfallah
INTRODUCTION: POSSUM (Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and morbidity) is a scoring system for predicting mortality which is largely used in elective aortic and abdominal surgery. The aim of our study was to validate POSSUM with regards to elderly patients (> 70 years) undergoing digestive emergency surgery. We wanted to determine the optimal threshold for POSSUM, consisting of a physiological score and of an operative score for predicting mortality in this population...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783141/emergency-abdominal-surgery-in-the-elderly-can-we-predict-mortality
#18
Anna E Sharrock, Jenny McLachlan, Robert Chambers, Ian S Bailey, James Kirkby-Bott
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom population is ageing. Half of patients requiring an emergency laparotomy are aged over 70, 20 % die within 30 days, and less than half receive good care. Frailty and delay in management are associated with poor surgical outcomes. P-POSSUM risk scoring is widely accepted, but its validity in patients aged over 70 undergoing emergency laparotomy is unclear. AIMS: To assess if P-POSSUM risk stratification reliably predicts inpatient mortality in this group and establish whether those who died within 30 days received delayed care...
February 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779160/relationship-between-inflammatory-response-and-estimated-complication-rate-after-total-hip-arthroplasty
#19
Xu-Xu Chen, Tao Wang, Jian Li, Hui Kang
BACKGROUND: After total hip arthroplasty (THA), there is a noteworthy inflammatory response. The inflammatory response is associated with postoperative recovery and complications. However, there had been few reports on the relationship between inflammatory response and postoperative complication rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate early inflammatory response in the first 3 days after THA, and to identify the relationship between inflammatory response and estimated complication rate after surgery...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717124/is-colorectal-surgery-beyond-the-age-of-80-still-feasible-with-acceptable-mortality-an-analysis-of-the-predictive-value-of-cr-possum-and-life-expectancy-after-hospital-discharge
#20
A de Buck van Overstraeten, J Stijns, A Laenen, S Fieuws, A M Wolthuis, A D'Hoore
AIM: Increased morbidity and mortality could mitigate the positive effect of surgery in elderly patients undergoing colorectal resections. This retrospective study aims to describe early morbidity and mortality together with long-term survival in octogenarians and nonagenarians undergoing colorectal surgery. Predictors for in-hospital mortality are identified. The predictive value of CR-POSSUM is assessed. METHOD: Data on consecutive patients 80 years old or more undergoing a colorectal resection in our centre from 2004 until 2010 were analysed...
January 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
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