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Graham Nugent, Ivor J Yockney, E Jackie Whitford, Martin L Cross, Frank E Aldwell, Bryce M Buddle
Oral-delivery Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in a lipid matrix has been shown to confer protection against M. bovis infection and reduce the severity of tuberculosis (TB) when fed to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the major wildlife vector of bovine TB in New Zealand. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of aerial delivery of this live vaccine in bait form to an M. bovis-infected wild possum population, and subsequently assess vaccine uptake and field efficacy. Pre-trial studies indicated a resident possum population at very low density (<0...
2016: PloS One
I S Koolhof, S Carver
Most vector-borne diseases infect multiple host species, but disentangling the relative importance of different host species to transmission can be complex. Here we study how host species' abundance and competence (duration and titre of parasitaemia) influence host importance during epidemic scenarios. We evaluate this theory using Ross River virus (RRV, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a multi-host mosquito-borne disease with significant human health impacts across Australia and Papua New Guinea. We used host contribution models to find the importance of key hosts (possums, wallabies, kangaroos, horses, humans) in typical mammal communities around five Australian epidemic centres...
November 28, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Zeineb Mzoughi, Rached Bayar, Achref Djebbi, Ghofrane Talbi, Hayfa Romdhane, Wafa Aloui, Gharbi Lassaad, Mohamed Taher Khalfallah
INTRODUCTION: POSSUM (Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and morbidity) is a scoring system for predicting mortality which is largely used in elective aortic and abdominal surgery. The aim of our study was to validate POSSUM with regards to elderly patients (> 70 years) undergoing digestive emergency surgery. We wanted to determine the optimal threshold for POSSUM, consisting of a physiological score and of an operative score for predicting mortality in this population...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Anna E Sharrock, Jenny McLachlan, Robert Chambers, Ian S Bailey, James Kirkby-Bott
BACKGROUND: The United Kingdom population is ageing. Half of patients requiring an emergency laparotomy are aged over 70, 20 % die within 30 days, and less than half receive good care. Frailty and delay in management are associated with poor surgical outcomes. P-POSSUM risk scoring is widely accepted, but its validity in patients aged over 70 undergoing emergency laparotomy is unclear. AIMS: To assess if P-POSSUM risk stratification reliably predicts inpatient mortality in this group and establish whether those who died within 30 days received delayed care...
October 25, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Xu-Xu Chen, Tao Wang, Jian Li, Hui Kang
BACKGROUND: After total hip arthroplasty (THA), there is a noteworthy inflammatory response. The inflammatory response is associated with postoperative recovery and complications. However, there had been few reports on the relationship between inflammatory response and postoperative complication rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate early inflammatory response in the first 3 days after THA, and to identify the relationship between inflammatory response and estimated complication rate after surgery...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Anthony de Buck van Overstraeten, Jasper Stijns, Annouschka Laenen, Steffen Fieuws, Albert M Wolthuis, André D'Hoore
AIM: Increased morbidity and mortality could mitigate the positive effect of surgery in elderly patients undergoing colorectal resections. This retrospective study aims to describe early morbidity and mortality together with long-term survival in octogenarians and nonagenarians undergoing colorectal surgery. Predictors for in-hospital mortality will be identified. The predictive value of CR-POSSUM will be assessed. METHOD: Data on consecutive patients of 80 years old or more, undergoing a colorectal resection in our center from 2004 until 2010 were analyzed...
October 7, 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
J I González-Muñoz, G Franch-Arcas, M Angoso-Clavijo, M Sánchez-Hernández, A García-Plaza, M Caraballo-Angeli, L Muñoz-Bellvís
PURPOSE: Age and comorbidities increase the surgical risk for patients with acute cholecystitis and impact on the initial treatment selection. The aim of this article is the implementation of objective risk criteria that may be used to select the most appropriate treatment. METHODS: We carried out a prospective cohort study of all patients who were admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis during 2014. They were initially allocated to three different treatment groups according to cholecystitis grade, number of days from clinical onset, and surgical risk scores as follows: immediate surgery by sepsis (EmergS), early surgery (EarlyS), or medical treatment group (MedT)...
October 4, 2016: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
James M Turner, Fritz Geiser
Many mammals use torpor throughout the year but the individual contributions of environmental variables to seasonal changes in torpor expression are often difficult to tease apart. In many mammals, torpor is most often used opportunistically in response to decreased ambient temperature (T a ) and food availability, but information on how seasonally changing photoperiod per se influences torpor patterns is scant. Therefore, we quantified patterns of torpor use in response to natural photoperiod in captive marsupial pygmy-possums held at near-constant T a with a stable food supply over a period of 19 months...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
J Cornish, R L Harries, D Bosanquet, B Rees, J Ansell, N Frewer, P K Dhruva Rao, C Parry, R Ellis-Owen, S M Phillips, C Morris, J Horwood, M L Davies, M M Davies, R Hargest, Z Davies, J Hilton, D Harris, A Ben-Sassi, R Rajagopal, D Hanratty, S Islam, A Watkins, N Bashir, S Jones, I R Russell, J Torkington
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernias are common complications of midline closure following abdominal surgery and cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life and increased health care costs. The 'Hughes Repair' combines a standard mass closure with a series of horizontal and two vertical mattress sutures within a single suture. This theoretically distributes the load along the incision length as well as across it. There is evidence to suggest that this technique is as effective as mesh repair for the operative management of incisional hernias; however, no trials have compared the Hughes Repair with standard mass closure for the prevention of incisional hernia formation following a midline incision...
September 15, 2016: Trials
Johanna I Westbrook, Magdalena Z Raban, Elin C Lehnbom, Ling Li
Medication administration errors (MAEs) in hospital are frequent and significantly more likely to result in serious harm to patients than other medication error types. Many interventions have been proposed in order reduce MAEs and the amount of harm associated with these errors. A major limitation in assessing the effectiveness of these interventions has been the lack of robust measures for assessing changes in MAEs and associated harms. Drawing upon extensive foundational research we have developed a robust approach and data collection software to be applied in direct observational studies of nurses to allow measurement of changes in MAE rates...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Julia Nowack, Marine Delesalle, Clare Stawski, Fritz Geiser
Increased habitat fragmentation, global warming and other human activities have caused a rise in the frequency of wildfires worldwide. To reduce the risks of uncontrollable fires, prescribed burns are generally conducted during the colder months of the year, a time when in many mammals torpor is expressed regularly. Torpor is crucial for energy conservation, but the low body temperatures (T b) are associated with a decreased responsiveness and torpid animals might therefore face an increased mortality risk during fires...
October 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
Cheng Min, Zhang Wenjian, Xing Tianyu, Yan Xiaohong, Li Yumao, Li Hui, Wang Ning
miR-17-92 cluster plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, animal development and tumorigenesis. The transcriptional regulation of miR-17-92 cluster has been extensively studied in mammals, but not in birds. To date, avian miR-17-92 cluster genomic structure has not been fully determined. The promoter location and sequence of miR-17-92 cluster have not been determined, due to the existence of a genomic gap sequence upstream of miR-17-92 cluster in all the birds whose genomes have been sequenced...
August 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
M Mak, A R Hakeem, V Chitre
BACKGROUND Following evidence suggestive of high mortality following emergency laparotomies, the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA) was set up, highlighting key standards in emergency service provision. Our aim was to compare our NHS trust's adherence to these recommendations immediately prior to, and following, the launch of NELA, and to compare patient outcome. METHODS This was a retrospective study of patients who underwent an emergency laparotomy over the course of 6 months - 3 months either side of the initiation of NELA...
August 9, 2016: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Carlos Rouco, Kyle S Richardson, Bryce M Buddle, Nigel P French, Daniel M Tompkins
The main wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand is the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), with spillover of infection from possums to livestock being regarded as the largest barrier to eradicating TB from the country. Past studies have experimentally challenged possums with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of TB) to quantify infection parameters. However, the challenge models used are invariably non-representative of natural infection due to their resulting in much faster rates, and different clinical patterns of disease progression...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
Shinji Itoh, Shunji Kohnoe, Ken Shirabe, Daisuke Yoshida, Hirofumi Kawanaka, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Toru Ikegami, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Takeshi Kurihara, Yoshihiko Maehara
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of age on the surgical outcomes in hepatic or pancreatic resection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed 50 hepatic or pancreatic resections in our community hospital and divided them into 2 groups based on age: patients aged ≥85 years old and patients aged <85 years old. We calculated the Estimation of Physiologic Ability and Surgical Stress (E-PASS) score and the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) system and compared the surgical outcome between the two groups...
August 2016: Anticancer Research
T F Scheelings, P J McLaren, L Tatarczuch, R F Slocombe
CASE REPORT: A wild-caught, adult female Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) died while in captivity after suffering from chronic ill-thrift that progressed to acute respiratory distress. On histopathological examination of tissues, the cause of death was determined to be severe acute pneumonia with pulmonary oedema associated with an intracellular protozoan parasite present within erythrocytes. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on lung tissues and organisms consistent for Plasmodium sp...
August 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Graeme R Zosky, James E O'Shea
Evidence for a functional ventricular parasympathetic innervation of the mammalian heart between and within taxa remains controversial. We have previously proposed that the presence of a functional parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle was indicative of heterothermy, and is essential for maintaining ventricular stability at low body temperature. However, it is possible that the presence of such an innervation is also representative of the primitive mammalian state. In this study, we aimed to determine whether a functional parasympathetic innervation of the ventricle, that is capable of actively reducing the force of contraction, is present across metatherian mammals...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Celia Villodre, Pere Rebasa, José Luís Estrada, Carmen Zaragoza, Pedro Zapater, Luís Mena, Félix Lluís
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we found that Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) overpredicts morbidity risk in emergency gastrointestinal surgery. Our aim was to find a POSSUM equation adjustment. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed on 2,361 patients presenting with a community-acquired gastrointestinal surgical emergency. The first 1,000 surgeries constituted the development cohort, the second 1,000 events were the first validation intramural cohort, and the remaining 361 cases belonged to a second validation extramural cohort...
May 7, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
C-H Dong, Z-M Wang, X-L Zhao, A-M Wang
Hip surgeries count to the most frequent orthopaedic operations in older patients. Nonelective surgeries for hip fractures cause substantial economic burden because of high costs of medical treatment and high associated mortality. Surgery for hip fracture in the elderly comorbid patient still presents a challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. It is recommended that this surgery is performed within 48 hours after sustaining the hip fracture to decrease mortality. Yet the recommended early surgery (i.e. 48 hours after the incident) is not always feasible due to the frequent overall frailty of the patients or conditions of concomitant disease...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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