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Clinical exercise physiology diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796854/the-effect-of-vigorous-versus-moderate-intensity-aerobic-exercise-on-insulin-action
#1
REVIEW
Robert W McGarrah, Cris A Slentz, William E Kraus
Due to the beneficial effects on a wide range of modern medical conditions, most professional societies recommend regular aerobic exercise as part of a healthy lifestyle. Many of the exercise-related health benefits exhibit a dose-response relationship: Up to a point, more exercise is more beneficial. However, recent studies have suggested that different exercise intensities may provide distinct health benefits, independent of energy expenditure (i.e., exercise dose). One of these benefits, primarily mediated by the skeletal muscle, is exercise-related changes in insulin action and glucose homeostasis...
December 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623996/review-of-pharmacokinetic-data-of-different-drug-classes-in-goto-kakizaki-rats-a-non-obese-model-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-case-studies-and-perspectives
#2
Harilal Patel, Poonam Giri, Nuggehally R Srinivas
Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats represent a unique non-obese and lean model with manifestation of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) broadly mimicking the human T2DM development. Therefore, in addition to the use of GK rats to test the efficacy of drugs, it may represent a great tool to study the influence of altered physiological process and/or organ specific pathophysiological changes (i.e., liver, kidney, etc.) on the disposition of drugs. The objectives of the review were: (a) to compile the published pharmacokinetic data of several drugs, such as cephalexin, cyclosporine, exendin-4, gliclazide, grepafloxacin, rosuvastatin, salsalate, salicylic acid, and theophylline, in GK rats relative to normal rats; and (b) critically evaluate the possible role of physiologically altered processes on the pharmacokinetics of reviewed drugs...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601974/emerging-relationships-between-exercise-sensory-nerves-and-neuropathic-pain
#3
REVIEW
Michael A Cooper, Patricia M Kluding, Douglas E Wright
The utilization of physical activity as a therapeutic tool is rapidly growing in the medical community and the role exercise may offer in the alleviation of painful disease states is an emerging research area. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex mechanism, which clinicians and researchers are continually working to better understand. The limited therapies available for alleviation of these pain states are still focused on pain abatement and as opposed to treating underlying mechanisms. The continued research into exercise and pain may address these underlying mechanisms, but the mechanisms which exercise acts through are still poorly understood...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557542/ketogenic-diet-and-cancer-a-perspective
#4
Christopher Smyl
Research of the last two decades showed that chronic low-grade inflammation, elevated blood glucose and insulin levels may play role in the onset of a number of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer. Regular exercise and fasting can ameliorate high blood glucose and insulin levels as well as increase the concentration of plasma ketone bodies. These, in consequence, may lead to reduction of inflammation. Exercise or severe restriction of caloric intake is not always advisable for patients, in particular those suffering from cancer...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531051/muscle-redox-disturbances-and-oxidative-stress-as-pathomechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets-in-early-onset-myopathies
#5
Maryline Moulin, Ana Ferreiro
Because of their contractile activity and their high oxygen consumption and metabolic rate, skeletal muscles continually produce moderate levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), which increase during exercise and are buffered by multiple antioxidant systems to maintain redox homeostasis. Imbalance between ROS/RNS production and elimination results in oxidative stress (OxS), which has been implicated in aging and in numerous human diseases, including cancer, diabetes or age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia)...
August 12, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504612/-are-visual-field-defects-reversible-visual-rehabilitation-with-brains
#6
B A Sabel
Visual field defects are considered irreversible because the retina and optic nerve do not regenerate. Nevertheless, there is some potential for recovery of the visual fields. This can be accomplished by the brain, which analyses and interprets visual information and is able to amplify residual signals through neuroplasticity. Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to change its own functional architecture by modulating synaptic efficacy. This is actually the neurobiological basis of normal learning...
August 9, 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417167/activity-in-people-with-diabetic-polyneuropathy-adapt-study-design-and-protocol-for-a-two-site-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Patricia M Kluding, J Robinson Singleton, Mamatha Pasnoor, Mazen M Dimachkie, Richard J Barohn, A Gordon Smith, Robin L Marcus
BACKGROUND: Half of all patients with diabetes develop diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), a complication leading to reduced mobility and quality of life. While there are no proven pharmacologic approaches to reduce DPN risk or slow its progression, evidence suggests physical activity may improve symptoms and enhance peripheral nerve regeneration. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of an intense lifestyle intervention on neuropathy progression and quality of life in individuals with DPN...
July 14, 2016: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339796/the-association-between-educational-resource-utilization-and-knowledge-self-management-among-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-pune-india
#8
Karina Javalkar, Nicole Williamson, Saleena Vaidya, Abhijit Vaidya, Maria Ferris
AIMS: Patients utilize a variety of sources to learn about their condition. This study assessed the association of these resources with patient knowledge, adherence, and physiologic outcomes. METHODS: Adults with Type 2 diabetes recruited at an outpatient clinic in Pune, India provided IRB-approved consent and completed surveys measuring diabetes knowledge, self-management, and educational resource utilization. Lab values were obtained from the patient's medical record...
June 8, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098282/preclinical-and-clinical-evaluation-of-autonomic-function-in-humans
#9
Michael J Joyner
This review focuses on how to assess autonomic function in humans including various ways to measure heart rate, catecholamines, and sympathetic neural activity. The need to assess autonomic function is paramount in many experimental paradigms because of the following. (1) Autonomic dysfunction is present in common diseases like hypertension, diabetes and heart failure, and the magnitude of this dysfunction is broadly related to morbidity and mortality in these disorders. (2) The relationship between autonomic dysfunction and morbidity and mortality can be causal...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27074205/methodological-and-physiological-test-retest-reliability-of-13-c-mrs-glycogen-measurements-in-liver-and-in-skeletal-muscle-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-and-matched-healthy-controls
#10
Tania Buehler, Lia Bally, Ayse Sila Dokumaci, Christoph Stettler, Chris Boesch
Glycogen is a major substrate in energy metabolism and particularly important to prevent hypoglycemia in pathologies of glucose homeostasis such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). (13) C-MRS is increasingly used to determine glycogen in skeletal muscle and liver non-invasively; however, the low signal-to-noise ratio leads to long acquisition times, particularly when glycogen levels are determined before and after interventions. In order to ease the requirements for the subjects and to avoid systematic effects of the lengthy examination, we evaluated if a standardized preparation period would allow us to shift the baseline (pre-intervention) experiments to a preceding day...
June 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27060608/mitochondria-in-the-middle-exercise-preconditioning-protection-of-striated-muscle
#11
John M Lawler, Dinah A Rodriguez, Jeffrey M Hord
Cellular and physiological adaptations to an atmosphere which became enriched in molecular oxygen spurred the development of a layered system of stress protection, including antioxidant and stress response proteins. At physiological levels reactive oxygen and nitrogen species regulate cell signalling as well as intracellular and intercellular communication. Exercise and physical activity confer a variety of stressors on skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system: mechanical, metabolic, oxidative. Transient increases of stressors during acute bouts of exercise or exercise training stimulate enhancement of cellular stress protection against future insults of oxidative, metabolic and mechanical stressors that could induce injury or disease...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984320/physiological-and-therapeutic-effects-of-carnosine-on-cardiometabolic-risk-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Estifanos Baye, Barbara Ukropcova, Jozef Ukropec, Alan Hipkiss, Giancarlo Aldini, Barbora de Courten
Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most common preventable causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. They represent major public health threat to our society. Increasing prevalence of obesity and T2DM contributes to escalating morbidity and mortality from CVD and stroke. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-glycation, anti-ischaemic and chelating roles and is available as an over-the-counter food supplement. Animal evidence suggests that carnosine may offer many promising therapeutic benefits for multiple chronic diseases due to these properties...
May 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700441/predictors-of-impaired-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-rheumatic-diseases
#13
Panagiota Anyfanti, Areti Triantafyllou, Panagiotis Panagopoulos, Georgios Triantafyllou, Athina Pyrpasopoulou, Sophia Chatzimichailidou, Nikolaos Koletsos, Ioannis Botis, Spyros Aslanidis, Stella Douma
Quality of life (QoL) is a complex outcome and rheumatologic patients typically exhibit several comorbidities with a negative impact. In this study, we analyzed with respect to QoL for the first time a wide range of physical and psychological factors, including individual, clinical and disease-related parameters, mental health disorders, sexual dysfunction, and cardiovascular comorbidities among consecutive rheumatologic patients. QoL was evaluated using the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) utility index. The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) Disability Index, and the HAQ Pain Visual Analogue Scale were used as measures of physical disability and arthritis-related pain, respectively...
July 2016: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26571451/omega-6-fatty-acids-for-the-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Lena Al-Khudairy, Louise Hartley, Christine Clar, Nadine Flowers, Lee Hooper, Karen Rees
BACKGROUND: Omega 6 plays a vital role in many physiological functions but there is controversy concerning its effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. There is conflicting evidence whether increasing or decreasing omega 6 intake results in beneficial effects. OBJECTIVES: The two primary objectives of this Cochrane review were to determine the effectiveness of:1. Increasing omega 6 (Linoleic acid (LA), Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), Arachidonic acid (AA), or any combination) intake in place of saturated or monounsaturated fats or carbohydrates for the primary prevention of CVD...
November 16, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26554457/graded-resistance-exercise-and-type-2-diabetes-in-older-adults-the-great2do-study-methods-and-baseline-cohort-characteristics-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kylie A Simpson, Yorgi Mavros, Shelley Kay, Jacinda Meiklejohn, Nathan de Vos, Yi Wang, Qianyu Guo, Renru Zhao, Mike Climstein, Bernard T Baune, Steven Blair, Anthony J O'Sullivan, David Simar, Nalin Singh, Maria A Fiatarone Singh
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is projected to affect 439 million people by 2030. Medical management focuses on controlling blood glucose levels pharmacologically in a disease that is closely related to lifestyle factors such as diet and inactivity. Physical activity guidelines include aerobic exercise at intensities or volumes potentially unreachable for older adults limited by many co-morbidities. We aim to show for the first time the efficacy of a novel exercise modality, power training (high-velocity, high-intensity progressive resistance training or PRT), in older adults with T2D as a means for improving glycemic control and targeting many associated metabolic and physiological outcomes...
2015: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26443291/classification-of-physical-activity-information-to-artificial-pancreas-control-systems-in-real-time
#16
Kamuran Turksoy, Thiago Marques Luz Paulino, Dessi P Zaharieva, Loren Yavelberg, Veronica Jamnik, Michael C Riddell, Ali Cinar
Physical activity has a wide range of effects on glucose concentrations in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depending on the type (ie, aerobic, anaerobic, mixed) and duration of activity performed. This variability in glucose responses to physical activity makes the development of artificial pancreas (AP) systems challenging. Automatic detection of exercise type and intensity, and its classification as aerobic or anaerobic would provide valuable information to AP control algorithms. This can be achieved by using a multivariable AP approach where biometric variables are measured and reported to the AP at high frequency...
October 6, 2015: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26228356/a-role-for-exercise-after-bariatric-surgery
#17
REVIEW
Paul M Coen, Bret H Goodpaster
Obesity predisposes an individual to develop numerous comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes, and represents a major healthcare issue in many countries worldwide. Bariatric surgery can be an effective treatment option, resulting in profound weight loss and improvements in metabolic health; however, not all patients achieve similar weight loss or metabolic improvements. Exercise is an excellent way to improve health, with well-characterized physiological and psychological benefits. In the present paper we review the evidence to determine whether there may be a role for exercise as a complementary adjunct therapy to bariatric surgery...
January 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26089890/effects-of-aerobic-exercise-based-upon-heart-rate-at-aerobic-threshold-in-obese-elderly-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Gian Pietro Emerenziani, Maria Chiara Gallotta, Marco Meucci, Luigi Di Luigi, Silvia Migliaccio, Lorenzo Maria Donini, Felice Strollo, Laura Guidetti
In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge), on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM). Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle...
2015: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26037452/natriuretic-peptide-control-of-energy-balance-and-glucose-homeostasis
#19
REVIEW
Marine Coué, Cedric Moro
Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) have recently emerged as metabolic hormones. Physiological stimulation of cardiac NP release as during exercise may contribute to increase fatty acid mobilization from adipose tissue and their oxidation by skeletal muscles. Clinical studies have shown that although very high plasma NP level characterizes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure, a consistently reduced plasma NP level is observed in metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. A low circulating NP level also predicts the risk of new onset type 2 diabetes...
May 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26023550/effect-of-yoga-on-blood-glucose-levels-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Subhash Manikappa Chimkode, Sendil D Kumaran, V V Kanhere, Ragunatha Shivanna
INTRODUCTION: In view of people embracing sedentary life style, and the effectiveness of treatment becoming less, the role of regular exercise especially 'yoga' seems to be a beneficial and economical adjuvant in the management of the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial effects of yoga on blood glucose levels in normal and T2DM volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted in the Department of Physiology and Diabetic clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital over period of two years...
April 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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