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Exercise therapy obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227695/implantable-gastric-electric-stimulator-with-automatic-daily-activity-compliance-reporting
#1
Eri Takami, Javier J Sanchez, Rose Province, Antonio J Torres, Eri Takami, Javier J Sanchez, Rose Province, Antonio J Torres, Eri Takami, Javier J Sanchez, Antonio J Torres, Rose Province
In order for any obesity therapy to be successful real behavior change by the individual is required. We present an implantable obesity therapy that combines gastric electrical stimulation for satiety with onboard sensors that provide self-monitoring for the patient and compliance reporting to the clinician. An algorithm for processing data from the onboard three axis accelerometer for use in physical activity monitoring was developed and validated. Four obese patients participated in a study where self-reported sleep and exercise was compared with the events detected by the implanted system, and two commercially available, wearable activity monitors...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209386/dietary-therapy-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-and-or-left-ventricular-diastolic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
REVIEW
Helene von Bibra, Alexander Ströhle, Martin St John Sutton, Nicolai Worm
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an ongoing epidemic of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and/or dysfunction due to the increasing prevalence of predisposing risk factors such as age, physical inactivity, (abdominal) obesity, and type-2-diabetes. Approximately half of these patients have diastolic heart failure (HFpEF). The prognosis of HFpEF is comparable to that of systolic heart failure, but without any known effective treatment. DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION: A biomathematically corrected diagnostic approach is presented that quantifies diastolic dysfunction via the predominant age dependency of LV diastolic function and unmasks (metabolic) risk factors, that are independent of age and, therefore, potential targets for therapy...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163315/effects-of-topical-capsaicin-combined-with-moderate-exercise-on-insulin-resistance-body-weight-and-oxidative-stress-in-hypoestrogenic-obese-rats
#3
J M L Medina-Contreras, J Colado-Velázquez, N L Gómez-Viquez, P Mailloux-Salinas, I Perez-Torres, A Aranda-Fraustro, K Carvajal, G Bravo
BACKGROUND: Hypoestrogenic women are one of the most vulnerable groups for the development of obesity and its complications. Capsaicin and exercise have demonstrated to reduce body weight and to improve insulin sensitivity in different animal models, but it is unknown whether their combination could be useful in hypoestrogenic obese females. METHODS: We investigated whether topical capsaicin, exercise or their combination had better therapeutic effects in an obesity-hypoestrogenism model...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163011/aerobic-endurance-training-improves-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-features-via-mir-33-dependent-autophagy-induction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#4
Parvin Ghareghani, Mehrnoosh Shanaki, Saeideh Ahmadi, Ali Reza Khoshdel, Neda Rezvan, Reza Meshkani, Maryam Delfan, Sattar Gorgani-Firuzjaee
Due to changes in life style, obesity and obesity related complication such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused worldwide health problems. Regular exercise has been frequently prescribed to combat metabolic complication of obesity but its molecular mechanism has not been fully illustrated. We investigated molecular mechanism of lipid lowering effect of exercise training in high fat diet fed mice by focusing on miR-33 expression and autophagy pathway. 24 mice were assigned to normal chow (NC) (n=8), high-fat diet (HFD) (n=16) group and subjected to NC and HFD for 13-weeks...
February 2, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155616/crosstalk-between-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-and-arterial-stiffness
#5
Ioana Mozos, Constantin Tudor Luca
Arterial stiffness, the expression of reduced arterial elasticity, is an effective predictor of cardiovascular disorders. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between exposure to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant systems. The increase in reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is termed nitrosative stress. We review the main mechanisms and products linking arterial stiffness with oxidative and nitrosative stress in several disorders, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data, and the mechanisms explaining benefits of antioxidant therapy...
February 1, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150485/obesity-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#6
Sergey Kachur, Carl J Lavie, Alban DE Schutter, Richard V Milani, Hector O Ventura
Obesity is increasingly more common in post-industrial societies, and the burden of childhood obesity is increasing. The major effects of obesity on cardiovascular (CV) health are mediated through the risk of metabolic syndrome (insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension), such that an absence of these risk factors in obese individuals may not be associated with increased mortality risk. In individuals already diagnosed with chronic CV disease (CVD), the overweight and class I obese have significant associations with improved survival...
February 1, 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147478/role-of-endoscopic-gastroplasty-techniques-in-the-management-of-obesity
#7
REVIEW
Yunho Jung
Health and wellness represent a major global concern. Trends such as a lack of exercise and excessive consumption of calories are major causes of the rapid increase in obesity worldwide. Obesity should be controlled because it can result in other illnesses, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coronary artery disease, stroke, breathing disorders, or cancer. However, many people have difficulty in managing obesity through exercise, dietary control, behavioral modifications, and drug therapy...
January 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124947/differentiating-sarcopenia-and-cachexia-among-patients-with-cancer
#8
Sarah J Peterson, Marisa Mozer
Patients with cancer are at an increased risk for muscle loss via 2 distinct mechanisms: sarcopenia, defined as the age-associated decrease in muscle mass related to changes in muscle synthesis signaling pathways, and/or cachexia, defined as cytokine-mediated degradation of muscle and adipose depots. Both wasting disorders are prevalent; among patients with cancer, 15%-50% are sarcopenic and 25%-80% are cachectic. Muscle mass may be difficult to quantify in overweight/obese individuals. Often, overweight/obese patients with cancer are assumed to be normally nourished when in fact severe muscle depletion may be present...
February 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111263/an-update-on-the-assessment-and-management-of-metabolic-syndrome-a-growing-medical-emergency-in-paediatric-populations
#9
REVIEW
Chiara Mameli, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Carla Carnovale, Erica Galli, Pilar Nannini, Davide Cervia, Cristiana Perrotta
In the last decades the increasing rate of obesity in children and adolescents worldwide has led to the onset in paediatric age of metabolic syndrome, a disease commonly associated to adulthood. Central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, and hypertension are typical features of metabolic syndrome that seem to hesitate often in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and many other clinical conditions. Thus preventing and curing metabolic syndrome in paediatric patients is becoming an urgent need for public health...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074747/liraglutide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonist-for-chronic-weight-management
#10
Kendra R Manigault, Maria Miller Thurston
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight loss. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE from 2000 to 2016. The following key terms were used alone or in combination: glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, liraglutide, obesity, overweight, and weight loss. Additional supporting literature was identified utilizing the reference lists of the preceding articles. STUDY SELECTION: Analyzed studies were published in English and investigated use of liraglutide and its impact on weight loss...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051979/barriers-and-health-beliefs-related-to-weight-management-among-veterans-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#11
Shannon Munro, Emily Dinatale, Sarah Hartley, Monica St Jacques, Kris Ann Oursler
INTRODUCTION: The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051892/what-is-the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-in-the-management-of-obesity
#12
E Panteliou, A D Miras
Diet, exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy are some of the means of assisting patients to lose weight, with bariatric surgery being the most effective. Over the last two decades, the increased awareness of the systemic benefits of bariatric surgery, as well as the improved safety and the wider use of the laparoscopic approach, has made bariatric surgery flourish. In the United Kingdom, the adjustable gastric band (10%), vertical sleeve gastrectomy (37%) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (45%) are the three most common procedures...
January 4, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043708/emerging-roles-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-cardiology
#13
REVIEW
Atsushi Tanaka, Koichi Node
The ultimate goal of treatment in people with diabetes mellitus is to prevent development of cardiovascular (CV) disease, resulting in prolongation of healthy life expectancy. Although impaired glycemic metabolism has a central role in its pathology, a number of studies have demonstrated that remedy for its imbalance cannot necessarily be accomplished as a therapeutic goal. A comprehensive medical approach against multi-factorial pathologies in diabetes, such as insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in addition to diet and exercise therapy should be rather performed in the routine clinical setting...
March 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039838/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-its-novel-association-with-oxidative-stress
#14
REVIEW
Miguel Ángel Gómez-Sámano, Mariana Grajales-Gómez, Julia María Zuarth-Vázquez, Ma Fernanda Navarro-Flores, Mayela Martínez-Saavedra, Óscar Alfredo Juárez-León, Mariana G Morales-García, Víctor Manuel Enríquez-Estrada, Francisco J Gómez-Pérez, Daniel Cuevas-Ramos
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine-member of the FGF family. It is synthesized mainly in the liver, but it is also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and many other organs. It has a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as in energy balance. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. Different types of physical stress, such as strenuous exercising, lactation, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and critical illnesses, also increase FGF21 circulating concentration...
December 22, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983910/active-subjects-with-autoimmune-type-1-diabetes-have-better-metabolic-profiles-than-sedentary-controls
#15
M Adamo, R Codella, F Casiraghi, A Ferrulli, C Macrì, E Bazzigaluppi, I Terruzzi, L Inverardi, C Ricordi, L Luzi
<p>Previous studies in humans with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and in non-obese diabetic mice have investigated the beneficial immunomodulatory potential of aerobic physical activity. Performing high volume of aerobic exercise may favorably regulate autoimmunity in diabetes. We tested whether increased physical activity is a self-sufficient positive factor in T1D subjects.</p><p>During a 3-month observational period, active (6M; 40.5±6.1 years; BMI 24.5±2.1) and sedentary (4M, 3F; 35.9±8.9 years; BMI 25...
20, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951428/improvement-in-self-reported-eating-related-psychopathology-and-physical-health-related-quality-of-life-after-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-pre-post-analysis-and-comparison-with-conservatively-treated-patients-with-obesity
#16
Andrea Figura, Matthias Rose, Jürgen Ordemann, Burghard F Klapp, Anne Ahnis
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on self-reported eating-related psychopathology and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Outcomes of the LSG group were compared with a group of conservatively treated (CT) patients, who underwent a 1-year multimodal weight reduction group program that included dietary advice, physical exercise, psychoeducation, cognitive-behavioral therapy, training in Jacobson's progressive muscle relaxation, and social group support...
December 3, 2016: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941030/molecular-mechanisms-of-ros-production-and-oxidative-stress-in-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Philip Newsholme, Vinicius Fernandes Cruzat, Kevin Noel Keane, Rodrigo Carlessi, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt
Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are known to be associated with the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Oxidative stress, an imbalance between oxidative and antioxidative systems of cells and tissues, is a result of over production of oxidative-free radicals and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS). One outcome of excessive levels of ROS is the modification of the structure and function of cellular proteins and lipids, leading to cellular dysfunction including impaired energy metabolism, altered cell signalling and cell cycle control, impaired cell transport mechanisms and overall dysfunctional biological activity, immune activation and inflammation...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923445/daily-exercise-prevents-diastolic-dysfunction-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-female-mouse-model-of-western-diet-induced-obesity-by-maintaining-cardiac-heme-oxygenase-1-levels
#18
Brian Bostick, Annayya R Aroor, Javad Habibi, William Durante, Lixin Ma, Vincent G DeMarco, Mona Garro, Melvin R Hayden, Frank W Booth, James R Sowers
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a global epidemic with profound cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Obese women are particularly vulnerable to CVD, suffering higher rates of CVD compared to non-obese females. Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of CVD in obese women but remains poorly understood with no evidence-based therapies. We have shown early diastolic dysfunction in obesity is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests exercise may increase levels of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
January 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921046/weight-management-in-primary-care
#19
REVIEW
Susanne Maurer
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide. It is not only a medical but also a philosophical, ecological, economic, sociocultural, and psychological problem as well as a severe consequence of our modern value definition to 'receive more and more'. Therefore, physicians are not able to treat obesity broadly and should not be used as tools to achieve certain weight goals. METHODS: This article presents an outline of conservative obesity therapy...
October 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913448/targeting-inflammation-in-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Jelena Todoric, Laura Antonucci, Michael Karin
Inflammation is associated with the development and malignant progression of most cancers. As most of the cell types involved in cancer-associated inflammation are genetically stable and thus are not subjected to rapid emergence of drug resistance, the targeting of inflammation represents an attractive strategy both for cancer prevention and for cancer therapy. Tumor-extrinsic inflammation is caused by many factors, including bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, obesity, tobacco smoking, asbestos exposure, and excessive alcohol consumption, all of which increase cancer risk and stimulate malignant progression...
December 2016: Cancer Prevention Research
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