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Flower development, plant breeding

Xiaofen Zhang, Guoyun Wang, Bin Chen, Heshan Du, Fenglan Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Qian Wang, Sansheng Geng
First flower node (FFN) is an important trait for evaluating fruit earliness in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), but the genetic mechanisms that control FFN are still poorly understood. In the present study, we developed 249 F2 plants derived from an intraspecific cross between the inbred pepper lines Z4 and Z5. Thirty plants with the highest FFN and 30 plants with the lowest FFN were chosen and their DNAs were pooled according to phenotype to construct two bulked DNA pools. Specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was combined with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) to identify candidate regions related to FFN...
2018: PloS One
Abhinandan Mani Tripathi, Abhishek Niranjan, Sribash Roy
Development of flower color in plants is a complex process. Among others, it is an important trait for ornamental flowering plants. Canna is a flowering ornamental plant of family Cannaceae. To understand the molecular mechanism of flower color development in Canna, RNA sequencing from flower tissues of two contrasting flower color cultivars, Red President (RP) and Tropical Sunrise (TS) was performed. More than 27.0 million and 19.0 million clean reads were obtained from RP and TS, respectively. The combined clean reads were assembled into 147,295 unigenes...
March 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Demetryus Silva Ferreira, Zoltan Kevei, Tomasz Kurowski, Maria Esther de Noronha Fonseca, Fady Mohareb, Leonardo S Boiteux, Andrew J Thompson
A mutant line, bifurcate flower truss (bif), was recovered from a tomato breeding program. Plants from the control line LAM183 produced a mean of 0.16 branches per truss, whereas the value for bif plants was 4.1. This increase in branching was accompanied by a 3.3-fold increase in flower number and showed a significant interaction with exposure to low temperature during truss development. The LAM183 and bif genomes were resequenced and the bif gene was mapped to a 2.01 Mbp interval on chromosome 12; all coding region polymorphisms in the interval were surveyed and five candidate genes displaying altered protein sequences were detected...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Susanne Schilling, Sirui Pan, Alice Kennedy, Rainer Melzer
MADS-box genes are key regulators of virtually every aspect of plant reproductive development. They play especially prominent roles in flowering time control, inflorescence architecture, floral organ identity determination, and seed development. The developmental and evolutionary importance of MADS-box genes is widely acknowledged. However, their role during flowering plant domestication is less well recognized. Here, we provide an overview illustrating that MADS-box genes have been important targets of selection during crop domestication and improvement...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Manfei Li, Wanshun Zhong, Fang Yang, Zuxin Zhang
The establishment of inflorescence architecture is critical for the reproduction of flowering plant species. The maize plant generates two types of inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, and their architectures have a large effect on grain yield and yield-related traits that are genetically controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Since ear and tassel architecture are deeply affected by the activity of inflorescence meristems, key QTLs and genes regulating meristematic activity have important impacts on inflorescence development and show great potential for optimizing grain yield...
February 6, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Wazifa Afrin, Mahmudul Hassan Nafis, Muhammed Ali Hossain, Mirza Mofazzal Islam, Md Amir Hossain
The study aims at identifying some submergence-tolerant rice genotypes through morphological and molecular characterization and their genetic variability analysis. Ten rice genotypes including two submergence-tolerant checks, two susceptible varieties and six advanced lines were evaluated for submergence tolerance in the laboratory and in the field during January-December 2015. The experiment was conducted in the field following randomized complete block design in a two-factor arrangement using five replications...
February 1, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Lucas Borrás, Lucas N Vitantonio-Mazzini
Maize grain yield is highly related to the number of kernels that are established during the flowering period. Kernel number depends on the accumulation of ear biomass and the efficiency of using this biomass for kernel set. Ear biomass depends on the rate of plant biomass accumulation and the proportion of this biomass that is allocated to the ear. In contrast to other major crops, the proportion of plant biomass that is allocated to the ear is not constant in maize, being almost zero under stress conditions...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiaoyuan Chi, Zhimeng Zhang, Na Chen, Xiaowen Zhang, Mian Wang, Mingna Chen, Tong Wang, Lijuan Pan, Jing Chen, Zhen Yang, Xiangyu Guan, Shanlin Yu
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into fatty acyl chains. Extensive studies of fatty acid desaturases have been done in many plants. However, less is known about the diversity of this gene family in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oilseed crop that is cultivated worldwide. RESULTS: In this study, twelve novel AhFADs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcript abundances of AhFAB2-2 and AhFAD3-1 were higher in seeds than in other tissues examined, whereas the AhADS and AhFAD7-1 transcripts were more abundant in leaves...
2017: PloS One
Delfeena Eapen, Jesús Martínez-Guadarrama, Oralia Hernández-Bruno, Leonardo Flores, Jorge Nieto-Sotelo, Gladys I Cassab
Roots of higher plants change their growth direction in response to moisture, avoiding drought and gaining maximum advantage for development. This response is termed hydrotropism. There have been few studies of root hydrotropism in grasses, particularly in maize. Our goal was to test whether an enhanced hydrotropic response of maize roots correlates with a better adaptation to drought and partial/lateral irrigation in field studies. We developed a laboratory bioassay for testing hydrotropic response in primary roots of 47 maize elite DTMA (Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa) hybrids...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Ryoichi Yano, Satoko Nonaka, Hiroshi Ezura
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important Cucurbitaceae crop produced worldwide, exhibiting wide genetic variations and comprising both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit types. The muskmelon cultivar "'Earl's favorite Harukei-3 (Harukei-3)"' known for its sweetness and rich aroma is used for breeding of high-grade muskmelon in Japan. We conducted RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptome studies in 30 different tissues of the 'Harukei-3' melon. These included root, stems, leaves, flowers, regenerating callus and ovaries, in addition to the flesh and peel sampled at seven stages of fruit development...
January 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yuri Shavrukov, Akhylbek Kurishbayev, Satyvaldy Jatayev, Vladimir Shvidchenko, Lyudmila Zotova, Francois Koekemoer, Stephan de Groot, Kathleen Soole, Peter Langridge
Drought escape (DE) is a classical adaptive mechanism which involves rapid plant development to enable the completion of the full life-cycle prior to a coming drought event. This strategy is widely used in populations of native plants, and is also applicable to cereal crops such as wheat. Early flowering time and a shorter vegetative phase can be very important for wheat production in conditions of terminal drought since this can minimize exposure to dehydration during the sensitive flowering and post-anthesis grain filling periods...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Satoshi Watanabe, Takehiko Shimizu, Kayo Machita, Yasutaka Tsubokura, Zhengjun Xia, Tetsuya Yamada, Makita Hajika, Masao Ishimoto, Yuichi Katayose, Kyuya Harada, Akito Kaga
Using progeny of a cross between Japanese soybean Enrei and Chinese soybean Peking, we developed a high-density linkage map and chromosomal segment substitution lines (CSSLs). The map consists of 2,177 markers with polymorphism information for 32 accessions and provides a detailed genetic framework for these markers. The marker order on the linkage map revealed close agreement with that on the chromosome-scale assembly, Wm82.a2.v1. The differences, especially on Chr. 5 and Chr. 11, in the present map provides information to identify regions in the genome assembly where additional information is required to resolve marker order and assign remaining scaffolds...
November 24, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Ruimin Gao, Margaret Y Gruber, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
Our results show SPL13 plays a crucial role in regulating vegetative and reproductive development in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), and that MYB112 is targeted and downregulated by SPL13 in alfalfa. We previously showed that transgenic Medicago sativa (alfalfa) plants overexpressing microRNA156 (miR156) show a bushy phenotype, reduced internodal length, delayed flowering time, and enhanced biomass yield. In alfalfa, transcripts of seven SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors, including SPL13, are targeted for cleavage by miR156...
November 17, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
Xinmin Huang, Yuling Lei, Hongling Guan, Yanwei Hao, Houcheng Liu, Guangwen Sun, Riyuan Chen, Shiwei Song
Flowering Chinese cabbage is a stalk vegetable whose quality and yield are directly related to stalk development. However, no comprehensive investigations on stalk development have been performed. To address this issue, the present study used RNA sequencing to investigate transcriptional regulation at three key stages (seedling, bolting, and flowering) of stalk development in flowering Chinese cabbage. Anatomical analysis revealed that cell division was the main mode of stalk thickening and elongation at all key stages...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yunkai Jin, Mingliang Fei, Sara Rosenquist, Lu Jin, Suresh Gohil, Corine Sandström, Helena Olsson, Cecilia Persson, Anna-Stina Höglund, Gunnel Fransson, Ying Ruan, Per Åman, Christer Jansson, Chunlin Liu, Roger Andersson, Chuanxin Sun
Sequential carbohydrate synthesis is important for plant survival because it guarantees energy supplies for growth and development during plant ontogeny and reproduction. Starch and fructan are two important carbohydrates in many flowering plants and in human diets. Understanding this coordinated starch and fructan synthesis and unraveling how plants allocate photosynthates and prioritize different carbohydrate synthesis for survival could lead to improvements to cereals in agriculture for the purposes of greater food security and production quality...
December 4, 2017: Molecular Plant
Xiangxiang Zhang, Rihui Li, Li Chen, Sailun Niu, Lei Chen, Jie Gao, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jingxing Tu, Tingdong Fu, Jinxiong Shen
Flower color in Brassica spp. is an important trait and considered a major visual signal for insect-pollinated plants. In previous study, we isolated and identified two genes (BjPC1 and BjPC2) that control the flower color in B. juncea, and mapped BjPC1 to a 0.13-cM region. In this study, we report the fine-mapping and candidate analysis of BjPC2. We conducted whole-genome resequencing, using bulked segregant analysis (BSA) to determine the BjPC2 candidate intervals. Crossing, allelism testing, and repeated full-sib mating were used to generate XG3, a near isogenic line (NIL) population that segregated on the BjPC2 locus...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Genqiao Li, Rungravee Boontung, Carol Powers, Vikas Belamkar, Tianrong Huang, Fang Miao, P Stephen Baenziger, Liuling Yan
BACKGROUND: 'Apogee' has a very short life cycle among wheat cultivars (flowering 25 days after planting under a long day and without vernalization), and it is a unique genetic material that can be used to accelerate cycling breeding lines. However, little is known about the genetic basis of the super-short life of Apogee wheat. RESULTS: In this study, Apogee was crossed with a strong winter wheat cultivar 'Overland', and 858 F2 plants were generated and tested in a greenhouse under constant warm temperature and long days...
October 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
Fangqin Zeng, Bill Biligetu, Bruce Coulman, Michael P Schellenberg, Yong-Bi Fu
Crested wheatgrass ( Agropyron cristatum L.) breeding programs aim to develop later maturing cultivars for extending early spring grazing in Western Canada. Plant maturity is a complex genetic trait, and little is known about genes associated with late maturity in this species. An attempt was made using RNA-Seq to profile the transcriptome of crested wheatgrass maturity and to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between early and late maturing lines. Three cDNA libraries for each line were generated by sampling leaves at the stem elongation stage, spikes at the boot and anthesis stages...
October 25, 2017: Genes
Carlos E P Nunes, Marina Wolowski, Emerson Ricardo Pansarin, Günter Gerlach, Izar Aximoff, Nicolas J Vereecken, Marcos José Salvador, Marlies Sazima
Floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in plant-pollinator interactions. We investigated the reproductive ecology and floral VOCs of Zygopetalinae orchids to understand the relationship between floral scents and pollinators. We performed focal observations, phenological censuses and breeding system experiments in eight species in southeast Brazil. Floral scents were collected and analysed using SPME/GC-MS. We performed multivariate analyses to group species according to affinities of their VOCs and define compounds associated to each plant...
October 13, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Fakhriddin N Kushanov, Zabardast T Buriev, Shukhrat E Shermatov, Ozod S Turaev, Tokhir M Norov, Alan E Pepper, Sukumar Saha, Mauricio Ulloa, John Z Yu, Johnie N Jenkins, Abdusattor Abdukarimov, Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov
Most wild and semi-wild species of the genus Gossypium are exhibit photoperiod-sensitive flowering. The wild germplasm cotton is a valuable source of genes for genetic improvement of modern cotton cultivars. A bi-parental cotton population segregating for photoperiodic flowering was developed by crossing a photoperiod insensitive irradiation mutant line with its pre-mutagenesis photoperiodic wild-type G. darwinii Watt genotype. Individuals from the F2 and F3 generations were grown with their parental lines and F1 hybrid progeny in the long day and short night summer condition (natural day-length) of Uzbekistan to evaluate photoperiod sensitivity, i...
2017: PloS One
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