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Flower development, plant breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903632/genomic-prediction-with-pedigree-and-genotype-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-in-spring-wheat-grown-in-south-and-west-asia-north-africa-and-mexico
#1
Sivakumar Sukumaran, Jose Crossa, Diego Jarquin, Marta Lopes, Mathew P Reynolds
Developing genomic selection (GS) models is an important step in applying GS to accelerate the rate of genetic gain in grain yield in plant breeding. In this study, seven genomic prediction models under two cross-validation scenarios were tested on 287 advanced elite spring wheat lines phenotyped for grain yield (GY), thousand-grain weight (GW), grain number (GN), and thermal time for flowering (TTF) in 18 international environments (year-location combinations) in major wheat producing countries in 2010 and 2011...
November 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872631/identification-and-characterization-of-cyc-like-genes-in-regulation-of-ray-floret-development-in-chrysanthemum-morifolium
#2
Di Huang, Xiaowei Li, Ming Sun, Tengxun Zhang, Huitang Pan, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang
Chrysanthemum morifolium, one of the most economically important ornamental crops worldwide, is well-known for the elaborate and complex inflorescence which is composed of both bilaterally symmetrical ray florets and radially symmetrical disc florets. Despite continuing efforts, the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of the two flower types are still unclear so far. CYC-like proteins have been shown to control flower symmetry or regulate flower-type identity in several angiosperm plant lineages. In this study, we conducted comparative analysis of the CmCYC2 genes in two chrysanthemum cultivars and their F1 progenies with various whorls of ray florets...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849572/standing-genetic-variation-in-a-tissue-specific-enhancer-underlies-selfing-syndrome-evolution-in-capsella
#3
Adrien Sicard, Christian Kappel, Young Wha Lee, Natalia Joanna Woźniak, Cindy Marona, John R Stinchcombe, Stephen I Wright, Michael Lenhard
Mating system shifts recurrently drive specific changes in organ dimensions. The shift in mating system from out-breeding to selfing is one of the most frequent evolutionary transitions in flowering plants and is often associated with an organ-specific reduction in flower size. However, the evolutionary paths along which polygenic traits, such as size, evolve are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how natural selection can specifically modulate the size of one organ despite the pleiotropic action of most known growth regulators...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845851/a-ramie-bzip-transcription-factor-bnbzip2-is-involved-in-drought-salt-and-heavy-metal-stress-response
#4
Chengjian Huang, Jinghua Zhou, Yucheng Jie, Hucheng Xing, Yingli Zhong, Weilin Yu, Wei She, Yushen Ma, Zehang Liu, Ying Zhang
bZIP transcription factors play key roles in plant growth, development, and stress signaling. A bZIP gene BnbZIP2 (GenBank accession number: KP642148) was cloned from ramie. BnbZIP2 has a 1416 base pair open reading frame, encoding a 471 amino acid protein containing a characteristic bZIP domain and a leucine zipper. BnbZIP2 shares high sequence similarity with bZIP factors from other plants. The BnbZIP2 protein is localized to both nuclei and cytoplasm. Transcripts of BnbZIP2 were found in various tissues in ramie, with significantly higher levels in female and male flowers...
December 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832742/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-the-fertile-and-sterile-flower-buds-of-a-dominant-genic-male-sterile-line-in-sesame-sesamum-indicum-l
#5
Hongyan Liu, Mingpu Tan, Haijuan Yu, Liang Li, Fang Zhou, Minmin Yang, Ting Zhou, Yingzhong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a globally important oilseed crop with highly-valued oil. Strong hybrid vigor is frequently observed within this crop, which can be exploited by the means of genic male sterility (GMS). We have previously developed a dominant GMS (DGMS) line W1098A that has great potential for the breeding of F1 hybrids. Although it has been genetically and anatomically characterized, the underlying molecular mechanism for male sterility remains unclear and therefore limits the full utilization of such GMS line...
November 10, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832131/polymorphic-microsatellite-markers-for-the-tetrapolar-anther-smut-fungus-microbotryum-saponariae-based-on-genome-sequencing
#6
Taiadjana M Fortuna, Alodie Snirc, Hélène Badouin, Jérome Gouzy, Sophie Siguenza, Diane Esquerre, Stéphanie Le Prieur, Jacqui A Shykoff, Tatiana Giraud
BACKGROUND: Anther-smut fungi belonging to the genus Microbotryum sterilize their host plants by aborting ovaries and replacing pollen by fungal spores. Sibling Microbotryum species are highly specialized on their host plants and they have been widely used as models for studies of ecology and evolution of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most studies have focused, so far, on M. lychnidis-dioicae that parasitizes the white campion Silene latifolia. Microbotryum saponariae, parasitizing mainly Saponaria officinalis, is an interesting anther-smut fungus, since it belongs to a tetrapolar lineage (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829354/transcriptome-sequencing-and-metabolite-analysis-for-revealing-the-blue-flower-formation-in-waterlily
#7
Qian Wu, Jie Wu, Shan-Shan Li, Hui-Jin Zhang, Cheng-Yong Feng, Dan-Dan Yin, Ru-Yan Wu, Liang-Sheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Waterlily (Nymphaea spp.), a perennial herbaceous aquatic plant, is divided into two ecological groups: hardy waterlily and tropical waterlily. Although the hardy waterlily has no attractive blue flower cultivar, its adaptability is stronger than tropical waterlily because it can survive a cold winter. Thus, breeding hardy waterlily with real blue flowers has become an important target for breeders. Molecular breeding may be a useful way. However, molecular studies on waterlily are limited due to the lack of sequence data...
November 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776497/development-genetic-mapping-and-qtl-association-of-cotton-phya-phyb-and-hy5-specific-caps-and-dcaps-markers
#8
Fakhriddin N Kushanov, Alan E Pepper, John Z Yu, Zabardast T Buriev, Shukhrat E Shermatov, Sukumar Saha, Mauricio Ulloa, Johnie N Jenkins, Abdusattor Abdukarimov, Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov
BACKGROUND: Among SNP markers that become increasingly valuable in molecular breeding of crop plants are the CAPS and dCAPS markers derived from the genes of interest. To date, the number of such gene-based markers is small in polyploid crop plants such as allotetraploid cotton that has A- and D-sub-genomes. The objective of this study was to develop and map new CAPS and dCAPS markers for cotton developmental-regulatory genes that are important in plant breeding programs. RESULTS: Gossypium hirsutum and G...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770587/pollination-of-campomanesia-phaea-myrtaceae-by-night-active-bees-a-new-nocturnal-pollination-system-mediated-by-floral-scent
#9
G D Cordeiro, M Pinheiro, S Dötterl, I Alves-Dos-Santos
Bees are the most important diurnal pollinators of angiosperms. In several groups of bees a nocturnal/crepuscular habit developed, yet little is known about their role in pollination and whether some plants are adapted specifically to these bees. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the reproductive biology and to understand the role of nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae), popularly named cambuci. We studied the floral biology and breeding system of C. phaea...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744490/the-historical-role-of-species-from-the-solanaceae-plant-family-in-genetic-research
#10
Christiane Gebhardt
This article evaluates the main contributions of tomato, tobacco, petunia, potato, pepper and eggplant to classical and molecular plant genetics and genomics since the beginning of the twentieth century. Species from the Solanaceae family form integral parts of human civilizations as food sources and drugs since thousands of years, and, more recently, as ornamentals. Some Solanaceous species were subjects of classical and molecular genetic research over the last 100 years. The tomato was one of the principal models in twentieth century classical genetics and a pacemaker of genome analysis in plants including molecular linkage maps, positional cloning of disease resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL)...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717457/the-agrobacterium-rhizogenes-oncogenes-rolb-and-orf13-increase-formation-of-generative-shoots-and-induce-dwarfism-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-l-heynh
#11
Nete Kodahl, Renate Müller, Henrik Lütken
Plant transformation with the wild type Ri plasmid T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a promising method for breeding of compact plants and has been the subject of numerous studies. However, knowledge concerning the isolated functions of single genes and ORFs from the plasmid is limited. The rolB and ORF13 oncogenes of A. rhizogenes show considerable promise in plant breeding, but have not been comprehensively studied. Detailed information regarding the morphological impact of specific genes of the Ri plasmid will allow for optimized targeted breeding of plants transformed with the wild type Ri plasmid T-DNA...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557329/change-in-auxin-and-cytokinin-levels-coincides-with-altered-expression-of-branching-genes-during-axillary-bud-outgrowth-in-chrysanthemum
#12
Robrecht Dierck, Ellen De Keyser, Jan De Riek, Emmy Dhooghe, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, Els Prinsen, Dominique Van Der Straeten
In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547535/genetic-diversity-of-pomegranate-germplasm-collection-from-spain-determined-by-fruit-seed-leaf-and-flower-characteristics
#13
Juan J Martinez-Nicolas, Pablo Melgarejo, Pilar Legua, Francisco Garcia-Sanchez, Francisca Hernández
Background. Miguel Hernandez University (Spain) created a germplasm bank of the varieties of pomegranate from different Southeastern Spain localities in order to preserve the crop's wide genetic diversity. Once this collection was established, the next step was to characterize the phenotype of these varieties to determine the phenotypic variability that existed among all the different pomegranate genotypes, and to understand the degree of polymorphism of the morphometric characteristics among varieties. Methods...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27542359/comparative-transcriptome-investigation-of-global-gene-expression-changes-caused-by-mir156-overexpression-in-medicago-sativa
#14
Ruimin Gao, Ryan S Austin, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
BACKGROUND: Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is a low-input forage and potential bioenergy crop, and improving its yield and quality has always been a focus of the alfalfa breeding industry. Transgenic alfalfa plants overexpressing a precursor of alfalfa microRNA156 (MsmiR156) were recently generated by our group. These plants (miR156OE) showed enhanced biomass yield, reduced internodal length, increased shoot branching and trichome density, and a delay in flowering time. Transcripts of three SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes (MsSPL6, MsSPL12, and MsSPL13) were found to be targeted for cleavage by MsmiR156 in alfalfa...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514453/smarter-de-stressed-cereal-breeding
#15
Haipei Liu, Amanda J Able, Jason A Able
In cereal breeding programs, improved yield potential and stability are ultimate goals when developing new varieties. To facilitate achieving these goals, reproductive success under stressful growing conditions is of the highest priority. In recent times, small RNA (sRNA)-mediated pathways have been associated with the regulation of genes involved in stress adaptation and reproduction in both model plants and several cereals. Reproductive and physiological traits such as flowering time, reproductive branching, and root architecture can be manipulated by sRNA regulatory modules...
August 5, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396521/current-status-and-biotechnological-advances-in-genetic-engineering-of-ornamental-plants
#16
REVIEW
Pejman Azadi, Hedayat Bagheri, Ayoub Molaahmad Nalousi, Farzad Nazari, Stephen F Chandler
Cut flower markets are developing in many countries as the international demand for cut flowers is rapidly growing. Developing new varieties with modified characteristics is an important aim in floriculture. Production of transgenic ornamental plants can shorten the time required in the conventional breeding of a cultivar. Biotechnology tools in combination with conventional breeding methods have been used by cut flower breeders to change flower color, plant architecture, post-harvest traits, and disease resistance...
November 1, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390934/a-new-genomic-library-of-melon-introgression-lines-in-a-cantaloupe-genetic-background-for-dissecting-desirable-agronomical-traits
#17
Gorka Perpiñá, Cristina Esteras, Yves Gibon, Antonio J Monforte, Belén Picó
BACKGROUND: Genomic libraries of introgression lines (ILs) consist of collections of homozygous lines with a single chromosomal introgression from a donor genotype in a common, usually elite, genetic background, representing the whole donor genome in the full collection. Currently, the only available melon IL collection was generated using Piel de sapo (var. inodorus) as the recurrent background. ILs are not available in genetic backgrounds representing other important market class cultivars, such as the cantalupensis...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388887/expression-of-b-class-mads-box-genes-in-response-to-variations-in-photoperiod-is-associated-with-chasmogamous-and-cleistogamous-flower-development-in-viola-philippica
#18
Qiaoxia Li, Qingdi Huo, Juan Wang, Jing Zhao, Kun Sun, Chaoying He
BACKGROUND: Some plants develop a breeding system that produces both chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. RESULTS: In the present study, we observed that Viola philippica develops CH flowers with short daylight, whereas an extended photoperiod induces the formation of intermediate CL and CL flowers. In response to long daylight, the respective number and size of petals and stamens was lower and smaller than those of normally developed CH flowers, and a minimum of 14-h light induced complete CL flowers that had no petals but developed two stamens of reduced fertility...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382413/transcriptome-profiling-of-camelina-sativa-to-identify-genes-involved-in-triacylglycerol-biosynthesis-and-accumulation-in-the-developing-seeds
#19
Hesham M Abdullah, Parisa Akbari, Bibin Paulose, Danny Schnell, Weipeng Qi, Yeonhwa Park, Ashwani Pareek, Om Parkash Dhankher
BACKGROUND: Camelina sativa is an emerging dedicated oilseed crop designed for biofuel and biodiesel applications as well as a source for edible and general-purpose oils. Such valuable oilseed crop is subjected to plant breeding programs and is suggested for large-scale production of better seed and oil quality. To accomplish this objective and to further enhance its oil content, a better understanding of lipid metabolism at the molecular level in this plant is critical. Here, we applied tissue transcriptomics and lipid composition analysis to identify and profile the genes and gene networks associated with triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, and to investigate how those genes are interacting to determine the quantity and quality of Camelina oil during seed development...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375671/gene-mapping-of-a-mutant-mungbean-vigna-radiata-l-using-new-molecular-markers-suggests-a-gene-encoding-a-yuc4-like-protein-regulates-the-chasmogamous-flower-trait
#20
Jingbin Chen, Prakit Somta, Xin Chen, Xiaoyan Cui, Xingxing Yuan, Peerasak Srinives
Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is a cleistogamous plant in which flowers are pollinated before they open, which prevents yield improvements through heterosis. We previously generated a chasmogamous mutant (CM) mungbean in which open flowers are pollinated. In this study, we developed insertion/deletion (indel) markers based on the transcriptome differences between CM and Sulu-1 (i.e., normal flowering) plants. An F2 population derived from a cross between CM and Sulu-1 was used for gene mapping. Segregation analyses revealed that a single recessive gene regulates the production of chasmogamous flowers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
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