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Flower development, plant breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913804/doubled-haploid-laboratory-protocol-for-wheat-using-wheat-maize-wide-hybridization
#1
Meenakshi Santra, Hong Wang, Scott Seifert, Scott Haley
In traditional wheat breeding, the uniformity of lines derived from a breeding population is obtained by repeated selfing from the F1 which takes several generations to reach homozygosity in loci controlling traits of interest. Using doubled haploid technology, however, it is possible to attain 100% homozygosity at all loci in a single generation and completely homogeneous breeding lines can be obtained in 1-2 years. Thus, doubled haploid technology may significantly reduce cultivar development time. Two major methods for producing wheat doubled haploids are androgenesis (anther culture and microspore culture) and embryo culture using wheat-maize wide hybridization, the latter being the most effective and widely used method...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900432/assessing-and-exploiting-functional-diversity-in-germplasm-pools-to-enhance-abiotic-stress-adaptation-and-yield-in-cereals-and-food-legumes
#2
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871547/a-step-by-step-protocol-for-classifying-aox-proteins-in-flowering-plants
#3
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
The potential of alternative oxidase (AOX) genes to develop functional markers for plant breeding programs has been emphasized. In this sense, it is essential to have a reliable classification system, which could aid in the selection of candidate AOX genes from different species. In the case of angiosperms AOX, a robust classification system is required because this enzyme is encoded by variable gene numbers (1-6 genes) with variable AOX subfamilies and subtypes. Thus, in this protocol, we present a detailed guideline to application of a classification scheme of AOX based on specific amino acids and phylogeny...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855957/discrimination-of-boron-tolerance-in-pisum-sativum-l-genotypes-using-a-rapid-high-throughput-hydroponic-screen-and-precociously-germinated-seed-grown-under-far-red-enriched-light
#4
Richard G Bennett, Federico M Ribalta, Maria Pazos-Navarro, Antonio Leonforte, Janine S Croser
BACKGROUND: Boron (B) tolerance has been identified as a key target for field pea improvement. Screening for B tolerance in the field is problematic due to variability in space and time, and robust B molecular markers are currently unavailable in field pea. There has been recent progress in developing protocols that can accelerate the life cycle of plants to enable rapid generation turnover in single seed descent breeding programs. A robust B screening protocol that can be fully integrated within an accelerated single seed descent system could lead to rapid identification and introgression of B tolerance into field pea genotypes...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831522/quantitative-trait-locus-mapping-under-irrigated-and-drought-treatments-based-on-a-novel-genetic-linkage-map-in-mungbean-vigna-radiata-l
#5
Changyou Liu, Jing Wu, Lanfen Wang, Baojie Fan, Zhimin Cao, Qiuzhu Su, Zhixiao Zhang, Yan Wang, Jing Tian, Shumin Wang
A novel genetic linkage map was constructed using SSR markers and stable QTLs were identified for six drought tolerance related-traits using single-environment analysis under irrigation and drought treatments. Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important leguminous food crops. However, mungbean production is seriously constrained by drought. Isolation of drought-responsive genetic elements and marker-assisted selection breeding will benefit from the detection of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) for traits related to drought tolerance...
August 22, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817567/accounting-for-biotic-spatial-variability-in-fields-case-of-resistance-screening-against-sunflower-verticillium-wilt
#6
Hélène Missonnier, Alban Jacques, JiSu Bang, Jean Daydé, Virginie Mirleau-Thebaud
In breeding for disease resistance, the magnitude of the genetic response is difficult to appreciate because of environmental stresses that interact with the plant genotype. We discuss herein the fundamental problems in breeding for disease resistance with the aim being to better understand the interactions between plant, pathogen, and spatial patterns. The goal of this study is to fine tune breeding decisions by incorporating spatial patterns of such biotic factors into the definition of disease-occurrence probability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797221/use-of-genotyping-by-sequencing-to-determine-the-genetic-structure-in-the-medicinal-plant-chamomile-and-to-identify-flowering-time-and-alpha-bisabolol-associated-snp-loci-by-genome-wide-association-mapping
#7
Lars-Gernot Otto, Prodyut Mondal, Jonathan Brassac, Susanne Preiss, Jörg Degenhardt, Sang He, Jochen Christoph Reif, Timothy Francis Sharbel
BACKGROUND: Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) has a long history of use in herbal medicine with various applications, and the flower heads contain numerous secondary metabolites which are medicinally active. In the major crop plants, next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are intensely applied to exploit genetic resources, to develop genomic resources and to enhance breeding. Here, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been used in the non-model medicinal plant chamomile to evaluate the genetic structure of the cultivated varieties/populations, and to perform genome wide association study (GWAS) focusing on genes with large effect on flowering time and the medicinally important alpha-bisabolol content...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795235/impact-of-seed-protein-alleles-from-three-soybean-sources-on-seed-composition-and-agronomic-traits
#8
Lillian F Brzostowski, Timothy I Pruski, James E Specht, Brian W Diers
Evaluation of seed protein alleles in soybean populations showed that an increase in protein concentration is generally associated with a decrease in oil concentration and yield. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] meal is one of the most important plant-based protein sources in the world. Developing cultivars high in seed protein concentration and seed yield is a difficult task because the traits have an inverse relationship. Over two decades ago, a protein quantitative trait loci (QTL) was mapped on chromosome (chr) 20, and this QTL has been mapped to the same position in several studies and given the confirmed QTL designation cqSeed protein-003...
August 9, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782017/generation-of-blue-chrysanthemums-by-anthocyanin-b-ring-hydroxylation-and-glucosylation-and-its-coloration-mechanism
#9
Naonobu Noda, Satoshi Yoshioka, Sanae Kishimoto, Masayoshi Nakayama, Mitsuru Douzono, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Ryutaro Aida
Various colored cultivars of ornamental flowers have been bred by hybridization and mutation breeding; however, the generation of blue flowers for major cut flower plants, such as roses, chrysanthemums, and carnations, has not been achieved by conventional breeding or genetic engineering. Most blue-hued flowers contain delphinidin-based anthocyanins; therefore, delphinidin-producing carnation, rose, and chrysanthemum flowers have been generated by overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771490/effect-of-growing-media-and-fertilization-on-sugarcane-flowering-under-artificial-photoperiod
#10
Anna L Hale, Paul M White, Charles L Webber, James R Todd
The USDA-ARS Sugarcane Variety Development Program in Houma, LA aims to maximize the number of panicles available for crossing through artificial manipulation of the environment. In a three-year study, the effect of growing media, fertilizer treatment, and their interaction on sugarcane flowering (% of panicles emerged), and number of days to flowering (DTF) under an artificial photoperiod treatment were assessed. The commercially-available sugarcane cultivar, 'HoCP 96-540' was planted in 2.8-L pots and subjected to the standard local photoperiod treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753668/overexpression-of-arabidopsis-flowering-locus-t-ft-gene-improves-floral-development-in-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz
#11
O Sarah Adeyemo, Paul Chavarriaga, Joe Tohme, Martin Fregene, Seth J Davis, Tim L Setter
Cassava is a tropical storage-root crop that serves as a worldwide source of staple food for over 800 million people. Flowering is one of the most important breeding challenges in cassava because in most lines flowering is late and non-synchronized, and flower production is sparse. The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is pivotal for floral induction in all examined angiosperms. The objective of the current work was to determine the potential roles of the FT signaling system in cassava. The Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (atFT) was transformed into the cassava cultivar 60444 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and was found to be overexpressed constitutively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692124/genetic-variability-of-a-brazilian-capsicum-frutescens-germplasm-collection-using-morphological-characteristics-and-ssr-markers
#12
S I C Carvalho, L B Bianchetti, C F Ragassi, C S C Ribeiro, F J B Reifschneider, G S C Buso, F G Faleiro
Characterization studies provide essential information for the conservation and use of germplasm in plant breeding programs. In this study, 103 Capsicum frutescens L. accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Hortaliças, representative of all five Brazilian geographic regions, were characterized based on morphological characteristics and microsatellite (or simple sequence repeat - SSR) molecular markers. Morphological characterization was carried out using 57 descriptors, and molecular characterization was based on 239 alleles from 24 microsatellite loci...
July 6, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690799/sex-biased-oviposition-by-a-nursery-pollinator-on-a-gynodioecious-host-plant-implications-for-breeding-system-evolution-and-evolution-of-mutualism
#13
Laura A D Doubleday, Lynn S Adler
Dioecy, a breeding system where individual plants are exclusively male or female, has evolved repeatedly. Extensive theory describes when dioecy should arise from hermaphroditism, frequently through gynodioecy, where females and hermaphrodites coexist, and when gynodioecy should be stable. Both pollinators and herbivores often prefer the pollen-bearing sex, with sex-specific fitness effects that can affect breeding system evolution. Nursery pollination, where adult insects pollinate flowers but their larvae feed on plant reproductive tissues, is a model for understanding mutualism evolution but could also yield insights into plant breeding system evolution...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630625/quantification-of-antioxidant-phenolic-compounds-in-a-new-chrysanthemum-cultivar-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-detection-and-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#14
Ah-Reum Han, Hyo Young Kim, Yangkang So, Bomi Nam, Ik-Soo Lee, Joo-Won Nam, Yeong Deuk Jo, Sang Hoon Kim, Jin-Baek Kim, Si-Yong Kang, Chang Hyun Jin
The flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. have been used as an herbal tea and in traditional medicine, and the plant has been developed to produce horticultural cultivars of various colors and shapes. In this study, a new chrysanthemum cultivar with dark purple petals (C. morifolium cv. ARTI-Dark Chocolate; ADC) was developed by radiation-induced mutation breeding of its original cultivar with purple striped white petals (C. morifolium cv. Noble Wine, NW). The phenolic profile and antioxidant property of ADC were investigated and compared with NW and the commercially available medicinal herb, C...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620457/early-fruiting-in-synsepalum-dulcificum-schumach-thonn-daniell-juveniles-induced-by-water-and-inorganic-nutrient-management
#15
Dèdéou Apocalypse Tchokponhoué, Sognigbé N'Danikou, Iago Hale, Allen Van Deynze, Enoch Gbènato Achigan-Dako
Background. The miracle plant, Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. & Thonn.) Daniell is a native African orphan crop species that has recently received increased attention due to its promise as a sweetener and source of antioxidants in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, a major obstacle to the species' widespread utilization is its relatively slow growth rate and prolonged juvenile period. Method. In this study, we tested twelve treatments made up of various watering regimes and exogenous nutrient application (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, at varying dosages) on the relative survival, growth, and reproductive development of 15-months-old S...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613377/evaluation-of-genetic-diversity-among-soybean-glycine-max-genotypes-using-univariate-and-multivariate-analysis
#16
M M Oliveira, L B Sousa, M C Reis, E G Silva Junior, D B O Cardoso, O T Hamawaki, A P O Nogueira
The genetic diversity study has paramount importance in breeding programs; hence, it allows selection and choice of the parental genetic divergence, which have the agronomic traits desired by the breeder. This study aimed to characterize the genetic divergence between 24 soybean genotypes through their agronomic traits, using multivariate clustering methods to select the potential genitors for the promising hybrid combinations. Six agronomic traits evaluated were number of days to flowering and maturity, plant height at flowering and maturity, insertion height of the first pod, and yield...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611816/environmental-influences-on-the-growing-season-duration-and-ripening-of-diverse-miscanthus-germplasm-grown-in-six-countries
#17
Christopher Nunn, Astley Francis St John Hastings, Olena Kalinina, Mensure Özgüven, Heinrich Schüle, Ivan G Tarakanov, Tim Van Der Weijde, Aleksander A Anisimov, Yasir Iqbal, Andreas Kiesel, Nikolay F Khokhlov, Jon P McCalmont, Heike Meyer, Michal Mos, Kai-Uwe Schwarz, Luisa M Trindade, Iris Lewandowski, John C Clifton-Brown
The development of models to predict yield potential and quality of a Miscanthus crop must consider climatic limitations and the duration of growing season. As a biomass crop, yield and quality are impacted by the timing of plant developmental transitions such as flowering and senescence. Growth models are available for the commercially grown clone Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg), but breeding programs have been working to expand the germplasm available, including development of interspecies hybrids. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of diverse germplasm beyond the range of environments considered suitable for a Miscanthus crop to be grown...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604820/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-provides-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-for-parthenocarpic-fruit-development-in-eggplant-solanum-melongena-l
#18
Xia Chen, Min Zhang, Jie Tan, Shuping Huang, Chunli Wang, Hongyuan Zhang, Taiming Tan
Genetic control of parthenocarpy, a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds, has been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanism of parthenocarpic fruit development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is still unclear. To provide insights into eggplant parthenocarpy, the transcriptomic profiles of a natural parthenocarpic (PP05) and two non-parthenocarpic (PnP05 and GnP05) eggplant lines were analyzed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. These sequences were assembled into 38925 unigenes, of which 22683 had an annotated function and 3419 were predicted as novel genes or from alternative splicing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584974/high-resolution-mapping-of-qtls-for-heat-tolerance-in-rice-using-a-5k-snp-array
#19
Shanmugavadivel Ps, Amitha Mithra Sv, Chandra Prakash, Ramkumar Mk, Ratan Tiwari, Trilochan Mohapatra, Nagendra Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Heat stress is one of the major abiotic threats to rice production, next to drought and salinity stress. Incidence of heat stress at reproductive phase of the crop results in abnormal pollination leading to floret sterility, low seed set and poor grain quality. Identification of QTLs and causal genes for heat stress tolerance at flowering will facilitate breeding for improved heat tolerance in rice. In the present study, we used 272 F8 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Nagina22, a well-known heat tolerant Aus cultivar and IR64, a heat sensitive popular Indica rice variety to map the QTLs for heat tolerance...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558691/the-development-and-use-of-a-molecular-model-for-soybean-maturity-groups
#20
Tiffany Langewisch, Julian Lenis, Guo-Liang Jiang, Dechun Wang, Vince Pantalone, Kristin Bilyeu
BACKGROUND: Achieving appropriate maturity in a target environment is essential to maximizing crop yield potential. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], the time to maturity is largely dependent on developmental response to dark periods. Once the critical photoperiod is reached, flowering is initiated and reproductive development proceeds. Therefore, soybean adaptation has been attributed to genetic changes and natural or artificial selection to optimize plant development in specific, narrow latitudinal ranges...
May 30, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
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