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Flower development, plant breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149417/spl13-regulates-shoot-branching-and-flowering-time-in-medicago-sativa
#1
Ruimin Gao, Margaret Y Gruber, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
Our results show SPL13 plays a crucial role in regulating vegetative and reproductive development in Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa), and that MYB112 is targeted and downregulated by SPL13 in alfalfa. We previously showed that transgenic Medicago sativa (alfalfa) plants overexpressing microRNA156 (miR156) show a bushy phenotype, reduced internodal length, delayed flowering time, and enhanced biomass yield. In alfalfa, transcripts of seven SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors, including SPL13, are targeted for cleavage by miR156...
November 17, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138433/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-regulation-of-stalk-development-in-flowering-chinese-cabbage-brassica-campestris-by-rna-sequencing
#2
Xinmin Huang, Yuling Lei, Hongling Guan, Yanwei Hao, Houcheng Liu, Guangwen Sun, Riyuan Chen, Shiwei Song
Flowering Chinese cabbage is a stalk vegetable whose quality and yield are directly related to stalk development. However, no comprehensive investigations on stalk development have been performed. To address this issue, the present study used RNA sequencing to investigate transcriptional regulation at three key stages (seedling, bolting, and flowering) of stalk development in flowering Chinese cabbage. Anatomical analysis revealed that cell division was the main mode of stalk thickening and elongation at all key stages...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126994/a-dual-promoter-gene-orchestrates-the-sucrose-coordinated-synthesis-of-starch-and-fructan
#3
Yunkai Jin, Mingliang Fei, Sara Rosenquist, Lu Jin, Suresh Gohil, Corine Sandström, Helena Olsson, Cecilia Persson, Anna-Stina Höglund, Gunnel Fransson, Ying Ruan, Per Åman, Christer Jansson, Chunlin Liu, Roger Andersson, Chuanxin Sun
Sequential carbohydrate synthesis is important for plant survival because it guarantees energy supplies for growth and development during plant ontogeny and reproduction. Starch and fructan are two important carbohydrates in many flowering plants and in human diets. Understanding this coordinated starch and fructan synthesis and unravelling how plants allocate photosynthates and prioritize different carbohydrate synthesis for survival could lead to improvements to cereals in agriculture for the purposes of greater food security and production quality...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119366/fine-mapping-and-candidate-gene-analysis-of-the-brassica-juncea-white-flowered-mutant-bjpc2-using-the-whole-genome-resequencing
#4
Xiangxiang Zhang, Rihui Li, Li Chen, Sailun Niu, Lei Chen, Jie Gao, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jingxing Tu, Tingdong Fu, Jinxiong Shen
Flower color in Brassica spp. is an important trait and considered a major visual signal for insect-pollinated plants. In previous study, we isolated and identified two genes (BjPC1 and BjPC2) that control the flower color in B. juncea, and mapped BjPC1 to a 0.13-cM region. In this study, we report the fine-mapping and candidate analysis of BjPC2. We conducted whole-genome resequencing, using bulked segregant analysis (BSA) to determine the BjPC2 candidate intervals. Crossing, allelism testing, and repeated full-sib mating were used to generate XG3, a near isogenic line (NIL) population that segregated on the BjPC2 locus...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089022/genetic-basis-of-the-very-short-life-cycle-of-apogee-wheat
#5
Genqiao Li, Rungravee Boontung, Carol Powers, Vikas Belamkar, Tianrong Huang, Fang Miao, P Stephen Baenziger, Liuling Yan
BACKGROUND: 'Apogee' has a very short life cycle among wheat cultivars (flowering 25 days after planting under a long day and without vernalization), and it is a unique genetic material that can be used to accelerate cycling breeding lines. However, little is known about the genetic basis of the super-short life of Apogee wheat. RESULTS: In this study, Apogee was crossed with a strong winter wheat cultivar 'Overland', and 858 F2 plants were generated and tested in a greenhouse under constant warm temperature and long days...
October 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068370/rna-seq-analysis-of-plant-maturity-in-crested-wheatgrass-agropyron-cristatum-l
#6
Fangqin Zeng, Bill Biligetu, Bruce Coulman, Michael P Schellenberg, Yong-Bi Fu
Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L.) breeding programs aim to develop later maturing cultivars for extending early spring grazing in Western Canada. Plant maturity is a complex genetic trait, and little is known about genes associated with late maturity in this species. An attempt was made using RNA-Seq to profile the transcriptome of crested wheatgrass maturity and to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between early and late maturing lines. Three cDNA libraries for each line were generated by sampling leaves at the stem elongation stage, spikes at the boot and anthesis stages...
October 25, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028068/more-than-euglossines-the-diverse-pollinators-and-floral-scents-of-zygopetalinae-orchids
#7
Carlos E P Nunes, Marina Wolowski, Emerson Ricardo Pansarin, Günter Gerlach, Izar Aximoff, Nicolas J Vereecken, Marcos José Salvador, Marlies Sazima
Floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in plant-pollinator interactions. We investigated the reproductive ecology and floral VOCs of Zygopetalinae orchids to understand the relationship between floral scents and pollinators. We performed focal observations, phenological censuses and breeding system experiments in eight species in southeast Brazil. Floral scents were collected and analysed using SPME/GC-MS. We performed multivariate analyses to group species according to affinities of their VOCs and define compounds associated to each plant...
October 13, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016665/qtl-mapping-for-flowering-time-and-photoperiod-insensitivity-of-cotton-gossypium-darwinii-watt
#8
Fakhriddin N Kushanov, Zabardast T Buriev, Shukhrat E Shermatov, Ozod S Turaev, Tokhir M Norov, Alan E Pepper, Sukumar Saha, Mauricio Ulloa, John Z Yu, Johnie N Jenkins, Abdusattor Abdukarimov, Ibrokhim Y Abdurakhmonov
Most wild and semi-wild species of the genus Gossypium are exhibit photoperiod-sensitive flowering. The wild germplasm cotton is a valuable source of genes for genetic improvement of modern cotton cultivars. A bi-parental cotton population segregating for photoperiodic flowering was developed by crossing a photoperiod insensitive irradiation mutant line with its pre-mutagenesis photoperiodic wild-type G. darwinii Watt genotype. Individuals from the F2 and F3 generations were grown with their parental lines and F1 hybrid progeny in the long day and short night summer condition (natural day-length) of Uzbekistan to evaluate photoperiod sensitivity, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973721/genetic-diversity-of-arboreal-cotton-populations-of-the-brazilian-semiarid-a-remnant-primary-gene-pool-for-cotton-cultivars
#9
I P P de Menezes, L V Hoffmann, T H de Lima, A R da Silva, V S Lucena, P A V Barroso
Mocó cotton belong to the same species as the cultivated species, Gossypium hirsutum, and cultivated forms were mainly landraces but also developed as cultivars, bearing good fiber quality and drought tolerant when cropped as a perennial species. The northeast Brazil crop system based on this cotton type is finished, with a few small area planted in the three main States, where it was previously cultivated (Ceará, Paraíba, and Rio Grande do Norte), but in others, maintenance is accomplished by single dooryard plants...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951735/multi-spectral-imaging-from-an-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-enables-the-assessment-of-seasonal-leaf-area-dynamics-of-sorghum-breeding-lines
#10
Andries B Potgieter, Barbara George-Jaeggli, Scott C Chapman, Kenneth Laws, Luz A Suárez Cadavid, Jemima Wixted, James Watson, Mark Eldridge, David R Jordan, Graeme L Hammer
Genetic improvement in sorghum breeding programs requires the assessment of adaptation traits in small-plot breeding trials across multiple environments. Many of these phenotypic assessments are made by manual measurement or visual scoring, both of which are time consuming and expensive. This limits trial size and the potential for genetic gain. In addition, these methods are typically restricted to point estimates of particular traits, such as leaf senescence or flowering and do not capture the dynamic nature of crop growth...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936220/de-novo-assembly-of-the-camellia-nitidissima-transcriptome-reveals-key-genes-of-flower-pigment-biosynthesis
#11
Xingwen Zhou, Jiyuan Li, Yulin Zhu, Sui Ni, Jinling Chen, Xiaojuan Feng, Yunfeng Zhang, Shuangquan Li, Hongguang Zhu, Yuanguang Wen
The golden camellia, Camellia nitidissima Chi., is a well-known ornamental plant that is known as "the queen of camellias" because of its golden yellow flowers. The principal pigments in the flowers are carotenoids and flavonol glycosides. Understanding the biosynthesis of the golden color and its regulation is important in camellia breeding. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of flower development in C. nitidissima, a number of cDNA libraries were independently constructed during flower development. Using the Illumina Hiseq2500 platform, approximately 71...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913804/doubled-haploid-laboratory-protocol-for-wheat-using-wheat-maize-wide-hybridization
#12
Meenakshi Santra, Hong Wang, Scott Seifert, Scott Haley
In traditional wheat breeding, the uniformity of lines derived from a breeding population is obtained by repeated selfing from the F1 which takes several generations to reach homozygosity in loci controlling traits of interest. Using doubled haploid technology, however, it is possible to attain 100% homozygosity at all loci in a single generation and completely homogeneous breeding lines can be obtained in 1-2 years. Thus, doubled haploid technology may significantly reduce cultivar development time. Two major methods for producing wheat doubled haploids are androgenesis (anther culture and microspore culture) and embryo culture using wheat-maize wide hybridization, the latter being the most effective and widely used method...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900432/assessing-and-exploiting-functional-diversity-in-germplasm-pools-to-enhance-abiotic-stress-adaptation-and-yield-in-cereals-and-food-legumes
#13
REVIEW
Sangam L Dwivedi, Armin Scheben, David Edwards, Charles Spillane, Rodomiro Ortiz
There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871547/a-step-by-step-protocol-for-classifying-aox-proteins-in-flowering-plants
#14
José Hélio Costa, Clesivan Pereira Dos Santos, Kátia Daniella da Cruz Saraiva, Birgit Arnholdt-Schmitt
The potential of alternative oxidase (AOX) genes to develop functional markers for plant breeding programs has been emphasized. In this sense, it is essential to have a reliable classification system, which could aid in the selection of candidate AOX genes from different species. In the case of angiosperms AOX, a robust classification system is required because this enzyme is encoded by variable gene numbers (1-6 genes) with variable AOX subfamilies and subtypes. Thus, in this protocol, we present a detailed guideline to application of a classification scheme of AOX based on specific amino acids and phylogeny...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855957/discrimination-of-boron-tolerance-in-pisum-sativum-l-genotypes-using-a-rapid-high-throughput-hydroponic-screen-and-precociously-germinated-seed-grown-under-far-red-enriched-light
#15
Richard G Bennett, Federico M Ribalta, Maria Pazos-Navarro, Antonio Leonforte, Janine S Croser
BACKGROUND: Boron (B) tolerance has been identified as a key target for field pea improvement. Screening for B tolerance in the field is problematic due to variability in space and time, and robust B molecular markers are currently unavailable in field pea. There has been recent progress in developing protocols that can accelerate the life cycle of plants to enable rapid generation turnover in single seed descent breeding programs. A robust B screening protocol that can be fully integrated within an accelerated single seed descent system could lead to rapid identification and introgression of B tolerance into field pea genotypes...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831522/quantitative-trait-locus-mapping-under-irrigated-and-drought-treatments-based-on-a-novel-genetic-linkage-map-in-mungbean-vigna-radiata-l
#16
Changyou Liu, Jing Wu, Lanfen Wang, Baojie Fan, Zhimin Cao, Qiuzhu Su, Zhixiao Zhang, Yan Wang, Jing Tian, Shumin Wang
A novel genetic linkage map was constructed using SSR markers and stable QTLs were identified for six drought tolerance related-traits using single-environment analysis under irrigation and drought treatments. Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important leguminous food crops. However, mungbean production is seriously constrained by drought. Isolation of drought-responsive genetic elements and marker-assisted selection breeding will benefit from the detection of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) for traits related to drought tolerance...
November 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817567/accounting-for-biotic-spatial-variability-in-fields-case-of-resistance-screening-against-sunflower-verticillium-wilt
#17
Hélène Missonnier, Alban Jacques, JiSu Bang, Jean Daydé, Virginie Mirleau-Thebaud
In breeding for disease resistance, the magnitude of the genetic response is difficult to appreciate because of environmental stresses that interact with the plant genotype. We discuss herein the fundamental problems in breeding for disease resistance with the aim being to better understand the interactions between plant, pathogen, and spatial patterns. The goal of this study is to fine tune breeding decisions by incorporating spatial patterns of such biotic factors into the definition of disease-occurrence probability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797221/use-of-genotyping-by-sequencing-to-determine-the-genetic-structure-in-the-medicinal-plant-chamomile-and-to-identify-flowering-time-and-alpha-bisabolol-associated-snp-loci-by-genome-wide-association-mapping
#18
Lars-Gernot Otto, Prodyut Mondal, Jonathan Brassac, Susanne Preiss, Jörg Degenhardt, Sang He, Jochen Christoph Reif, Timothy Francis Sharbel
BACKGROUND: Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) has a long history of use in herbal medicine with various applications, and the flower heads contain numerous secondary metabolites which are medicinally active. In the major crop plants, next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are intensely applied to exploit genetic resources, to develop genomic resources and to enhance breeding. Here, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been used in the non-model medicinal plant chamomile to evaluate the genetic structure of the cultivated varieties/populations, and to perform genome wide association study (GWAS) focusing on genes with large effect on flowering time and the medicinally important alpha-bisabolol content...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795235/impact-of-seed-protein-alleles-from-three-soybean-sources-on-seed-composition-and-agronomic-traits
#19
Lillian F Brzostowski, Timothy I Pruski, James E Specht, Brian W Diers
Evaluation of seed protein alleles in soybean populations showed that an increase in protein concentration is generally associated with a decrease in oil concentration and yield. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] meal is one of the most important plant-based protein sources in the world. Developing cultivars high in seed protein concentration and seed yield is a difficult task because the traits have an inverse relationship. Over two decades ago, a protein quantitative trait loci (QTL) was mapped on chromosome (chr) 20, and this QTL has been mapped to the same position in several studies and given the confirmed QTL designation cqSeed protein-003...
November 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782017/generation-of-blue-chrysanthemums-by-anthocyanin-b-ring-hydroxylation-and-glucosylation-and-its-coloration-mechanism
#20
Naonobu Noda, Satoshi Yoshioka, Sanae Kishimoto, Masayoshi Nakayama, Mitsuru Douzono, Yoshikazu Tanaka, Ryutaro Aida
Various colored cultivars of ornamental flowers have been bred by hybridization and mutation breeding; however, the generation of blue flowers for major cut flower plants, such as roses, chrysanthemums, and carnations, has not been achieved by conventional breeding or genetic engineering. Most blue-hued flowers contain delphinidin-based anthocyanins; therefore, delphinidin-producing carnation, rose, and chrysanthemum flowers have been generated by overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis...
July 2017: Science Advances
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