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Flower development, plant breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530677/whole-genome-resequencing-of-292-pigeonpea-accessions-identifies-genomic-regions-associated-with-domestication-and-agronomic-traits
#1
Rajeev K Varshney, Rachit K Saxena, Hari D Upadhyaya, Aamir W Khan, Yue Yu, Changhoon Kim, Abhishek Rathore, Dongseon Kim, Jihun Kim, Shaun An, Vinay Kumar, Ghanta Anuradha, Kalinati Narasimhan Yamini, Wei Zhang, Sonnappa Muniswamy, Jong-So Kim, R Varma Penmetsa, Eric von Wettberg, Swapan K Datta
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), a tropical grain legume with low input requirements, is expected to continue to have an important role in supplying food and nutritional security in developing countries in Asia, Africa and the tropical Americas. From whole-genome resequencing of 292 Cajanus accessions encompassing breeding lines, landraces and wild species, we characterize genome-wide variation. On the basis of a scan for selective sweeps, we find several genomic regions that were likely targets of domestication and breeding...
May 22, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503311/a-community-resource-for-exploring-and-utilizing-genetic-diversity-in-the-usda-pea-single-plant-plus-collection
#2
William L Holdsworth, Elodie Gazave, Peng Cheng, James R Myers, Michael A Gore, Clarice J Coyne, Rebecca J McGee, Michael Mazourek
Globally, pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important temperate legume crop for food, feed and fodder, and many breeding programs develop cultivars adapted to these end-uses. In order to assist pea development efforts, we assembled the USDA Pea Single Plant Plus Collection (PSPPC), which contains 431 P. sativum accessions with morphological, geographic and taxonomic diversity. The collection was characterized genetically in order to maximize its value for trait mapping and genomics-assisted breeding. To that end, we used genotyping-by-sequencing-a cost-effective method for de novo single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker discovery-to generate 66 591 high-quality SNPs...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477044/bayesian-qtl-mapping-using-genome-wide-ssr-markers-and-segregating-population-derived-from-a-cross-of-two-commercial-f1-hybrids-of-tomato
#3
Akio Ohyama, Kenta Shirasawa, Hiroshi Matsunaga, Satomi Negoro, Koji Miyatake, Hirotaka Yamaguchi, Tsukasa Nunome, Hiroyoshi Iwata, Hiroyuki Fukuoka, Takeshi Hayashi
Using newly developed euchromatin-derived genomic SSR markers and a flexible Bayesian mapping method, 13 significant agricultural QTLs were identified in a segregating population derived from a four-way cross of tomato. So far, many QTL mapping studies in tomato have been performed for progeny obtained from crosses between two genetically distant parents, e.g., domesticated tomatoes and wild relatives. However, QTL information of quantitative traits related to yield (e.g., flower or fruit number, and total or average weight of fruits) in such intercross populations would be of limited use for breeding commercial tomato cultivars because individuals in the populations have specific genetic backgrounds underlying extremely different phenotypes between the parents such as large fruit in domesticated tomatoes and small fruit in wild relatives, which may not be reflective of the genetic variation in tomato breeding populations...
May 5, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473834/biotechnological-advancements-for-improving-floral-attributes-in-ornamental-plants
#4
REVIEW
Ali Noman, Muhammad Aqeel, Jianming Deng, Noreen Khalid, Tayyaba Sanaullah, He Shuilin
Developing new ornamental cultivars with improved floral attributes is a major goal in floriculture. Biotechnological approach together with classical breeding methods has been used to modify floral color, appearance as well as for increasing disease resistance. Transgenic strategies possess immense potential to produce novel flower phenotypes that are not found in nature. Adoption of Genetic engineering has supported the idea of floral trait modification. Ornamental plant attributes like floral color, fragrance, disease resistance, and vase life can be improved by means of genetic manipulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445423/anthocyanin-profiles-in-flowers-of-grape-hyacinth
#5
Qian Lou, Lin Wang, Hongli Liu, Yali Liu
Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity...
April 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431521/a-reference-floral-transcriptome-of-sexual-and-apomictic-paspalum-notatum
#6
Juan Pablo A Ortiz, Santiago Revale, Lorena A Siena, Maricel Podio, Luciana Delgado, Juliana Stein, Olivier Leblanc, Silvina C Pessino
BACKGROUND: Paspalum notatum Flügge is a subtropical grass native to South America, which includes sexual diploid and apomictic polyploid biotypes. In the past decade, a number of apomixis-associated genes were discovered in this species through genetic mapping and differential expression surveys. However, the scarce information on Paspalum sequences available in public databanks limited annotations and functional predictions for these candidates. RESULTS: We used a long-read 454/Roche FLX+ sequencing strategy to produce robust reference transcriptome datasets from florets of sexual and apomictic Paspalum notatum genotypes and delivered a list of transcripts showing differential representation in both reproductive types...
April 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400774/elite-haplotypes-of-a-protein-kinase-gene-tasnrk2-3-associated-with-important-agronomic-traits-in-common-wheat
#7
Lili Miao, Xinguo Mao, Jingyi Wang, Zicheng Liu, Bin Zhang, Weiyu Li, Xiaoping Chang, Matthew Reynolds, Zhenhua Wang, Ruilian Jing
Plant-specific protein kinase SnRK2s play crucial roles in response to various environmental stimuli. TaSnRK2.3, a SnRK2 member, was involved in the response to multiple abiotic stresses in wheat. To facilitate the use of TaSnRK2.3 in wheat breeding, the three genomic sequences of TaSnRK2.3, originating from the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, were obtained. Sequence polymorphism assays showing 4 and 10 variations were detected at TaSnRK2.3-1A and at TaSnRK2.3-1B, respectively, yet no variation was identified at TaSnRK2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400493/a-virus-induced-assay-for-functional-dissection-and-analysis-of-monocot-and-dicot-flowering-time-genes
#8
Cheng Qin, Wei Wei Chen, Jiajia Shen, Linming Cheng, Femi Akande, Ke Zhang, Chen Yuan, Chunyang Li, Pengcheng Zhang, Nongnong Shi, Qi Cheng, Yule Liu, Stephen Jackson, Yiguo Hong
Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T (FT) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit-trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotinana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth...
April 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346447/synthetic-control-of-flowering-in-rice-independent-of-the-cultivation-environment
#9
Ryo Okada, Yasue Nemoto, Naokuni Endo-Higashi, Takeshi Izawa
For genetically homogeneous crops, the timing of flowering is determined largely by the cultivation environment and is strongly associated with the yield and quality of the harvest(1). Flowering time and other agronomical traits are often tightly correlated, which can lead to difficulty excluding the effects of flowering time when evaluating the characteristics of different genetic varieties(2). Here, we describe the development of transgenic rice plants whose flowering time can be controlled by specific agrochemicals...
March 27, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338049/breeding-system-and-spatial-isolation-from-congeners-strongly-constrain-seed-set-in-an-insect-pollinated-apomictic-tree-sorbus-subcuneata-rosaceae
#10
Tracey J Hamston, Robert J Wilson, Natasha de Vere, Tim C G Rich, Jamie R Stevens, James E Cresswell
In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330092/development-of-molecular-method-for-sex-identification-in-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-plantlets-using-novel-sex-linked-microsatellite-markers
#11
Maryam, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani, Faisal Saeed Awan, Saeed Ahmad, Iqrar A Khan
Microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. Date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5-10 years). A total of 12 microsatellite primers were used with 30 date palm samples, 14 parents (8 male + 6 females) and 16 progeny (developed from parents breeding) which showed that microsatellites were highly polymorphic, having a great number of alleles. A total of 124 alleles were characterized in 12 SSR loci...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252172/identification-of-magnolia-wufengensis-magnoliaceae-cultivars-using-phenotypic-traits-ssr-and-srap-markers-insights-into-breeding-and-conservation
#12
L Wang, A H Xiao, L Y Ma, F J Chen, Z Y Sang, J Duan
A combination of phenotypic characterization and molecular markers may provide reliable information on new plant varieties and elucidate the conservation status of rare species. Five newly developed Magnolia wufengensis cultivars, an endangered plant species endemic to Hubei Province, China, possess more distinctive phenotypes than common Magnolia cultivars. With reference to a wild species population of M. wufengensis and a population of Magnolia denudata, morphological traits of flower organs, simple sequence repeat (SSR), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used...
February 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193581/genome-wide-characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-the-nac-genes-under-abiotic-stresses-in-cucumis-sativus
#13
Xiao Meng Zhang, Hong Jun Yu, Chao Sun, Jie Deng, Xue Zhang, Peng Liu, Yun Yun Li, Qiang Li, Wei Jie Jiang
The NAC (standing for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF] and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC]) proteins pertain to one of the plant-specific transcription factor families that play important roles in plant development, abiotic stress resistance and signalling transduction. In the present study, the genomic features of the NAC genes in cucumber were analysed in depth using in silico tools. To reveal a tissue-specific, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of CsNAC genes, RT-qPCR was performed under different treatments...
January 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190677/bornyl-diphosphate-synthase-from-lavandula-angustifolia-a-major-monoterpene-synthase-involved-in-essential-oil-quality
#14
Yolande Despinasse, Sébastien Fiorucci, Serge Antonczak, Sandrine Moja, Aurélie Bony, Florence Nicolè, Sylvie Baudino, Jean-Louis Magnard, Frédéric Jullien
Lavender essential oils (EOs) of higher quality are produced by a few Lavandula angustifolia cultivars and mainly used in the perfume industry. Undesirable compounds such as camphor and borneol are also synthesized by lavender leading to a depreciated EO. Here, we report the cloning of bornyl diphosphate synthase of lavender (LaBPPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of bornyl diphosphate (BPP) and then by-products such as borneol or camphor, from an EST library. Compared to the BPPS of Salvia officinalis, the functional characterization of LaBPPS showed several differences in amino acid sequence, and the distribution of catalyzed products...
May 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177832/natural-variation-in-circadian-clock-associated-1-is-associated-with-flowering-time-in-brassica-rapa
#15
Hankuil Yi, Xiaonan Li, Seong Ho Lee, Ill-Sup Nou, Yong Pyo Lim, Yoonkang Hur
Flowering time is a very important agronomic trait and the development of molecular markers associated with this trait can facilitate crop breeding. CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), a core oscillator component of circadian rhythms that affect metabolic pathways in plants, has been implicated in flowering time control in species of Brassica. CCA1 gene sequences from three Brassica rapa inbred lines, showing either early flowering or late flowering phenotypes, were analyzed and a high level of sequence variation was identified, especially within the fourth intron...
December 22, 2016: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174587/integrating-small-rna-sequencing-with-qtl-mapping-for-identification-of-mirnas-and-their-target-genes-associated-with-heat-tolerance-at-the-flowering-stage-in-rice
#16
Qing Liu, Tifeng Yang, Ting Yu, Shaohong Zhang, Xingxue Mao, Junliang Zhao, Xiaofei Wang, Jingfang Dong, Bin Liu
Although, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be associated with heat tolerance at the seedling stage in rice, their involvement in heat tolerance at the flowering stage is still unknown. In this study, small RNA profiling was conducted in a heat-tolerant variety Gan-Xiang-Nuo (GXN) and a heat-sensitive variety Hua-Jing-Xian-74 (HJX), respectively. Totally, 102 miRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) under heat stress. Compared to HJX, GXN had more DE miRNAs and its DE miRNAs changed earlier under heat stress...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154963/cytological-analysis-of-ginseng-carpel-development
#17
Jeniffer Silva, Yu-Jin Kim, Dexin Xiao, Johan Sukweenadhi, Tingting Hu, Woo-Saeng Kwon, Jianping Hu, Deok-Chun Yang, Dabing Zhang
Panax ginseng Meyer, commonly known as ginseng, is considered one of the most important herbs with pharmaceutical values due to the presence of ginsenosides and is cultivated for its highly valued root for medicinal purposes. Recently, it has been recognized that ginseng fruit contains high contents of triterpene such as ginsenoside Re as pharmaceutical compounds. However, it is unclear how carpel, the female reproductive tissue of flowers, is formed during the three-year-old growth before fruit is formed in ginseng plants...
February 2, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152098/genome-wide-association-analysis-for-heat-tolerance-at-flowering-detected-a-large-set-of-genes-involved-in-adaptation-to-thermal-and-other-stresses
#18
Tanguy Lafarge, Crisanta Bueno, Julien Frouin, Laval Jacquin, Brigitte Courtois, Nourollah Ahmadi
Fertilization sensitivity to heat in rice is a major issue within climate change scenarios in the tropics. A panel of 167 indica landraces and improved varieties was phenotyped for spikelet sterility (SPKST) under 38°C during anthesis and for several secondary traits potentially affecting panicle micro-climate and thus the fertilization process. The panel was genotyped with an average density of one marker per 29 kb using genotyping by sequencing. Genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) were conducted using three methods based on single marker regression, haplotype regression and simultaneous fitting of all markers, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114299/matrilineal-a-sperm-specific-phospholipase-triggers-maize-haploid-induction
#19
Timothy Kelliher, Dakota Starr, Lee Richbourg, Satya Chintamanani, Brent Delzer, Michael L Nuccio, Julie Green, Zhongying Chen, Jamie McCuiston, Wenling Wang, Tara Liebler, Paul Bullock, Barry Martin
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves double fertilization, the union of two sperm from pollen with two sex cells in the female embryo sac. Modern plant breeders increasingly seek to circumvent this process to produce doubled haploid individuals, which derive from the chromosome-doubled cells of the haploid gametophyte. Doubled haploid production fixes recombinant haploid genomes in inbred lines, shaving years off the breeding process. Costly, genotype-dependent tissue culture methods are used in many crops, while seed-based in vivo doubled haploid systems are rare in nature and difficult to manage in breeding programmes...
February 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081202/characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-five-mads-box-b-class-genes-related-to-floral-organ-identification-in-tagetes-erecta
#20
Ye Ai, Chunling Zhang, Yalin Sun, Weining Wang, Yanhong He, Manzhu Bao
According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene-TePI, two euAP3-like genes-TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes-TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs...
2017: PloS One
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