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Flower development, plant breeding

Peter Hempel, Annette Hohe, Conny Tränkner
The ornamental crop species Hydrangea macrophylla exhibits diploid and triploid levels of ploidy and develops lacecap (wild type) or mophead inflorescences. In order to characterize a H. macrophylla germplasm collection, we determined the inflorescence type and the 2C DNA content of 120 plants representing 43 cultivars. We identified 78 putative diploid and 39 putative triploid plants by flow cytometry. In our collection 69 out of 98 flowering plants produced lacecap inflorescences, whereas 29 plants developed mophead inflorescences...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Cindy Callens, Matthew R Tucker, Dabing Zhang, Zoe A Wilson
Many monocot plants have high social and economic value. These include grasses such as rice (Oryza sativa), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which produce soft commodities for many food and beverage industries, and ornamental flowers such ase lily (Lilium longiflorum) and orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey), which represent an important component of international flower markets. There is constant pressure to improve the development and diversity of these species, with a significant emphasis on flower development, and this is particularly relevant considering the impact of changing environments on reproduction and thus yield...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Yun Xie, Xuewen Wang
Fruit yield is an important trait for horticultural crops. However, the limited fruit yield of Camellia chekiangoleosa, a novel promising oil tree, restricts the production of oil. The breeding improvement is little due to its long generation time and lack of available genomic sequence. We identified distinct fruit count phenotypes, high-yield (HY) and low-yield (LY). To understand the underlying genetic basis, we focused on global gene discovery and expression levels in floral buds, which affect fruit count...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naonobu Noda
Flower color is the most important trait in the breeding of ornamental plants. In the floriculture industry, however, bluish colored flowers of desirable plants have proved difficult to breed. Many ornamental plants with a high production volume, such as rose and chrysanthemum, lack the key genes for producing the blue delphinidin pigment or do not have an intracellular environment suitable for developing blue color. Recently, it has become possible to incorporate a blue flower color trait through progress in molecular biological analysis of pigment biosynthesis genes and genetic engineering...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Hiroyasu Yamaguchi
Ornamental plants that have a rich variety of flower colors and shapes are highly prized in the commercial flower market, and therefore, mutant cultivars that produce different types of flowers while retaining their growth habits are in demand. Furthermore, mutation breeding is well suited for ornamental plants because many species can be easily vegetatively propagated, facilitating the production of spontaneous and induced mutants. The use of ion beams in mutation breeding has rapidly expanded since the 1990s in Japan, with the prospect that more ion beam-specific mutants will be generated...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Masahiro Nishihara, Keisuke Tasaki, Nobuhiro Sasaki, Hideyuki Takahashi
Japanese gentians are the most important ornamental flowers in Iwate Prefecture and their breeding and cultivation have been actively conducted for half a century. With its cool climate and large hilly and mountainous area, more than 60% of gentian production in Japan occurs in Iwate Prefecture. Recent advances in gentian breeding and cultivation have facilitated the efficient breeding of new cultivars; disease control and improved cultivation conditions have led to the stable production of Japanese gentians...
January 2018: Breeding Science
Amanda Avelar de Oliveira, Maria Marta Pastina, Vander Filipe de Souza, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella, Roberto Willians Noda, Maria Lúcia Ferreira Simeone, Robert Eugene Schaffert, Jurandir Vieira de Magalhães, Cynthia Maria Borges Damasceno, Gabriel Rodrigues Alves Margarido
The increasing cost of energy and finite oil and gas reserves have created a need to develop alternative fuels from renewable sources. Due to its abiotic stress tolerance and annual cultivation, high-biomass sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) shows potential as a bioenergy crop. Genomic selection is a useful tool for accelerating genetic gains and could restructure plant breeding programs by enabling early selection and reducing breeding cycle duration. This work aimed at predicting breeding values via genomic selection models for 200 sorghum genotypes comprising landrace accessions and breeding lines from biomass and saccharine groups...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
Heena Ambreen, Shivendra Kumar, Amar Kumar, Manu Agarwal, Arun Jagannath, Shailendra Goel
Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP) comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic diversity indicated by Shannon information index ( H = 0...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jing-Jing Liu, Jin-Ping Si
To clarify the change and development of the original plants, medicinal organs, traditional functions, resource distribution of "Huangjing"(Polygonati Rhizome), a traditional Chinese medicine, we investigated Polygonatum species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts. The name of "Nüwei" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Its effects included two aspects: one was similar to "Weirui"(Polygonati Odorati Rhizome, "Yuzhu"), that was tonifying, nourishing one's vitality, removing wind and dampness, settling five organs, making body lightness, keeping longevity and not being hungry; the second was alike to "Huangjing" recorded in the book of Ming Yi Bie Lu(Appendant Records of Famous Physicians)...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Xiaofen Zhang, Guoyun Wang, Bin Chen, Heshan Du, Fenglan Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Qian Wang, Sansheng Geng
First flower node (FFN) is an important trait for evaluating fruit earliness in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), but the genetic mechanisms that control FFN are still poorly understood. In the present study, we developed 249 F2 plants derived from an intraspecific cross between the inbred pepper lines Z4 and Z5. Thirty plants with the highest FFN and 30 plants with the lowest FFN were chosen and their DNAs were pooled according to phenotype to construct two bulked DNA pools. Specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) was combined with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) to identify candidate regions related to FFN...
2018: PloS One
Abhinandan Mani Tripathi, Abhishek Niranjan, Sribash Roy
Development of flower color in plants is a complex process. Among others, it is an important trait for ornamental flowering plants. Canna is a flowering ornamental plant of family Cannaceae. To understand the molecular mechanism of flower color development in Canna, RNA sequencing from flower tissues of two contrasting flower color cultivars, Red President (RP) and Tropical Sunrise (TS) was performed. More than 27.0 million and 19.0 million clean reads were obtained from RP and TS, respectively. The combined clean reads were assembled into 147,295 unigenes...
June 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Demetryus Silva Ferreira, Zoltan Kevei, Tomasz Kurowski, Maria Esther de Noronha Fonseca, Fady Mohareb, Leonardo S Boiteux, Andrew J Thompson
A mutant line, bifurcate flower truss (bif), was recovered from a tomato genetics programme. Plants from the control line produced a mean of 0.16 branches per truss, whereas the value for bif plants was 4.1. This increase in branching was accompanied by a 3.3-fold increase in flower number and showed a significant interaction with exposure to low temperature during truss development. The control line and bif genomes were resequenced and the bif gene was mapped to a 2.01 Mbp interval on chromosome 12; all coding region polymorphisms in the interval were surveyed, and five candidate genes displaying altered protein sequences were detected...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Susanne Schilling, Sirui Pan, Alice Kennedy, Rainer Melzer
MADS-box genes are key regulators of virtually every aspect of plant reproductive development. They play especially prominent roles in flowering time control, inflorescence architecture, floral organ identity determination, and seed development. The developmental and evolutionary importance of MADS-box genes is widely acknowledged. However, their role during flowering plant domestication is less well recognized. Here, we provide an overview illustrating that MADS-box genes have been important targets of selection during crop domestication and improvement...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Manfei Li, Wanshun Zhong, Fang Yang, Zuxin Zhang
The establishment of inflorescence architecture is critical for the reproduction of flowering plant species. The maize plant generates two types of inflorescences, the tassel and the ear, and their architectures have a large effect on grain yield and yield-related traits that are genetically controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Since ear and tassel architecture are deeply affected by the activity of inflorescence meristems, key QTLs and genes regulating meristematic activity have important impacts on inflorescence development and show great potential for optimizing grain yield...
March 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Wazifa Afrin, Mahmudul Hassan Nafis, Muhammed Ali Hossain, Mirza Mofazzal Islam, Md Amir Hossain
The study aims at identifying some submergence-tolerant rice genotypes through morphological and molecular characterization and their genetic variability analysis. Ten rice genotypes including two submergence-tolerant checks, two susceptible varieties and six advanced lines were evaluated for submergence tolerance in the laboratory and in the field during January-December 2015. The experiment was conducted in the field following randomized complete block design in a two-factor arrangement using five replications...
February 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Lucas Borrás, Lucas N Vitantonio-Mazzini
Maize grain yield is highly related to the number of kernels that are established during the flowering period. Kernel number depends on the accumulation of ear biomass and the efficiency of using this biomass for kernel set. Ear biomass depends on the rate of plant biomass accumulation and the proportion of this biomass that is allocated to the ear. In contrast to other major crops, the proportion of plant biomass that is allocated to the ear is not constant in maize, being almost zero under stress conditions...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiaoyuan Chi, Zhimeng Zhang, Na Chen, Xiaowen Zhang, Mian Wang, Mingna Chen, Tong Wang, Lijuan Pan, Jing Chen, Zhen Yang, Xiangyu Guan, Shanlin Yu
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid desaturases are enzymes that introduce double bonds into fatty acyl chains. Extensive studies of fatty acid desaturases have been done in many plants. However, less is known about the diversity of this gene family in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oilseed crop that is cultivated worldwide. RESULTS: In this study, twelve novel AhFADs genes were identified and isolated from peanut. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcript abundances of AhFAB2-2 and AhFAD3-1 were higher in seeds than in other tissues examined, whereas the AhADS and AhFAD7-1 transcripts were more abundant in leaves...
2017: PloS One
Delfeena Eapen, Jesús Martínez-Guadarrama, Oralia Hernández-Bruno, Leonardo Flores, Jorge Nieto-Sotelo, Gladys I Cassab
Roots of higher plants change their growth direction in response to moisture, avoiding drought and gaining maximum advantage for development. This response is termed hydrotropism. There have been few studies of root hydrotropism in grasses, particularly in maize. Our goal was to test whether an enhanced hydrotropic response of maize roots correlates with a better adaptation to drought and partial/lateral irrigation in field studies. We developed a laboratory bioassay for testing hydrotropic response in primary roots of 47 maize elite DTMA (Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa) hybrids...
December 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Ryoichi Yano, Satoko Nonaka, Hiroshi Ezura
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an important Cucurbitaceae crop produced worldwide, exhibiting wide genetic variations and comprising both climacteric and non-climacteric fruit types. The muskmelon cultivar "'Earl's favorite Harukei-3 (Harukei-3)"' known for its sweetness and rich aroma is used for breeding of high-grade muskmelon in Japan. We conducted RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptome studies in 30 different tissues of the 'Harukei-3' melon. These included root, stems, leaves, flowers, regenerating callus and ovaries, in addition to the flesh and peel sampled at seven stages of fruit development...
January 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Yuri Shavrukov, Akhylbek Kurishbayev, Satyvaldy Jatayev, Vladimir Shvidchenko, Lyudmila Zotova, Francois Koekemoer, Stephan de Groot, Kathleen Soole, Peter Langridge
Drought escape (DE) is a classical adaptive mechanism which involves rapid plant development to enable the completion of the full life-cycle prior to a coming drought event. This strategy is widely used in populations of native plants, and is also applicable to cereal crops such as wheat. Early flowering time and a shorter vegetative phase can be very important for wheat production in conditions of terminal drought since this can minimize exposure to dehydration during the sensitive flowering and post-anthesis grain filling periods...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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