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Flower development, plant breeding

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630625/quantification-of-antioxidant-phenolic-compounds-in-a-new-chrysanthemum-cultivar-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-diode-array-detection-and-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#1
Ah-Reum Han, Hyo Young Kim, Yangkang So, Bomi Nam, Ik-Soo Lee, Joo-Won Nam, Yeong Deuk Jo, Sang Hoon Kim, Jin-Baek Kim, Si-Yong Kang, Chang Hyun Jin
The flowers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. have been used as an herbal tea and in traditional medicine, and the plant has been developed to produce horticultural cultivars of various colors and shapes. In this study, a new chrysanthemum cultivar with dark purple petals (C. morifolium cv. ARTI-Dark Chocolate; ADC) was developed by radiation-induced mutation breeding of its original cultivar with purple striped white petals (C. morifolium cv. Noble Wine, NW). The phenolic profile and antioxidant property of ADC were investigated and compared with NW and the commercially available medicinal herb, C...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620457/early-fruiting-in-synsepalum-dulcificum-schumach-thonn-daniell-juveniles-induced-by-water-and-inorganic-nutrient-management
#2
Dèdéou Apocalypse Tchokponhoué, Sognigbé N'Danikou, Iago Hale, Allen Van Deynze, Enoch Gbènato Achigan-Dako
Background. The miracle plant, Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. & Thonn.) Daniell is a native African orphan crop species that has recently received increased attention due to its promise as a sweetener and source of antioxidants in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. However, a major obstacle to the species' widespread utilization is its relatively slow growth rate and prolonged juvenile period. Method. In this study, we tested twelve treatments made up of various watering regimes and exogenous nutrient application (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, at varying dosages) on the relative survival, growth, and reproductive development of 15-months-old S...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613377/evaluation-of-genetic-diversity-among-soybean-glycine-max-genotypes-using-univariate-and-multivariate-analysis
#3
M M Oliveira, L B Sousa, M C Reis, E G Silva Junior, D B O Cardoso, O T Hamawaki, A P O Nogueira
The genetic diversity study has paramount importance in breeding programs; hence, it allows selection and choice of the parental genetic divergence, which have the agronomic traits desired by the breeder. This study aimed to characterize the genetic divergence between 24 soybean genotypes through their agronomic traits, using multivariate clustering methods to select the potential genitors for the promising hybrid combinations. Six agronomic traits evaluated were number of days to flowering and maturity, plant height at flowering and maturity, insertion height of the first pod, and yield...
May 31, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611816/environmental-influences-on-the-growing-season-duration-and-ripening-of-diverse-miscanthus-germplasm-grown-in-six-countries
#4
Christopher Nunn, Astley Francis St John Hastings, Olena Kalinina, Mensure Özgüven, Heinrich Schüle, Ivan G Tarakanov, Tim Van Der Weijde, Aleksander A Anisimov, Yasir Iqbal, Andreas Kiesel, Nikolay F Khokhlov, Jon P McCalmont, Heike Meyer, Michal Mos, Kai-Uwe Schwarz, Luisa M Trindade, Iris Lewandowski, John C Clifton-Brown
The development of models to predict yield potential and quality of a Miscanthus crop must consider climatic limitations and the duration of growing season. As a biomass crop, yield and quality are impacted by the timing of plant developmental transitions such as flowering and senescence. Growth models are available for the commercially grown clone Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg), but breeding programs have been working to expand the germplasm available, including development of interspecies hybrids. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of diverse germplasm beyond the range of environments considered suitable for a Miscanthus crop to be grown...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604820/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-provides-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-for-parthenocarpic-fruit-development-in-eggplant-solanum-melongena-l
#5
Xia Chen, Min Zhang, Jie Tan, Shuping Huang, Chunli Wang, Hongyuan Zhang, Taiming Tan
Genetic control of parthenocarpy, a desirable trait in edible fruit with hard seeds, has been extensively studied. However, the molecular mechanism of parthenocarpic fruit development in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is still unclear. To provide insights into eggplant parthenocarpy, the transcriptomic profiles of a natural parthenocarpic (PP05) and two non-parthenocarpic (PnP05 and GnP05) eggplant lines were analyzed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. These sequences were assembled into 38925 unigenes, of which 22683 had an annotated function and 3419 were predicted as novel genes or from alternative splicing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584974/high-resolution-mapping-of-qtls-for-heat-tolerance-in-rice-using-a-5k-snp-array
#6
Shanmugavadivel Ps, Amitha Mithra Sv, Chandra Prakash, Ramkumar Mk, Ratan Tiwari, Trilochan Mohapatra, Nagendra Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Heat stress is one of the major abiotic threats to rice production, next to drought and salinity stress. Incidence of heat stress at reproductive phase of the crop results in abnormal pollination leading to floret sterility, low seed set and poor grain quality. Identification of QTLs and causal genes for heat stress tolerance at flowering will facilitate breeding for improved heat tolerance in rice. In the present study, we used 272 F8 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Nagina22, a well-known heat tolerant Aus cultivar and IR64, a heat sensitive popular Indica rice variety to map the QTLs for heat tolerance...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558691/the-development-and-use-of-a-molecular-model-for-soybean-maturity-groups
#7
Tiffany Langewisch, Julian Lenis, Guo-Liang Jiang, Dechun Wang, Vince Pantalone, Kristin Bilyeu
BACKGROUND: Achieving appropriate maturity in a target environment is essential to maximizing crop yield potential. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], the time to maturity is largely dependent on developmental response to dark periods. Once the critical photoperiod is reached, flowering is initiated and reproductive development proceeds. Therefore, soybean adaptation has been attributed to genetic changes and natural or artificial selection to optimize plant development in specific, narrow latitudinal ranges...
May 30, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530677/whole-genome-resequencing-of-292-pigeonpea-accessions-identifies-genomic-regions-associated-with-domestication-and-agronomic-traits
#8
Rajeev K Varshney, Rachit K Saxena, Hari D Upadhyaya, Aamir W Khan, Yue Yu, Changhoon Kim, Abhishek Rathore, Dongseon Kim, Jihun Kim, Shaun An, Vinay Kumar, Ghanta Anuradha, Kalinati Narasimhan Yamini, Wei Zhang, Sonnappa Muniswamy, Jong-So Kim, R Varma Penmetsa, Eric von Wettberg, Swapan K Datta
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), a tropical grain legume with low input requirements, is expected to continue to have an important role in supplying food and nutritional security in developing countries in Asia, Africa and the tropical Americas. From whole-genome resequencing of 292 Cajanus accessions encompassing breeding lines, landraces and wild species, we characterize genome-wide variation. On the basis of a scan for selective sweeps, we find several genomic regions that were likely targets of domestication and breeding...
May 22, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503311/a-community-resource-for-exploring-and-utilizing-genetic-diversity-in-the-usda-pea-single-plant-plus-collection
#9
William L Holdsworth, Elodie Gazave, Peng Cheng, James R Myers, Michael A Gore, Clarice J Coyne, Rebecca J McGee, Michael Mazourek
Globally, pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important temperate legume crop for food, feed and fodder, and many breeding programs develop cultivars adapted to these end-uses. In order to assist pea development efforts, we assembled the USDA Pea Single Plant Plus Collection (PSPPC), which contains 431 P. sativum accessions with morphological, geographic and taxonomic diversity. The collection was characterized genetically in order to maximize its value for trait mapping and genomics-assisted breeding. To that end, we used genotyping-by-sequencing-a cost-effective method for de novo single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker discovery-to generate 66 591 high-quality SNPs...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477044/bayesian-qtl-mapping-using-genome-wide-ssr-markers-and-segregating-population-derived-from-a-cross-of-two-commercial-f1-hybrids-of-tomato
#10
Akio Ohyama, Kenta Shirasawa, Hiroshi Matsunaga, Satomi Negoro, Koji Miyatake, Hirotaka Yamaguchi, Tsukasa Nunome, Hiroyoshi Iwata, Hiroyuki Fukuoka, Takeshi Hayashi
Using newly developed euchromatin-derived genomic SSR markers and a flexible Bayesian mapping method, 13 significant agricultural QTLs were identified in a segregating population derived from a four-way cross of tomato. So far, many QTL mapping studies in tomato have been performed for progeny obtained from crosses between two genetically distant parents, e.g., domesticated tomatoes and wild relatives. However, QTL information of quantitative traits related to yield (e.g., flower or fruit number, and total or average weight of fruits) in such intercross populations would be of limited use for breeding commercial tomato cultivars because individuals in the populations have specific genetic backgrounds underlying extremely different phenotypes between the parents such as large fruit in domesticated tomatoes and small fruit in wild relatives, which may not be reflective of the genetic variation in tomato breeding populations...
May 5, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473834/biotechnological-advancements-for-improving-floral-attributes-in-ornamental-plants
#11
REVIEW
Ali Noman, Muhammad Aqeel, Jianming Deng, Noreen Khalid, Tayyaba Sanaullah, He Shuilin
Developing new ornamental cultivars with improved floral attributes is a major goal in floriculture. Biotechnological approach together with classical breeding methods has been used to modify floral color, appearance as well as for increasing disease resistance. Transgenic strategies possess immense potential to produce novel flower phenotypes that are not found in nature. Adoption of Genetic engineering has supported the idea of floral trait modification. Ornamental plant attributes like floral color, fragrance, disease resistance, and vase life can be improved by means of genetic manipulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445423/anthocyanin-profiles-in-flowers-of-grape-hyacinth
#12
Qian Lou, Lin Wang, Hongli Liu, Yali Liu
Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity...
April 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431521/a-reference-floral-transcriptome-of-sexual-and-apomictic-paspalum-notatum
#13
Juan Pablo A Ortiz, Santiago Revale, Lorena A Siena, Maricel Podio, Luciana Delgado, Juliana Stein, Olivier Leblanc, Silvina C Pessino
BACKGROUND: Paspalum notatum Flügge is a subtropical grass native to South America, which includes sexual diploid and apomictic polyploid biotypes. In the past decade, a number of apomixis-associated genes were discovered in this species through genetic mapping and differential expression surveys. However, the scarce information on Paspalum sequences available in public databanks limited annotations and functional predictions for these candidates. RESULTS: We used a long-read 454/Roche FLX+ sequencing strategy to produce robust reference transcriptome datasets from florets of sexual and apomictic Paspalum notatum genotypes and delivered a list of transcripts showing differential representation in both reproductive types...
April 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400774/elite-haplotypes-of-a-protein-kinase-gene-tasnrk2-3-associated-with-important-agronomic-traits-in-common-wheat
#14
Lili Miao, Xinguo Mao, Jingyi Wang, Zicheng Liu, Bin Zhang, Weiyu Li, Xiaoping Chang, Matthew Reynolds, Zhenhua Wang, Ruilian Jing
Plant-specific protein kinase SnRK2s play crucial roles in response to various environmental stimuli. TaSnRK2.3, a SnRK2 member, was involved in the response to multiple abiotic stresses in wheat. To facilitate the use of TaSnRK2.3 in wheat breeding, the three genomic sequences of TaSnRK2.3, originating from the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, were obtained. Sequence polymorphism assays showing 4 and 10 variations were detected at TaSnRK2.3-1A and at TaSnRK2.3-1B, respectively, yet no variation was identified at TaSnRK2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400493/a-virus-induced-assay-for-functional-dissection-and-analysis-of-monocot-and-dicot-flowering-time-genes
#15
Cheng Qin, Weiwei Chen, Jiajia Shen, Linming Cheng, Femi Akande, Ke Zhang, Chen Yuan, Chunyang Li, Pengcheng Zhang, Nongnong Shi, Qi Cheng, Yule Liu, Stephen Jackson, Yiguo Hong
Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T (FT) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth...
June 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346447/synthetic-control-of-flowering-in-rice-independent-of-the-cultivation-environment
#16
Ryo Okada, Yasue Nemoto, Naokuni Endo-Higashi, Takeshi Izawa
For genetically homogeneous crops, the timing of flowering is determined largely by the cultivation environment and is strongly associated with the yield and quality of the harvest(1). Flowering time and other agronomical traits are often tightly correlated, which can lead to difficulty excluding the effects of flowering time when evaluating the characteristics of different genetic varieties(2). Here, we describe the development of transgenic rice plants whose flowering time can be controlled by specific agrochemicals...
March 27, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338049/breeding-system-and-spatial-isolation-from-congeners-strongly-constrain-seed-set-in-an-insect-pollinated-apomictic-tree-sorbus-subcuneata-rosaceae
#17
Tracey J Hamston, Robert J Wilson, Natasha de Vere, Tim C G Rich, Jamie R Stevens, James E Cresswell
In plants, apomixis results in the production of clonal offspring via seed and can provide reproductive assurance for isolated individuals. However, many apomicts require pollination to develop functional endosperm for successful seed set (pseudogamy) and therefore risk pollination-limitation, particularly in self-incompatible species that require heterospecific pollen. We used microsatellite paternity analysis and hand pollinations to investigate pollen-limitation in Sorbus subcuneata, a threatened endemic tree that co-occurs with its congener, S...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330092/development-of-molecular-method-for-sex-identification-in-date-palm-phoenix-dactylifera-l-plantlets-using-novel-sex-linked-microsatellite-markers
#18
Maryam, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani, Faisal Saeed Awan, Saeed Ahmad, Iqrar A Khan
Microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. Date palm is a dioecious and slow flowering and is very difficult to identify the gender of the trees until it reaches the reproductive age (5-10 years). A total of 12 microsatellite primers were used with 30 date palm samples, 14 parents (8 male + 6 females) and 16 progeny (developed from parents breeding) which showed that microsatellites were highly polymorphic, having a great number of alleles. A total of 124 alleles were characterized in 12 SSR loci...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252172/identification-of-magnolia-wufengensis-magnoliaceae-cultivars-using-phenotypic-traits-ssr-and-srap-markers-insights-into-breeding-and-conservation
#19
L Wang, A H Xiao, L Y Ma, F J Chen, Z Y Sang, J Duan
A combination of phenotypic characterization and molecular markers may provide reliable information on new plant varieties and elucidate the conservation status of rare species. Five newly developed Magnolia wufengensis cultivars, an endangered plant species endemic to Hubei Province, China, possess more distinctive phenotypes than common Magnolia cultivars. With reference to a wild species population of M. wufengensis and a population of Magnolia denudata, morphological traits of flower organs, simple sequence repeat (SSR), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used...
February 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193581/genome-wide-characterization-and-expression-profiling-of-the-nac-genes-under-abiotic-stresses-in-cucumis-sativus
#20
Xiao Meng Zhang, Hong Jun Yu, Chao Sun, Jie Deng, Xue Zhang, Peng Liu, Yun Yun Li, Qiang Li, Wei Jie Jiang
The NAC (standing for no apical meristem [NAM], Arabidopsis transcription activation factor [ATAF] and cup-shaped cotyledon [CUC]) proteins pertain to one of the plant-specific transcription factor families that play important roles in plant development, abiotic stress resistance and signalling transduction. In the present study, the genomic features of the NAC genes in cucumber were analysed in depth using in silico tools. To reveal a tissue-specific, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of CsNAC genes, RT-qPCR was performed under different treatments...
January 31, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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