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Flower development, plant breeding

Guaraci D Cordeiro, Mardiore Pinheiro, Stefan Dötterl, Isabel Alves-Dos-Santos
Bees are the most important diurnal pollinators of angiosperms. In several groups of bees a nocturnal/crepuscular habit was developed, yet, little is known about their role in pollination and whether some plants are adapted specifically to these bees. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the reproductive biology and to understand the role of nocturnal/crepuscular bees in pollination of Campomanesia phaea (Myrtaceae), popularly named cambuci. We studied the floral biology and the breeding system of C...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
Christiane Gebhardt
This article evaluates the main contributions of tomato, tobacco, petunia, potato, pepper and eggplant to classical and molecular plant genetics and genomics since the beginning of the twentieth century. Species from the Solanaceae family form integral parts of human civilizations as food sources and drugs since thousands of years, and, more recently, as ornamentals. Some Solanaceous species were subjects of classical and molecular genetic research over the last 100 years. The tomato was one of the principal models in twentieth century classical genetics and a pacemaker of genome analysis in plants including molecular linkage maps, positional cloning of disease resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL)...
October 15, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Nete Kodahl, Renate Müller, Henrik Lütken
Plant transformation with the wild type Ri plasmid T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a promising method for breeding of compact plants and has been the subject of numerous studies. However, knowledge concerning the isolated functions of single genes and ORFs from the plasmid is limited. The rolB and ORF13 oncogenes of A. rhizogenes show considerable promise in plant breeding, but have not been comprehensively studied. Detailed information regarding the morphological impact of specific genes of the Ri plasmid will allow for optimized targeted breeding of plants transformed with the wild type Ri plasmid T-DNA...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Robrecht Dierck, Ellen De Keyser, Jan De Riek, Emmy Dhooghe, Johan Van Huylenbroeck, Els Prinsen, Dominique Van Der Straeten
In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions...
2016: PloS One
Juan J Martinez-Nicolas, Pablo Melgarejo, Pilar Legua, Francisco Garcia-Sanchez, Francisca Hernández
Background. Miguel Hernandez University (Spain) created a germplasm bank of the varieties of pomegranate from different Southeastern Spain localities in order to preserve the crop's wide genetic diversity. Once this collection was established, the next step was to characterize the phenotype of these varieties to determine the phenotypic variability that existed among all the different pomegranate genotypes, and to understand the degree of polymorphism of the morphometric characteristics among varieties. Methods...
2016: PeerJ
Ruimin Gao, Ryan S Austin, Lisa Amyot, Abdelali Hannoufa
BACKGROUND: Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is a low-input forage and potential bioenergy crop, and improving its yield and quality has always been a focus of the alfalfa breeding industry. Transgenic alfalfa plants overexpressing a precursor of alfalfa microRNA156 (MsmiR156) were recently generated by our group. These plants (miR156OE) showed enhanced biomass yield, reduced internodal length, increased shoot branching and trichome density, and a delay in flowering time. Transcripts of three SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes (MsSPL6, MsSPL12, and MsSPL13) were found to be targeted for cleavage by MsmiR156 in alfalfa...
2016: BMC Genomics
Haipei Liu, Amanda J Able, Jason A Able
In cereal breeding programs, improved yield potential and stability are ultimate goals when developing new varieties. To facilitate achieving these goals, reproductive success under stressful growing conditions is of the highest priority. In recent times, small RNA (sRNA)-mediated pathways have been associated with the regulation of genes involved in stress adaptation and reproduction in both model plants and several cereals. Reproductive and physiological traits such as flowering time, reproductive branching, and root architecture can be manipulated by sRNA regulatory modules...
August 5, 2016: Trends in Plant Science
Pejman Azadi, Hedayat Bagheri, Ayoub Molaahmad Nalousi, Farzad Nazari, Stephen F Chandler
Cut flower markets are developing in many countries as the international demand for cut flowers is rapidly growing. Developing new varieties with modified characteristics is an important aim in floriculture. Production of transgenic ornamental plants can shorten the time required in the conventional breeding of a cultivar. Biotechnology tools in combination with conventional breeding methods have been used by cut flower breeders to change flower color, plant architecture, post-harvest traits, and disease resistance...
November 1, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
Gorka Perpiñá, Cristina Esteras, Yves Gibon, Antonio J Monforte, Belén Picó
BACKGROUND: Genomic libraries of introgression lines (ILs) consist of collections of homozygous lines with a single chromosomal introgression from a donor genotype in a common, usually elite, genetic background, representing the whole donor genome in the full collection. Currently, the only available melon IL collection was generated using Piel de sapo (var. inodorus) as the recurrent background. ILs are not available in genetic backgrounds representing other important market class cultivars, such as the cantalupensis...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Qiaoxia Li, Qingdi Huo, Juan Wang, Jing Zhao, Kun Sun, Chaoying He
BACKGROUND: Some plants develop a breeding system that produces both chasmogamous (CH) and cleistogamous (CL) flowers. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. RESULTS: In the present study, we observed that Viola philippica develops CH flowers with short daylight, whereas an extended photoperiod induces the formation of intermediate CL and CL flowers. In response to long daylight, the respective number and size of petals and stamens was lower and smaller than those of normally developed CH flowers, and a minimum of 14-h light induced complete CL flowers that had no petals but developed two stamens of reduced fertility...
2016: BMC Plant Biology
Hesham M Abdullah, Parisa Akbari, Bibin Paulose, Danny Schnell, Weipeng Qi, Yeonhwa Park, Ashwani Pareek, Om Parkash Dhankher
BACKGROUND: Camelina sativa is an emerging dedicated oilseed crop designed for biofuel and biodiesel applications as well as a source for edible and general-purpose oils. Such valuable oilseed crop is subjected to plant breeding programs and is suggested for large-scale production of better seed and oil quality. To accomplish this objective and to further enhance its oil content, a better understanding of lipid metabolism at the molecular level in this plant is critical. Here, we applied tissue transcriptomics and lipid composition analysis to identify and profile the genes and gene networks associated with triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, and to investigate how those genes are interacting to determine the quantity and quality of Camelina oil during seed development...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jingbin Chen, Prakit Somta, Xin Chen, Xiaoyan Cui, Xingxing Yuan, Peerasak Srinives
Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is a cleistogamous plant in which flowers are pollinated before they open, which prevents yield improvements through heterosis. We previously generated a chasmogamous mutant (CM) mungbean in which open flowers are pollinated. In this study, we developed insertion/deletion (indel) markers based on the transcriptome differences between CM and Sulu-1 (i.e., normal flowering) plants. An F2 population derived from a cross between CM and Sulu-1 was used for gene mapping. Segregation analyses revealed that a single recessive gene regulates the production of chasmogamous flowers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Markus G Stetter, Leo Zeitler, Adrian Steinhaus, Karoline Kroener, Michelle Biljecki, Karl J Schmid
Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) have been cultivated for thousands of years in Central and South America. Their grains are of high nutritional value, but the low yield needs to be increased by selection of superior genotypes from genetically diverse breeding populations. Amaranths are adapted to harsh conditions and can be cultivated on marginal lands although little is known about their physiology. The development of controlled growing conditions and efficient crossing methods is important for research on and improvement of this ancient crop...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mehdi Bakhshaie, Solmaz Khosravi, Pejman Azadi, Hedayat Bagheri, Jaap M van Tuyl
Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability...
September 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Dan Wen, Biao Gong, Shasha Sun, Shiqi Liu, Xiufeng Wang, Min Wei, Fengjuan Yang, Yan Li, Qinghua Shi
Melatonin (MT) plays integral roles in regulating several biological processes including plant growth, seed germination, flowering, senescence, and stress responses. This study investigated the effects of MT on adventitious root formation (ARF) of de-rooted tomato seedlings. Exogenous MT positively or negatively influenced ARF, which was dependent on the concentration of MT application. In the present experiment, 50 μM MT showed the best effect on inducing ARF. Interestingly, exogenous MT promoted the accumulation of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) by down-regulating the expression of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Omar Vergara-Díaz, Mainassara A Zaman-Allah, Benhildah Masuka, Alberto Hornero, Pablo Zarco-Tejada, Boddupalli M Prasanna, Jill E Cairns, José L Araus
Maize crop production is constrained worldwide by nitrogen (N) availability and particularly in poor tropical and subtropical soils. The development of affordable high-throughput crop monitoring and phenotyping techniques is key to improving maize cultivation under low-N fertilization. In this study several vegetation indices (VIs) derived from Red-Green-Blue (RGB) digital images at the leaf and canopy levels are proposed as low-cost tools for plant breeding and fertilization management. They were compared with the performance of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) measured at ground level and from an aerial platform, as well as with leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and other leaf composition and structural parameters at flowering stage...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hua Liu, Ming Sun, Dongliang Du, Huitang Pan, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang, Qixiang Zhang, Yike Gao
BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum morifolium is one of the most important global cut flower and pot plants, and has been cultivated worldwide. However, limited genomic resources are available and the molecular mechanisms involved in the two morphologically distinct floret developmental cycles in chrysanthemum remain unclear. RESULTS: The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum ray florets, disc florets and leaves were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In total, 16...
2016: BMC Genomics
Hai-Long Yu, Zhi-Yuan Fang, Yu-Mei Liu, Li-Mei Yang, Mu Zhuang, Hong-Hao Lv, Zhan-Sheng Li, Feng-Qing Han, Xiao-Ping Liu, Yang-Yong Zhang
A novel allele-specific Rfo marker was developed and proved to be effective for MAS of Rfo gene in B. oleracea background and six Ogu-CMS fertility-restored interspecific hybrids were created for the first time. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogu-CMS) has been extensively used for Brassica oleracea hybrid production. However, because of maternal inheritance, all the hybrids produced by CMS lines are male sterile and cannot be self-pollinated, which prohibits germplasm maintenance and innovation. This problem can be overcome by using the Ogu-CMS restorer line, but restorer material is absent in B...
August 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
D M Dias, J T V Resende, J C Marodin, R Matos, I F Lustosa, N C V Resende
The wild tomato, Solanum pennellii, is an important source of resistance genes against tomato pests. This resistance is due to the presence of acyl sugars (AS), which are allelochemicals that have negative effects on arthropod pests. There are no commercially available tomato cultivars that exhibit significant levels of resistance to arthropod pests. Therefore, this study evaluated resistance to whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in F2 and F2RC1 tomato genotypes with high AS levels from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Redenção' and the S...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Noraziyah Abd Aziz Shamsudin, B P Mallikarjuna Swamy, Wickneswari Ratnam, Ma Teressa Sta Cruz, Nitika Sandhu, Anitha K Raman, Arvind Kumar
BACKGROUND: With the objective of improving the grain yield (GY) of the Malaysian high quality rice cultivar MRQ74 under reproductive stage drought stress (RS), three drought yield QTLs, viz. qDTY 2.2, qDTY 3.1 , and qDTY 12.1 were pyramided by marker assisted breeding (MAB). Foreground selection using QTL specific markers, recombinant selection using flanking markers, and background selections were performed in every generation. BC1F3 derived pyramided lines (PLs) with different combinations of qDTY 2...
December 2016: Rice
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