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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938053/persistent-hotspots-of-lymphatic-filariasis-microfilaraemia-despite-14-years-of-mass-drug-administration-in-ghana
#1
Nana-Kwadwo Biritwum, Paul Yikpotey, Benjamin K Marfo, Samuel Odoom, Ernest O Mensah, Odame Asiedu, Bright Alomatu, Edward T Hervie, Abednego Yeboah, Serge Ade, Sven G Hinderaker, Anthony Reid, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Benjamin Koudou, Joseph B Koroma
Background: Among the 216 districts in Ghana, 98 were declared endemic for lymphatic filariasis in 1999 after mapping. Pursuing the goal of elimination, WHO recommends annual treatment using mass drugs administration (MDA) for at least 5 years. MDA was started in the country in 2001 and reached national coverage in 2006. By 2014, 69 districts had 'stopped-MDA' (after passing the transmission assessment survey) while 29 others remained with persistent microfilaraemia (mf) prevalence (≥1%) despite more than 11 years of MDA and were classified as 'hotspots'...
December 1, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936210/novel-mutations-of-the-tetratricopeptide-repeat-domain-7a-gene-and-phenotype-genotype-comparison
#2
Reyin Lien, Yung-Feng Lin, Min-Wei Lai, Hui-Ying Weng, Ren-Chin Wu, Tang-Her Jaing, Jing-Long Huang, Shih-Feng Tsai, Wen-I Lee
The gastrointestinal tract contains the largest lymphoid organ to react with pathogenic microorganisms and suppress excess inflammation. Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) can suffer from refractory diarrhea. In this study, we present two siblings who began to suffer from refractory diarrhea with a poor response to aggressive antibiotic and immunosuppressive treatment after surgical release of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Their lymphocyte proliferation was low, but superoxide production and IL-10 signaling were normal...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935886/stepwise-evolution-improves-identification-of-diverse-peptides-binding-to-a-protein-target
#3
Victor I Lyamichev, Lauren E Goodrich, Eric H Sullivan, Ryan M Bannen, Joerg Benz, Thomas J Albert, Jigar J Patel
Considerable efforts have been made to develop technologies for selection of peptidic molecules that act as substrates or binders to a protein of interest. Here we demonstrate the combination of rational peptide array library design, parallel screening and stepwise evolution, to discover novel peptide hotspots. These hotspots can be systematically evolved to create high-affinity, high-specificity binding peptides to a protein target in a reproducible and digitally controlled process. The method can be applied to synthesize both linear and cyclic peptides, as well as peptides composed of natural and non-natural amino acid analogs, thereby enabling screens in a much diverse chemical space...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935556/altitudinal-variation-and-bio-climatic-variables-influencing-the-potential-distribution-of-culicoides-orientalis-macfie-1932-suspected-vector-of-bluetongue-virus-across-the-north-eastern-himalayan-belt-of-sikkim
#4
Emon Mukhopadhyay, Surajit Hazra, Goutam Kumar Saha, Dhriti Banerjee
Culicoides orientalis was first recorded from Sikkim, in the year 1963, but no evidence based disease outbreak were available. In the last 50 years, 260 Bluetongue disease outbreaks caused by Culicoides species have been evidenced from India. Moreover, in recent years with increase of average temperature worldwide and increase in longevity of arthropod vectors like Culicoides along with a geographical range shift to new suitable warmer regions has increased the potentiality of vector borne disease outbreak throughout the world...
September 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935187/differentiation-of-motor-evoked-potentials-elicited-from-multiple-forearm-muscles-an-investigation-with-high-density-surface-electromyography
#5
J L Neva, A Gallina, S Peters, S J Garland, L A Boyd
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method to measure corticospinal excitability of the primary motor cortex. However, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by TMS in a target muscle are variable; inconsistent MEPs may be due to overlapping cortical muscle representations and/or volume conduction from neighbouring muscles. The source of variable muscle responses may not be apparent using conventional bipolar electromyography (EMG), particularly over areas with several distinct neighbouring muscles (e...
September 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935117/the-role-of-krab-zfps-in-transposable-element-repression-and-mammalian-evolution
#6
REVIEW
Peng Yang, Yixuan Wang, Todd S Macfarlan
Kruppel-associated box zinc-finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) make up the largest family of transcription factors in humans. These proteins emerged in the last common ancestor of coelacanth and tetrapods, and have expanded and diversified in the mammalian lineage. Although their mechanism of transcriptional repression has been well studied for over a decade, the DNA-binding activities and the biological functions of these proteins have been largely unexplored. Recent large-scale ChIP-seq studies and loss-of-function experiments have revealed that KRAB-ZFPs play a major role in the recognition and transcriptional silencing of transposable elements (TEs), consistent with an 'arms race model' of KRAB-ZFP evolution against invading TEs...
September 18, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935015/-egfr-and-kras-gene-mutations-in-754-patients-with-resectable-stage-i-iiia-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-its-clinical-significance
#7
Jing Zhao, Jie Gao, Liping Guo, Xiaoxu Hu, Qi Liu, Jinyin Zhao, Licheng Liu, Jun Jiang, Mengzhao Wang, Zhiyong Liang, Yan Xu, Minjiang Chen, Li Zhang, Longyun Li, Wei Zhong
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS gene are important driver genes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The studies are mainly focused on detection of EGFR gene for advanced NSCLC, and the mutation feature of EGFR and KRAS gene in early NSCLC tissue is unknown. This study aims to investigate the mutations of EGFR and KRAS gene in NSCLC, and the relationship between the genotype and clinicopathologic features. METHODS: The hotspot mutations in EGFR and KRAS gene in 754 tissue samples of stage I-IIIa NSCLC from Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital were detected by modified amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) real-time PCR kit, and analyzed their correlation with clinical variables...
September 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934371/some-like-it-hot-repeat-migration-and-residency-of-whale-sharks-within-an-extreme-natural-environment
#8
David P Robinson, Mohammed Y Jaidah, Steffen S Bach, Christoph A Rohner, Rima W Jabado, Rupert Ormond, Simon J Pierce
The Arabian Gulf is the warmest sea in the world and is host to a globally significant population of the whale shark Rhincodon typus. To investigate regional whale shark behaviour and movements, 59 satellite-linked tags were deployed on whale sharks in the Al Shaheen area off Qatar from 2011-14. Four different models of tag were used throughout the study, each model able to collect differing data or quantities of data. Retention varied from one to 227 days. While all tagged sharks crossed international maritime boundaries, they typically stayed within the Arabian Gulf...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934286/denitrification-potential-of-the-eastern-oyster-microbiome-using-a-16s-rrna-gene-based-metabolic-inference-approach
#9
Ann Arfken, Bongkeun Song, Jeff S Bowman, Michael Piehler
The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is a foundation species providing significant ecosystem services. However, the roles of oyster microbiomes have not been integrated into any of the services, particularly nitrogen removal through denitrification. We investigated the composition and denitrification potential of oyster microbiomes with an approach that combined 16S rRNA gene analysis, metabolic inference, qPCR of the nitrous oxide reductase gene (nosZ), and N2 flux measurements. Microbiomes of the oyster digestive gland, the oyster shell, and sediments adjacent to the oyster reef were examined based on next generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933080/-recent-advances-in-biosynthetic-pathway-and-synthetic-biology-of-taxol
#10
Xue-Jun Kuang, Cai-Xia Wang, Li-Qiu Zou, Ying Li, Chao Sun
Taxol, a kind of terpenoid secondary metabolite produced by Taxus brevifolia, is an effective anticancer drug that manufacture relies mainly on the extraction form plants. In order to solve the resource shortage, a lot of work has been done to develop the alternative method. Recently, using synthetic biology to realize heterologous biosynthesis of the precursors of taxol has become a hotspot. Now, the basic framework of taxol biosynthetic pathways has been confirmed, and most enzyme genes involved in taxol biosynthesis have been cloned and identified...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931674/natural-reassortants-between-potentially-zoonotic-avian-influenza-viruses-h5n1-and-h9n2-from-egypt-display-distinct-pathogenic-phenotypes-in-experimentally-infected-chickens-and-ferrets
#11
Mahmoud M Naguib, Reiner Ulrich, Elisa Kasbohm, Christine L P Eng, Donata Hoffmann, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
Co-circulation of zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 and AIV of subtype H9N2 among poultry in Egypt for at least six years should render this country a hypothetical hotspot for the emergence of reassortant, phenotypically altered viruses, yet no reassortants have been detected in Egypt. The present investigations proved that reassortants between Egyptian H5N1 clade 2.2.1.2 and H9N2 of the G1-B lineage can be generated by co-amplification in embryonated chicken eggs. Reassortants were restricted to the H5N1 subtype and had acquired between two and all six of the internal segments of the H9N2 virus...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931596/non-random-%C3%AE-tuna-dependent-spatial-pattern-of-microtubule-nucleation-at-the-golgi
#12
Anna A W M Sanders, Kevin Chang, Xiaodong Zhu, Roslin J Thoppil, William R Holmes, Irina Kaverina
Non-centrosomal microtubule (MT) nucleation at the Golgi generates MT network asymmetry in motile vertebrate cells. Investigating Golgi-derived MT (GDMT) distribution, we find that MT asymmetry arises from non-random nucleation sites at the Golgi (hotspots). Using computational simulations, we propose two plausible mechanistic models of GDMT nucleation leading to this phenotype. In the "Cooperativity" model, formation of a single GDMT promotes further nucleation at the same site. In the "Heterogeneous Golgi" model, MT nucleation is dramatically upregulated at discrete and sparse locations within the Golgi...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931084/barcoding-snakeheads-teleostei-channidae-revisited-discovering-greater-species-diversity-and-resolving-perpetuated-taxonomic-confusions
#13
Cecilia Conte-Grand, Ralf Britz, Neelesh Dahanukar, Rajeev Raghavan, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Heok Hui Tan, Renny K Hadiaty, Norsham S Yaakob, Lukas Rüber
Snakehead fishes of the family Channidae are predatory freshwater teleosts from Africa and Asia comprising 38 valid species. Snakeheads are important food fishes (aquaculture, live food trade) and have been introduced widely with several species becoming highly invasive. A channid barcode library was recently assembled by Serrao and co-workers to better detect and identify potential and established invasive snakehead species outside their native range. Comparing our own recent phylogenetic results of this taxonomically confusing group with those previously reported revealed several inconsistencies that prompted us to expand and improve on previous studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931059/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mutants-with-increased-resistance-against-the-two-peptide-bacteriocin-plantaricin-jk-reveals-a-putative-receptor-and-potential-docking-site
#14
Bie Ekblad, Jon Nissen-Meyer, Tom Kristensen
By whole-genome sequencing of resistant mutants, a putative receptor for plantaricin JK, a two-peptide bacteriocin produced by some Lactobacillus plantarum strains, was identified in Lactobacillus plantarum NCFB 965 and Weissella viridescens NCFB 1655. The receptors of the two species had 66% identical amino acid sequences and belong to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) transporter protein family. The resistant mutants contained point mutations in the protein-encoding gene resulting in either premature stop codons, leading to truncated versions of the protein, or single amino acid substitutions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930100/the-joule-heating-problem-in-silver-nanowire-transparent-electrodes
#15
H H Khaligh, L Xu, A Khosropour, A Madeira, M Romano, C Pradére, M Tréguer-Delapierre, L Servant, M A Pope, I A Goldthorpe
Silver nanowire transparent electrodes have shown considerable potential to replace conventional transparent conductive materials. However, in this report we show that Joule heating is a unique and serious problem with these electrodes. When conducting current densities encountered in organic solar cells, the average surface temperature of indium tin oxide (ITO) and silver nanowire electrodes, both with sheet resistances of 60 ohms/square, remains below 35 °C. However, in contrast to ITO, the temperature in the nanowire electrode is very non-uniform, with some localized points reaching temperatures above 250 °C...
September 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929677/-potential-distribution-of-rhodiola-crenulata-in-tibetan-plateau-based-on-maxent-model
#16
Jian Wen, Xiu-Mei Lv, Dao-Xin Hong, Cai-Xiang Xie, Jing Zhang, Yi Zhang
Wildlife tending and artificial cultivation is an important way to protect the wild resources of Rhodiola crenulata. It is a study hotspot at present. The distribution information of R. crenulata was collected by query data and field survey, the ecological suitability regionalization was conducted based on maximum entropy model combine with ecological factors, including climate, soil and altitude. To provide the reference for production layout, suitable planting area and the selection of artificial planting base by studying the ecological suitability regionalization of R...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929285/genomic-disorders-in-psychiatry-what-does-the-clinician-need-to-know
#17
REVIEW
Chelsea Lowther, Gregory Costain, Danielle A Baribeau, Anne S Bassett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of genomic disorders in various psychiatric conditions and to highlight important recent advances in the field that are of potential clinical relevance. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic disorders are caused by large rare recurrent deletions and duplications at certain chromosomal "hotspots" (e.g., 22q11.2, 16p11.2, 15q11-q13, 1q21.1, 15q13.3) across the genome. Most overlap multiple genes, affect development, and are associated with variable cognitive and other neuropsychiatric expression...
September 20, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928363/an-autism-spectrum-disorder-related-de-novo-mutation-hotspot-discovered-in-the-gef1-domain-of-trio
#18
Anastasiia Sadybekov, Chen Tian, Cosimo Arnesano, Vsevolod Katritch, Bruce E Herring
The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RhoGEF) Trio promotes actin polymerization by directly activating the small GTPase Rac1. Recent studies suggest that autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-related behavioral phenotypes in animal models of ASD can be produced by dysregulation of Rac1's control of actin polymerization at glutamatergic synapses. Here, in humans, we discover a large cluster of ASD-related de novo mutations in Trio's Rac1 activating domain, GEF1. Our study reveals that these mutations produce either hypofunctional or hyperfunctional forms of Trio in rodent neurons in vitro...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928343/using-maslow-s-hierarchy-to-highlight-power-imbalances-between-visiting-health-professional-student-volunteers-and-the-host-community-an-applied-qualitative-study
#19
Tracey Evans, Orezioghene Akporuno, Katrina M Owens, Brittany Lickers, Jazmin Marlinga, Henry C Lin, Lawrence C Loh
BACKGROUND: Health professional students from high-income countries increasingly participate in short-term experiences in global health (STEGH) conducted abroad. One common criticism of STEGH is the inherent power differential that exists between visiting learners and the local community. To highlight this power differential, this paper explores perceived benefits as described by volunteer and community respondents and applies Maslow's hierarchy of needs to commonly identified themes in each respondent group...
May 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928300/zoonotic-surveillance-for-rickettsiae-in-rodents-and-mapping-of-vectors-of-rickettsial-diseases-in-india-a-multi-centric-study
#20
Rina Tilak, Rajesh Kunwar, P K Tyagi, Anurag Khera, R K Joshi, Urmila B Wankhade
BACKGROUND: The global resurgence of rickettsial diseases and their potential to impact the fitness of military personnel and inflict widespread casualties amongst civil populations has emerged as a major cause of public health concern. Absence of surveillance system, lack of awareness amongst medical fraternity to rickettsial activity along with the difficulty in diagnosis because of their protean clinical manifestations are reasons for the outbreaks of these diseases. OBJECTIVES: To determine rickettsial activity amongst rodents and study vector diversity, abundance and their distribution to enable mapping of rickettsial hotspots...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
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