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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448928/potential-environmental-impact-of-bioethanol-production-chain-from-fiber-sorghum-to-be-used-in-passenger-cars
#1
Annachiara Forte, Amalia Zucaro, Massimo Fagnano, Angelo Fierro
A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to assess the environmental load of a prospective local bioethanol (EtOH) production system in Southern Italy by using lignocellulosic Fiber sorghum (FS) feedstock. A two steps analysis was carried out considering: (i) a "cradle-to-farm gate" LCA to investigate thoroughly the FS cultivation on hilly marginal land and (ii) a "cradle-to-wheels" system boundary encompassing the environmental pressure of the whole EtOH supply-use chain. Primary data related to lignocellulosic biomass production were combined with experimental feedstock conversion processes through advanced second generation technology...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447698/anisotropic-metal-nanoparticles-for-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering
#2
Javier Reguera, Judith Langer, Dorleta Jiménez de Aberasturi, Luis M Liz-Marzán
The optimization of the enhancement of Raman scattering by plasmonic effects is largely determined by the properties of the enhancing substrates. The main parameters behind this effect are related to the morphology of plasmonic nanoparticles and their relative distribution within the substrate. We focus this tutorial review on the effects of nanoparticle morphology, for the particular case of anisotropic metal nanoparticles. Anisotropy in silver and gold nanoparticles offers the possibility to tailor their plasmonic properties and intrinsic electromagnetic "hotspots"...
April 27, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446532/next-generation-sequencing-ngs-analysis-on-single-circulating-tumor-cells-ctcs-with-no-need-of-whole-genome-amplification-wga
#3
Raffaele Palmirotta, Domenica Lovero, Erica Silvestris, Claudia Felici, Davide Quaresmini, Paola Cafforio, Franco Silvestris
BACKGROUND: Isolation and genotyping of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is gaining an increasing interest by clinical researchers in oncology not only for investigative purposes, but also for concrete application in clinical practice in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and decision treatment with targeted therapies. For the mutational analysis of single CTCs, the most advanced biotechnology methodology currently available includes the combination of whole genome amplification (WGA) followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
May 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445029/nhs-esters-as-versatile-reactivity-based-probes-for-mapping-proteome-wide-ligandable-hotspots
#4
Carl C Ward, Jordan I Kleinman, Daniel K Nomura
Most of the proteome is considered undruggable oftentimes hindering translational efforts for drug discovery. Identifying previously unknown druggable hotspots in proteins would enable strategies for pharmacologically interrogating these sites with small-molecules. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) has arisen as a powerful chemoproteomic strategy that uses reactivity-based chemical probes to map reactive, functional, and ligandable hotspots in complex proteomes, which has enabled inhibitor discovery against various therapeutic protein targets...
April 26, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442761/generation-of-mutation-hotspots-in-ageing-bacterial-colonies
#5
Agnieszka Sekowska, Sofie Wendel, Emil C Fischer, Morten H H Nørholm, Antoine Danchin
How do ageing bacterial colonies generate adaptive mutants? Over a period of two months, we isolated on ageing colonies outgrowing mutants able to use a new carbon source, and sequenced their genomes. This allowed us to uncover exquisite details on the molecular mechanism behind their adaptation: most mutations were located in just a few hotspots in the genome, and over time, mutations increasingly were consistent with the involvement of 8-oxo-guanosine, formed exclusively on the transcribed strand. This work provides strong support for retromutagenesis as a general process creating adaptive mutations during ageing...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442268/generalized-palisaded-neutrophilic-and-granulomatous-dermatitis-a-cutaneous-manifestation-of-chronic-myelomonocytic-leukemia-a-clinical-histopathological-and-molecular-study-of-three-cases
#6
Birgit Federmann, Irina Bonzheim, Amir S Yazdi, Janine Schmidt, Falko Fend, Gisela Metzler
Palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD) is characterized by erythematous papules or plaques on trunk or limbs and is frequently associated with rheumatological, autoimmune or hematological malignancies. Histopathology shows interstitial granulomas composed of epitheloid histiocytes in the reticular dermis with surrounding foci of collagen degeneration and variable neutrophilic inflammation. We report three cases of generalized PNGD associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, which may show a variety of cutaneous manifestations...
April 22, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441842/-analysis-of-funding-of-projects-on-obstetrics-and-gynecology-supported-by-national-natural-science-foundation-of-china-from-2007-to-2016
#7
S H Qin, Q S Huang, S Z Yao
Objective: To summarize the funding of scientific research projects on obstetrics and gynecology by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 2007 to 2016 and to display the hotspots of scientific research on obstetrics and gynecology. Methods: A systemic search was performed for the information of projects supported by NSFC from 2007 to 2016. The indicators for analysis included the number of projects, total investment, project categories, research units and research field. The research direction of each project was decided based on title, summary and key words provided by the profile of each project...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441033/surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-sers-active-gold-nanoparticles-decorated-on-a-porous-polymer-filter
#8
Lei Chen, Huiying Yan, Xiangxin Xue, Dayu Jiang, Yuxi Cai, Dongmei Liang, Young Mee Jung, Xiao Xia Han, Bing Zhao
In this work, we designed a process to assemble gold nanoparticles onto a three-dimensional (3D) polymer surface, which can then be monitored using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). This work is the first demonstration of the assembly of gold nanoparticles on a filter film and in situ measurement with Raman spectroscopy. Herein, a polyhexamethylene adipamide (Nylon66) film embedded in the organic filter film was used as a template to fabricate a tunable SERS-active substrate. A "hotspot"-rich gold-nanoparticle-decorated polymer substrate for SERS was prepared; this substrate exhibited high sensitivity in trace detection of targets...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440934/determining-global-distribution-of-microplastics-by-combining-citizen-science-and-in-depth-case-studies
#9
Thijs Bosker, Paul Behrens, Martina G Vijver
Microplastics (<5 mm) are contaminants of emerging global concern. They have received considerable attention in scientific research, resulting in an increased awareness of the issue among politicians and the general public. However, there has been significant variation in sampling and extraction procedures used to quantify microplastics levels. The difference in extraction procedures can especially impact study outcomes, making it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to directly compare results among studies...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440270/refined-genetic-maps-reveal-sexual-dimorphism-in-human-meiotic-recombination-at-multiple-scales
#10
Claude Bhérer, Christopher L Campbell, Adam Auton
In humans, males have lower recombination rates than females over the majority of the genome, but the opposite is usually true near the telomeres. These broad-scale differences have been known for decades, yet little is known about differences at the fine scale. By combining data sets, we have collected recombination events from over 100,000 meioses and have constructed sex-specific genetic maps at a previously unachievable resolution. Here we show that, although a substantial fraction of the genome shows some degree of sexually dimorphic recombination, the vast majority of hotspots are shared between the sexes, with only a small number of putative sex-specific hotspots...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439537/the-nearly-universal-link-between-the-age-of-past-knowledge-and-tomorrow-s-breakthroughs-in-science-and-technology-the-hotspot
#11
Satyam Mukherjee, Daniel M Romero, Ben Jones, Brian Uzzi
Scientists and inventors can draw on an ever-expanding literature for the building blocks of tomorrow's ideas, yet little is known about how combinations of past work are related to future discoveries. Our analysis parameterizes the age distribution of a work's references and revealed three links between the age of prior knowledge and hit papers and patents. First, works that cite literature with a low mean age and high age variance are in a citation "hotspot"; these works double their likelihood of being in the top 5% or better of citations...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438915/conservation-development-and-the-management-of-infectious-disease-avian-influenza-in-china-2004-2012
#12
Tong Wu, Charles Perrings
There is growing evidence that wildlife conservation measures have mixed effects on the emergence and spread of zoonotic disease. Wildlife conservation has been found to have both positive (dilution) and negative (contagion) effects. In the case of avian influenza H5N1 in China, the focus has been on negative effects. Lakes and wetlands attracting migrating waterfowl have been argued to be disease hotspots. We consider the implications of waterfowl conservation for H5N1 infections in both poultry and humans between 2004 and 2012...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436626/-the-role-of-central-cholinergic-system-in-epilepsy
#13
Ying Wang, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, which is not only related to the imbalance between excitatory glutamic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic neurons, but also related to abnormal central cholinergic regulation. This article summarizes the scientific background and experimental data about cholinergic dysfunction in epilepsy from both cellular and network levels, further discusses the exact role of cholinergic system in epilepsy. In the cellular level, several types of epilepsy are believed to be associated with aberrant metabotropic muscarinic receptors in several different brain areas, while the mutations of ionotropic nicotinic receptors have been reported to result in a specific type of epilepsy-autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434015/low-lymphatic-vessel-density-associates-with-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#14
A Luukkainen, M Seppälä, J Renkonen, R Renkonen, J Hagström, H Huhtala, M Rautiainen, J Myller, T Paavonen, A Ranta, T Torkkeli, S Toppila-Salmi
OBJECTIVES: Chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP) and antrochoanal polyps (ACP) are different upper airway inflammation phenotypes with different pathomechanisms. In order to understand the development of tissue edema, the present study aimed to evaluate lymphatic vessel density in CRSsNP, CRSwNP and ACP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 120 retrospective nasal and maxillary sinus specimens were stained immunohistochemically with a von Willebrand factor polyclonal antibody recognizing vascular and lymphatic endothelium, and with a podoplanin monoclonal antibody recognizing lymphatic endothelium...
April 23, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433932/the-unseen-rhizosphere-root-soil-microbe-interactions-for-crop-production
#15
REVIEW
Ruifu Zhang, Jorge M Vivanco, Qirong Shen
The underground root-soil-microbe interactions are extremely complex, but vitally important for aboveground plant growth, health and fitness. The pressure to reduce our reliance on agrochemicals, and sustainable efforts to develop agriculture makes rhizosphere interactions' research a hotspot. Recent advances provide new insights about the signals, pathways, functions and mechanisms of these interactions. In this review, we provide an overview about recent progress in rhizosphere interaction networks in crops...
April 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433683/municipal-wastewater-sludge-as-a-sustainable-bioresource-in-the-united-states
#16
Timothy E Seiple, André M Coleman, Richard L Skaggs
Within the United States and Puerto Rico, publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) process 130.5 Gl/d (34.5 Bgal/d) of wastewater, producing sludge as a waste product. Emerging technologies offer novel waste-to-energy pathways through whole sludge conversion into biofuels. Assessing the feasibility, scalability and tradeoffs of various energy conversion pathways is difficult in the absence of highly spatially resolved estimates of sludge production. In this study, average wastewater solids concentrations and removal rates, and site specific daily average influent flow are used to estimate site specific annual sludge production on a dry weight basis for >15,000 POTWs...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433477/novel-mutations-in-the-c-terminal-region-of-gmppb-causing-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-overlapping-with-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome
#17
Sushan Luo, Shuang Cai, Susan Maxwell, Dongyue Yue, Wenhua Zhu, Kai Qiao, Zhen Zhu, Lei Zhou, Jianying Xi, Jiahong Lu, David Beeson, Chongbo Zhao
Mutations in the GMPPB gene may underlie both limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) and congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). Forty-one cases have been reported to date and hotspot mutations are emerging in the Caucasian population. Clinical and pathological features of 5 patients with compound heterozygous GMPPB mutations were collected and retrospectively reviewed. In vitro functional analysis was performed to investigate the pathogeneity of GMPPB variants. The patients presented with proximal limb weakness in their first to second decades...
March 10, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432908/particulate-matter-pollution-from-aviation-related-activity-at-a-small-airport-of-the-aegean-sea-insular-region
#18
C Psanis, E Triantafyllou, M Giamarelou, M Manousakas, K Eleftheriadis, G Biskos
The unprecedented growth in aviation during the last years has resulted in a notable increase of local air pollution related to airports. The impacts of aviation on air quality can be extremely high particularly around airports serving remote insular regions with pristine atmospheric environments. Here we report measurements that show how the atmospheric aerosol is affected by the activity at a small airport in a remote region. More specifically, we provide measurements performed at the airport of Mytilene, Greece, a regional yet international airport that serves the entire island of Lesvos; the third largest island of the country...
April 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431143/characterisation-of-the-gill-mucosal-bacterial-communities-of-four-butterflyfish-species-a-reservoir-of-bacterial-diversity-in-coral-reefs-ecosystems
#19
Miriam Reverter, Pierre Sasal, N Tapissier-Bontemps, D Lecchini, Suzuki M
While recent studies have suggested that fish mucus microbiota play an important role in homeostasis and prevention of infections, very few studies have investigated the bacterial communities of gill mucus. We characterised the gill mucus bacterial communities of four butterflyfish species and although the bacterial diversity of gill mucus varied significantly between species, Shannon diversities were high (H = 3.7 - 5.7) in all species. Microbiota composition differed between butterflyfishes, with Chaetodon lunulatus and C...
April 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430579/antiangiogenesis-and-gene-aberration-related-therapy-may-improve-overall-survival-in-patients-with-concurrent-kras-and-tp53-hotspot-mutant-cancer
#20
Zhijie Wang, Sarina Piha-Paul, Filip Janku, Vivek Subbiah, Naiyi Shi, Jing Gong, Chetna Wathoo, Kenna Shaw, Kenneth Hess, Russell Broaddus, Aung Naing, David Hong, Apostolia M Tsimberidou, Daniel Karp, James Yao, Funda Meric-Bernstam, Siqing Fu
PURPOSE: Genetic alterations such as activating KRAS and/or inactivating TP53 are thought to be the most common drivers to tumorigenesis. Therefore, we assessed phase I cancer patients with KRAS+/TP53+ mutations. RESULTS: Approximately 8% of patients referred to phase I clinical trials harbored concurrent KRAS and TP53 mutations. Patients who received a phase I trial therapy (n = 57) had a median OS of 12 months, compared with 4.6 months in those who were not treated (n = 106; p = 0...
April 5, 2017: Oncotarget
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