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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156310/context-and-characteristics-of-illicit-drug-use-in-coastal-and-interior-tanzania
#1
Jenny Tiberio, Yovin Ivo Laurent, Joel Ndayongeje, Amani Msami, Susie Welty, Alois Ngonyani, Syangu Mwankemwa, Moza Makumbuli, Willi McFarland, Meghan D Morris
BACKGROUND: An increase in heroin seizures in East Africa may signal wider local consumption of illicit drugs. Most information about drug use in Tanzania is from the economic capital, Dar es Salaam, and well-travelled Zanzibar. More data are needed on the extent, trends, and characteristics of illicit drug use in the vast coast and interior of the country. METHODS: The study was a rapid assessment, triangulating data from in-depth interviews of primary key informants (people who use drugs [PWUD]), secondary informants (police, community members, service providers), and ethnographic mapping of hotspots in 12 regions of Tanzania...
November 16, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155953/max-mutations-in-endometrial-cancer-clinicopathologic-associations-and-recurrent-max-p-his28arg-functional-characterization
#2
Christopher J Walker, Craig M Rush, Paola Dama, Matthew J O'Hern, Casey M Cosgrove, Jessica L Gillespie, Roman A Zingarelli, Blair Smith, Maggie E Stein, David G Mutch, Reena Shakya, Chia-Wen Chang, Karuppaiyah Selvendiran, Jonathan W Song, David E Cohn, Paul J Goodfellow
Background: Genomic studies have revealed that multiple genes are mutated at varying frequency in endometrial cancer (EC); however, the relevance of many of these mutations is poorly understood. An EC-specific recurrent mutation in the MAX transcription factor p.His28Arg was recently discovered. We sought to assess the functional consequences of this hotspot mutation and determine its association with cancer-relevant phenotypes. Methods: MAX was sequenced in 509 endometrioid ECs, and associations between mutation status and clinicopathologic features were assessed...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155257/contrasting-the-microbiomes-from-forest-rhizosphere-and-deeper-bulk-soil-from-an-amazon-rainforest-reserve
#3
Jose Pedro Fonseca, Luisa Hoffmann, Bianca Catarina Azeredo Cabral, Victor Hugo Giordano Dias, Marcio Rodrigues Miranda, Allan Cezar de Azevedo Martins, Clarissa Boschiero, Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos, Rosane Silva
Pristine forest ecosystems provide a unique perspective for the study of plant-associated microbiota since they host a great microbial diversity. Although the Amazon forest is one of the hotspots of biodiversity around the world, few metagenomic studies described its microbial community diversity thus far. Understanding the environmental factors that can cause shifts in microbial profiles is key to improving soil health and biogeochemical cycles. Here we report a taxonomic and functional characterization of the microbiome from the rhizosphere of Brosimum guianense (Snakewood), a native tree, and bulk soil samples from a pristine Brazilian Amazon forest reserve (Cuniã), for the first time by the shotgun approach...
November 15, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155137/streaming-data-from-a-smartphone-application-a-new-approach-to-mapping-health-during-travel
#4
Andrea Farnham, Martin Röösli, Ulf Blanke, Emily Stone, Christoph Hatz, Milo A Puhan
BACKGROUND: New research methods offer opportunities to investigate the influence of environment on health during travel. Our study uses data from a smartphone application to describe spatial and environmental patterns in health among travellers. METHODS: A prospective cohort of travellers to Thailand used a smartphone application during their trips to 1) answer a daily questionnaire about health behaviours and events, and 2) collect streaming data on environment, itinerary, and weather...
November 15, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154212/consensus-scoring-model-for-the-molecular-docking-study-of-mtor-kinase-inhibitor
#5
Dong-Dong Li, Xiang-Feng Meng, Qiang Wang, Pan Yu, Lin-Guo Zhao, Zheng-Ping Zhang, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao
The discovery of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase inhibitors has always been a research hotspot of antitumor drugs. Consensus scoring used in the docking study of mTOR kinase inhibitors usually improves hit rate of virtual screening. Herein, we attempt to build a series of consensus scoring models based on a set of the common scoring functions. In this paper, twenty-five kinds of mTOR inhibitors (16 clinical candidate compounds and 9 promising preclinical compounds) are carefully collected, and selected for the molecular docking study used by the Glide docking programs within the standard precise (SP) mode...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154117/mercury-pollution-by-gold-mining-in-a-global-biodiversity-hotspot-the-choco-biogeographic-region-colombia
#6
Yuber Palacios-Torres, Karina Caballero-Gallardo, Jesus Olivero-Verbel
Mercury (Hg) is a harmful pollutant released into the environment from gold mining activities, representing a risk to human health and the ecosystems. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, sediments and air; and to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion in the Choco biogeographic region, a global biodiversity hotspot located at the Colombian Pacific. Mercury concentrations in hair were measured in two locations, Quibdo, the state capital, and Paimado, a riverine community...
October 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152135/evaluation-of-pre-analytical-conditions-and-comparison-of-the-performance-of-several-digital-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-of-major-egfr-mutations-in-circulating-dna-from-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-the-circan_0-study
#7
Jessica Garcia, Eric Dusserre, Valérie Cheynet, Pierre Paul Bringuier, Karen Brengle-Pesce, Anne-Sophie Wozny, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Gilles Freyer, Marie Brevet, Léa Payen, Sébastien Couraud
Non invasive somatic detection assays are suitable for repetitive tumor characterization or for detecting the appearance of somatic resistance during lung cancer. Molecular diagnosis based on circulating free DNA (cfDNA) offers the opportunity to track the genomic evolution of the tumor, and was chosen to assess the molecular profile of several EGFR alterations, including deletions in exon 19 (delEX19), the L858R substitution on exon 21 and the EGFR resistance mutation T790M on exon 20. Our study aimed at determining optimal pre-analytical conditions and EGFR mutation detection assays for analyzing cfDNA using the picoliter-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assay...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152076/profiling-tumour-heterogeneity-through-circulating-tumour-dna-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#8
Patricia Adamo, Caroline M Cowley, Christopher P Neal, Vilas Mistry, Karen Page, Ashley R Dennison, John Isherwood, Robert Hastings, JinLi Luo, David A Moore, Pringle J Howard, Martins L Miguel, Catrin Pritchard, Margaret Manson, Jacqui A Shaw
The majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) are diagnosed late so that surgery is rarely curative. Earlier detection could significantly increase the likelihood of successful treatment and improve survival. The aim of the study was to provide proof of principle that point mutations in key cancer genes can be identified by sequencing circulating free DNA (cfDNA) and that this could be used to detect early PDACs and potentially, premalignant lesions, to help target early effective treatment. Targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS) analysis of mutation hotspots in 50 cancer genes was conducted in 26 patients with PDAC, 14 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and 12 healthy controls with KRAS status validated by digital droplet PCR...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150609/atomic-resolution-snapshot-of-leishmania-ribosome-inhibition-by-the-aminoglycoside-paromomycin
#9
Moran Shalev-Benami, Yan Zhang, Haim Rozenberg, Yuko Nobe, Masato Taoka, Donna Matzov, Ella Zimmerman, Anat Bashan, Toshiaki Isobe, Charles L Jaffe, Ada Yonath, Georgios Skiniotis
Leishmania is a single-celled eukaryotic parasite afflicting millions of humans worldwide, with current therapies limited to a poor selection of drugs that mostly target elements in the parasite's cell envelope. Here we determined the atomic resolution electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the Leishmania ribosome in complex with paromomycin (PAR), a highly potent compound recently approved for treatment of the fatal visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The structure reveals the mechanism by which the drug induces its deleterious effects on the parasite...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148778/ligand-mediated-deposition-of-noble-metals-at-nanoparticle-plasmonic-hotspots
#10
Patrick J Straney, Nathan A Diemler, Ashley M Smith, Zachary E Eddinger, Matthew S Gilliam, Jill E Millstone
We report the use of gold nanoparticle surface chemistry as a tool for site-selective noble metal deposition onto colloidal gold nanoparticle substrates. Specifically, we demonstrate that partial passivation of the gold nanoparticle surface using thiolated ligands can induce a transition from linear palladium island deposition to growth of palladium selectively at plasmonic hotspots on the edges or vertices of the underlying particle substrate. Further, we demonstrate the broader applicability of this approach with respect to substrate morphology (e...
November 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148537/adenomatoid-tumors-of-the-male-and-female-genital-tract-are-defined-by-traf7-mutations-that-drive-aberrant-nf-kb-pathway-activation
#11
Benjamin Goode, Nancy M Joseph, Meredith Stevers, Jessica Van Ziffle, Courtney Onodera, Eric Talevich, James P Grenert, Iwei Yeh, Boris C Bastian, Joanna J Phillips, Karuna Garg, Joseph T Rabban, Charles Zaloudek, David A Solomon
Adenomatoid tumors are the most common neoplasm of the epididymis, and histologically similar adenomatoid tumors also commonly arise in the uterus and fallopian tube. To investigate the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors, we performed genomic profiling on a cohort of 31 adenomatoid tumors of the male and female genital tracts. We identified that all tumors harbored somatic missense mutations in the TRAF7 gene, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase belonging to the family of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs)...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145618/the-histone-variant-h2a-z-promotes-initiation-of-meiotic-recombination-in-fission-yeast
#12
Shintaro Yamada, Kazuto Kugou, Da-Qiao Ding, Yurika Fujita, Yasushi Hiraoka, Hiroshi Murakami, Kunihiro Ohta, Takatomi Yamada
Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which are mainly formed at recombination hotspots. Meiotic DSBs require multiple proteins including the conserved protein Spo11 and its cofactors, and are influenced by chromatin structure. For example, local chromatin around hotspots directly impacts DSB formation. Moreover, DSB is proposed to occur in a higher-order chromatin architecture termed 'axis-loop', in which many loops protrude from cohesin-enriched axis...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144755/holographic-plasmonic-nanotweezers-for-dynamic-trapping-and-manipulation
#13
Preston R Huft, Joshua D Kolbow, Jonathan T Thweatt, Nathan C Lindquist
We demonstrate dynamic trapping and manipulation of nanoparticles with plasmonic holograms. By tailoring the illumination pattern of an incident light beam with a computer-controlled spatial light modulator, constructive and destructive interference of plasmon waves create a focused hotspot that can be moved across a surface. Specifically, a computer-generated hologram illuminating the perimeter of a silver Bull's Eye nanostructure generates surface plasmons that propagate toward the center. Shifting the phase of the plasmon waves as a function of space gives complete control over the location of the focus...
November 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144729/an-optical-nanoantenna-for-single-molecule-based-detection-of-zika-virus-nucleic-acids-without-molecular-multiplication
#14
Sarah Elisabeth Ochmann, Carolin Vietz, Kateryna Trofymchuk, Guillermo P Acuna, Birka Lalkens, Philip Tinnefeld
Due to the limited signal-to-background ratio, molecular diagnostics requires molecular amplification of the target molecules or molecular signal amplification after target recognition. For direct molecular detection, we demonstrate a purely physical fluorescence enhancement process which can elevate the fluorescence signal of single fluorescent dyes by several orders of magnitude. To this end, DNA origami-based optical antennas with a height of around 125 nm are used, which utilize metallic nanoparticles to create a hotspot where fluorescence signals are enhanced by plasmonic effects...
November 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144458/biogeochemistry-ocean-hotspots-of-nitrogen-loss
#15
Katja Fennel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143730/genetic-diversity-and-symbiotic-effectiveness-of-bradyrhizobium-strains-nodulating-selected-annual-grain-legumes-growing-in-ethiopia
#16
Tulu Degefu, Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel, Frank Rasche
Vigna unguiculata, Vigna radiata and Arachis hypogaea growing in Ethiopia are nodulated by a genetically diverse group of Bradyrhizobium strains. To determine the genetic identity and symbiotic effectiveness of these bacteria, a collection of 36 test strains originating from the root nodules of the three hosts was investigated using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of core genes including 16S rRNA, recA, glnII, gyrB, atpD and dnaK. Sequence analysis of nodA and nifH genes along with tests for symbiotic effectiveness using δ(15)N analysis were also carried out...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138738/spatial-distribution-and-trends-of-waterborne-diseases-in-tashkent-province
#17
Veluswami Saravanan Subramanian, Min Jung Cho, Siwei Zoe Tan, Dilorom Fayzieva, Christian Sebaly
Introduction: The cumulative effect of limited investment in public water systems, inadequate public health infrastructure, and gaps in infectious disease prevention increased the incidence of waterborne diseases in Uzbekistan. The objectives of this study were: (1) to spatially analyze the distribution of the diseases in Tashkent Province, (2) to identify the intensity of spatial trends in the province, (3) to identify urban-rural characteristics of the disease distribution, and (4) to identify the differences in disease incidence between pediatric and adult populations of the province...
2017: Central Asian Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137986/long-range-stress-transmission-guides-endothelial-gap-formation
#18
C Corey Hardin, Joyjit Chattoraj, Greeshma Manomohan, Jader Colombo, Trong Nguyen, Dhananjay Tambe, Jeffrey J Fredberg, Konstantin Birukov, James P Butler, Emanuela Del Gado, Ramaswamy Krishnan
In endothelial gap formation, local tractions exerted by the cell upon its basal adhesions are thought to exceed balancing tensile stresses exerted across the cell-cell junction, thus causing the junction to rupture. To test this idea, we mapped evolving tractions, intercellular stresses, and corresponding growth of paracellular gaps in response to agonist challenge. Contrary to expectation, we found little to no relationship between local tensile stresses and gap formation. Instead, we discovered that intercellular stresses were aligned into striking multi-cellular domains punctuated by defects in stress alignment...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137622/genome-wide-scan-for-runs-of-homozygosity-identifies-potential-candidate-genes-associated-with-local-adaptation-in-valle-del-belice-sheep
#19
Salvatore Mastrangelo, Marco Tolone, Maria T Sardina, Gianluca Sottile, Anna M Sutera, Rosalia Di Gerlando, Baldassare Portolano
BACKGROUND: Because very large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now available throughout the genome, they are particularly suitable for the detection of genomic regions where a reduction in heterozygosity has occurred and they offer new opportunities to improve the accuracy of inbreeding ([Formula: see text]) estimates. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are contiguous lengths of homozygous segments of the genome where the two haplotypes inherited from the parents are identical...
November 14, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137435/recurrent-mutations-in-a-serpinc1-hotspot-associate-with-venous-thrombosis-without-apparent-antithrombin-deficiency
#20
Wei Zeng, Bei Hu, Liang Tang, Yan-Yan You, Mara Toderici, Maria Eugenia de la Morena-Barrio, Javier Corral, Yu Hu
Despite the essential anticoagulant function of antithrombin and the high risk of thrombosis associated with its deficiency, the prevalence of antithrombin deficiency among patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is very low. However, increasing evidence suggests that antithrombin deficiency may be underestimated. The analysis of SERPINC1, the gene encoding antithrombin, in 1,304 consecutive Chinese VTE patients and 1,334 healthy controls revealed a hotspot involving residues 294 and 295 that severely increases the risk of VTE...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
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