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International obesity

Fabiën N Belle, Juliane Wenke-Zobler, Eva Cignacco, Ben D Spycher, Roland A Ammann, Claudia E Kuehni, Karin Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer patients (CCP) have been reported to be at increased risk of becoming overweight during treatment. We assessed prevalence of overweight in CCP at diagnosis and at the end of treatment, determined risk factors, and identified weight change during treatment by type of cancer. METHODS: In a multicentre cohort study, we collected height and weight measurements of CCP at diagnosis and repeatedly during treatment. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted BMI Z-scores using references of the International Obesity Taskforce for children...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Rashed Al Amer, Khalid Al Khalifa, Safeyah Ali Alajlan, Ahmed Al Ansari
PURPOSE: The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire is a valuable and easy-to-use tool for the measurement of quality of life in patients with obesity. To become a widely used tool, the questionnaire must be validated in many different contexts. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the SF-36 questionnaire among patients with obesity in Bahrain. METHODOLOGY: The 36-item questionnaire was administered to a study cohort scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery at the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital in Bahrain...
March 14, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Pepita Barlow, Paulo Serôdio, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Maxine P Bonham, Gloria K W Leung, Rochelle Davis, Tracey L Sletten, Chiara Murgia, Morag J Young, Nina Eikelis, Elisabeth A Lambert, Catherine E Huggins
INTRODUCTION: Shift work is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Shift workers who are awake overnight and sleep during the day are misaligned with their body's endogenous circadian rhythm. Eating at night contributes to this increased risk of CVD by forcing the body to actively break down and process nutrients at night. This pilot study aims to determine whether altering meal timing overnight, in a shift working population, will impact favourably on modifiable risk factors for CVD (postprandial bplasma lipids and glucose concentration)...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Irene Papanicolas, Liana R Woskie, Ashish K Jha
Importance: Health care spending in the United States is a major concern and is higher than in other high-income countries, but there is little evidence that efforts to reform US health care delivery have had a meaningful influence on controlling health care spending and costs. Objective: To compare potential drivers of spending, such as structural capacity and utilization, in the United States with those of 10 of the highest-income countries (United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Australia, Japan, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Denmark) to gain insight into what the United States can learn from these nations...
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Mengmeng Huang, Pan Zhuang, Jingjing Jiao, Jun Wang, Yu Zhang
Exposure to chemical contaminants is considered as one of risk factors to the current epidemic of obesity. Acrylamide (AA) is a ubiquitous chemical contaminant in environmental waste, mainstream cigarette smoke and carbohydrate-rich foods, and widely used in industrial manufacturers and cosmetics. Few studies have highlighted the association of daily exposure to AA with obesity-related outcomes. We analyzed data from 8364 participants who aged 20-85years and were recruited in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003-2006...
March 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mirjam C M Wever, Alexandra E Dingemans, Tiny Geerets, Unna N Danner
The Risk factors for Binge Eating Disorder in Overweight (REO) questionnaire is a screening tool for nutritionists to discriminate between individuals with obesity with and without Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The first study tested the discriminative ability of the REO and identified an optimal cut-off value. In the second study this cut-off value was used to identify individuals with and without BED from a sample of individuals with obesity visiting a nutritionist and compared clinical and personality characteristics with a group of individuals officially diagnosed with BED...
March 9, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
Anton A Kasatkin, Aleksandr L Urakov, Anna R Nigmatullina
INTRODUCTION: Central venous cannulation may be difficult in morbidly obese patients. We present a case of successful right internal jugular vein catheterization under real-time ultrasound guidance in an obese patient in a forced semi-sitting position. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old male patient with body mass of 182 kg (body mass index, 52.2 kg/m2 ) was admitted to the clinic 48 h after the trauma. The patient was in a forced semi-sitting position (37° head elevation)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Access
Nicholas A Bedard, Andrew J Pugely, Michael McHugh, Nathan Lux, Jesse E Otero, Kevin J Bozic, Yubo Gao, John J Callaghan
BACKGROUND: Use of large clinical and administrative databases for orthopaedic research has increased exponentially. Each database represents unique patient populations and varies in their methodology of data acquisition, which makes it possible that similar research questions posed to different databases might result in answers that differ in important ways. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What are the differences in reported demographics, comorbidities, and complications for patients undergoing primary TKA among four databases commonly used in orthopaedic research? (2) How does the difference in reported complication rates vary depending on whether only inpatient data or 30-day postoperative data are analyzed? METHODS: Patients who underwent primary TKA during 2010 to 2012 were identified within the National Surgical Quality Improvement Programs (NSQIP), the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), the Medicare Standard Analytic Files (MED), and the Humana Administrative Claims database (HAC)...
January 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Bahareh Sedaghati-Khayat, Maryam Barzin, Mahdi Akbarzadeh, Kamran Guity, Mohammad-Sadegh Fallah, Hoda Pourhassan, Fereidoun Azizi, Maryam S Daneshpour
BACKGROUND: Obesity is currently an international epidemic and metabolic derangements pose these individuals at greater risk for future morbidity and mortality. Genetics and environmental factors have undeniable effects and among genetic risk factors, FTO/CETP genes are important. The current study examines the interaction between obesity phenotypes and FTO/CETP SNPs and their effects on lipid profile changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 954 adult subjects from TCGS (47...
March 10, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Ines Delgado, Lison Huet, Sandra Dexpert, Cédric Beau, Damien Forestier, Patrick Ledaguenel, Agnès Aubert, Julie Sauvant, Bruno Aouizerate, Eric Magne, Lucile Capuron
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that the risk of depressive symptoms in obesity is potentiated in subjects presenting a metabolically unhealthy phenotype. Inflammation is often considered a defining criteria of metabolic health. However, this factor may drive the association of metabolic health with depressive symptoms given its well-known role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed at determining the relative contribution of inflammation and metabolic abnormalities to depressive symptoms in obesity...
March 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rabha Elmesmari, Anne Martin, John J Reilly, James Y Paton
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been hypothesized to be associated with reduced moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and increased sedentary time (ST). It is important to assess whether, and the extent to which, levels of MVPA and ST are suboptimal among children and adolescents with obesity. The primary objective of this study was to examine accelerometer-measured time spent in MVPA and ST of children and adolescents with obesity, compared with MVPA recommendations, and with non-obese peers...
March 9, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Anna Lartey, Janice Meerman, Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni
BACKGROUND: The International Union of Nutritional Sciences held its 21st International Congress of Nutrition in October 2017 in Buenos Aires, Argentina under the theme - From Sciences to Nutrition Security. In addition to multiple sessions on food systems and their links to diet, nutrition and health, the Congress closing lecture focused on the need to transform food systems so as to increase their capacity to provide healthy diets, making a call for greater involvement of nutrition scientists...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska, Anita Chudecka-Głaz, Ewa Pius-Sadowska, Agnieszka Sompolska-Rzechuła, Bogusław Machaliński, Janusz Menkiszak
Obesity is a well-known factor that leads to many diseases including endometrial cancer. The adipose tissue is a heterogeneous organ of internal secretion. Visfatin is a newly discovered protein produced by fat tissues. The purpose of this work was to evaluate serum level concentrations of visfatin in patients with endometrial cancer based on clinical progression and histopathological tumor differentiation. The diagnostic capabilities of visfatin protein in high differentiation (FIGO III and IV) from a lower (FIGO I and II) clinical stage and prognostic degree of cell differentiation (G1 versus G2, G2 versus G3) on the basis of the analysis of the area under the ROC curve are as follows: 0...
2018: BioMed Research International
Bernardo Ng, Alvaro Camacho, Katherine Parra, Ricardo de la Espriella, Victor Rico, Severiano Lozano, Mirna Troncoso, Ruby C Castilla-Puentes, Benjamin L Cook, Daniel E Jimenez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine the association of country of residence with body mass index (BMI) between Mexican and Colombian patients exposed to antipsychotics. We hypothesize that there will be a significant association between country of residence and BMI and that Mexican patients will have higher BMI than their Colombian counterparts. DESIGN: The International Study of Latinos on Antipsychotics (ISLA) is a multisite, international, cross sectional study of adult Latino patients exposed to antipsychotics in two Latin American Countries (i...
March 7, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
Inga Petraviciene, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
Background: The complex impact of environmental and social factors on preschool children being overweight/obese is unclear. We examined the associations between the levels of green space exposure and the risk of being overweight/obese for 4-6 year-old children and assessed the impact of maternal education on these associations. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas, Lithuania, in 2012-2013. We assessed children overweight/obesity by standardized questionnaires using international body mass index cut-off points, and the level of greenness exposures by satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of each child's home and by the distance to a nearest city park...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Luca De Carli, Elena Spada, Silvano Milani, Gian Pasquale Ganzit, Lucia Ghizzoni, Melissa Raia, Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Simona Bo
BACKGROUND: Since populations are becoming increasingly multi-ethnic, the use of local or international charts is a matter of debate. This study aimed to evaluate how the choice of cut-off thresholds affected prevalence of underweight (UW), overweight (OW), obesity (OB) in 1200 11-12-year Italian adolescents, and how their somatic growth depended on parental origin. METHODS: The height, weight and body mass index were expressed as standard deviation score (SDS) using Italian (ISPED-2006) and UK (UK-1990) charts...
March 5, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Martha L Daviglus, Alan R Dyer, Linda Van Horn, Daniel B Garside, Katsuyuki Miura, Yangfeng Wu, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Liancheng Zhao, Paul Elliott
Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118...
March 5, 2018: Hypertension
Eanna P Connaughton, Serika Naicker, Shirley A Hanley, Stephanie M Slevin, John K Eykelenboom, Noel F Lowndes, Timothy O'Brien, Rhodri Ceredig, Matthew D Griffin, Michael C Dennedy
Human blood monocytes are sub-classified as classical, intermediate and non-classical. In this study, it was shown that conventionally-defined human intermediate monocytes (IM) can be divided into two distinct subpopulations with mid- and high-level surface expression of HLA-DR (referred to as DRmid and DRhi IM). These IM subpopulations were phenotypically and functionally characterized in healthy adult blood by flow cytometry, migration assays and lipoprotein uptake assays. Their absolute numbers and proportions were then compared in blood samples from obese and non-obese adults...
March 5, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
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