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International obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777749/burden-of-liver-disease-in-europe-epidemiology-and-analysis-of-risk-factors-to-identify-prevention-policies
#1
REVIEW
Laura Pimpin, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Francesco Negro, Emily Corbould, Jeffrey V Lazarus, Laura Webber, Nick Sheron
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. METHODS: As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777228/effects-of-clomiphene-citrate-on-male-obesity-associated-hypogonadism-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#2
Andressa Heimbecher Soares, Nidia Celeste Horie, Lucas Augusto Piccinin Chiang, Bruno Caramelli, Mariana Gomes Matheus, Alexandre Holthausen Campos, Luciana Cavalheiro Marti, Fernanda Agostini Rocha, Marcio C Mancini, Elaine Maria Frade Costa, Cintia Cercato
BACKGROUND: Obesity causes secondary hypogonadism (HG) in men. Standard testosterone (T) replacement therapy improves metabolic parameters but leads to infertility. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment of adult men with male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH). DESIGN: Single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-eight men aged 36.5 ± 7...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776821/wide-step-width-reduces-knee-abduction-moment-of-obese-adults-during-stair-negotiation
#3
Derek Yocum, Joshua T Weinhandl, Jeffrey T Fairbrother, Songning Zhang
PURPOSE: An increased likelihood of developing obesity-related knee osteoarthritis may be associated with increased peak internal knee abduction moments (KAbM). Increases in step width (SW) may act to reduce this moment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of increased SW on knee biomechanics during stair negotiation of healthy-weight and obese participants. METHODS: Participants (24: 10 obese and 14 healthy-weight) used stairs and walked over level ground while walking at their preferred speed in two different SW conditions - preferred and wide (200% preferred)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776347/stabilization-of-the-obesity-epidemic-and-increasing-thinness-in-children-in-caribbean-bonaire
#4
Joana Kist-van Holthe, Tirza Blom, Laura Melchers, Alcira Janga-Jansen, Tahirih van Kanten, Marian Luinstra-Passchier, Teatske Altenburg, Remy HiraSing, Mai Chinapaw
BACKGROUND: In 2008, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Bonaire was twice as high as the prevalence in northern Europe but comparable to that of other Caribbean islands and the United States. The aim of this study was to examine change in the body mass index status of children in Bonaire and report children's energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB) in 2015. METHODS: Two school-based cross sectional surveys of children age 4-14 years were conducted in 2008 and 2015...
May 17, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776012/evolving-self-view-and-body-image-concerns-in-female-post-operative-bariatric-surgery-patients
#5
Tamara O Perdue, Ann Schreier, Melvin Swanson, Janice Neil, Robert Carels
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This research study explores the experience of post-operative bariatric surgery patients as they adjust to diminished weight and differentiates that adjustment from the more general concept of body image. BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is an effective way to reduce weight and co-morbidities associated with obesity. Complete success requires that patients must adjust psychologically as they lose weight. If this does not occur, bariatric patients may experience a 'mind-body lag' in which the patient's internal body image lags behind the external changes...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776007/development-and-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-swedish-propensity-to-achieve-healthy-lifestyle-scale-in-patients-with-hypertension
#6
Anders Broström, A H Pakpour, Martin Ulander, Per Nilsen
PURPOSE: To develop and validate a Swedish questionnaire to measure propensity for behaviour change regarding food habits, physical activity and weight reduction in patients with hypertension. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. METHODS: A total of 270 consecutive patients with hypertension diagnosed at 4 primary care centres in Sweden were included. The 6-item Swedish version of the Propensity to Achieve Healthy Lifestyle Scale (PAHLS) was developed to measure propensity for behaviour change regarding food habits, physical activity and weight reduction...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771361/factor-structure-of-a-spanish-translation-of-an-obesity-specific-parent-report-measure-of-health-related-quality-of-life
#7
Kelsey B Borner, Tarrah B Mitchell, Jane S Gray, Ann M Davis, Stephen J Pont, Brooke R Sweeney, Sarah Hampl, Meredith L Dreyer Gillette
Objective: Latino youth are disproportionately affected by pediatric obesity and consequently experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Although many caregivers of Latino youth do not speak English fluently, no validated Spanish translations of obesity-specific HRQOL measures exist for this population. Therefore, non-English-speaking Latino parents have typically been excluded from analyses related to HRQOL. This study assesses the factor structure of a Spanish translation of a parent-report measure of obesity-specific HRQOL, Sizing Them Up, in a treatment-seeking sample of children with obesity...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771156/achievement-of-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-goals-in-18-countries-outside-western-europe-the-international-cholesterol-management-practice-study-iclps
#8
Nicolas Danchin, Wael Almahmeed, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Joseph Azuri, Abdelkrim Berrah, Carlos Alberto Cuneo, Yuri Karpov, Upendra Kaul, Meral Kayıkçıoğlu, Olena Mitchenko, Alvaro J Ruiz, Carlos A Aguilar Salinas, Raul D Santos, Florence Mercier, Dirk Blom
Background Little is known about the achievement of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in patients at cardiovascular risk receiving stable lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) in countries outside Western Europe. Methods This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 452 centres (August 2015-August 2016) in 18 countries in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. Patients ( n = 9049) treated for ≥3 months with any LLT and in whom an LDL-C measurement on stable LLT was available within the previous 12 months were included...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768605/-transcultural-adaptation-of-the-antifat-attitudes-test-to-brazilian-portuguese
#9
Angélica Almeida Obara, Marle Dos Santos Alvarenga
Obese individuals are often blamed for their own condition and the targets of discrimination and prejudice. The scope of this study is to describe the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese and the validation of the Antifat Attitudes Test - specifically developed for evaluation of negative attitudes toward the obese individual. The scale has 34 statements distributed in three subscales - Social/Character Disparagement (15 items), Physical/Romantic Unattractiveness (10 items) and Weight Control/Blame (9 items)...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766353/how-ethical-is-our-current-delivery-of-care-to-patients-with-severe-and-complicated-obesity
#10
REVIEW
Hilary Craig, Carel le Roux, Fiona Keogh, Francis M Finucane
Despite overwhelming evidence that bariatric interventions reduce morbidity and mortality and are cost-effective, access for affected patients is limited. We sought to describe the extent to which health policy makers and publically funded health services have an ethical obligation to provide bariatric care. We conducted a narrative review of the literature pertaining to the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgical interventions, in the context of the core principles of medical ethics...
May 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764885/compliance-with-current-vte-prophylaxis-guidelines-and-risk-factors-linked-to-complications-of-vte-prophylaxis-in-medical-inpatients-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-a-spanish-internal-medicine-department
#11
Ignacio Novo-Veleiro, Lucía Alvela-Suárez, Alba Costa-Grille, Javier Suárez-Dono, Fernando Ferrón-Vidan, Antonio Pose-Reino
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the degree of compliance with the current guidelines regarding venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in medical patients during admission and to identify risk factors linked to complications of VTE prophylaxis. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Internal Medicine Department of the University Hospital of Santiago de Compostela (tertiary referral hospital). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 396 hospitalised, elderly patients who did not undergo surgery and had no active or previous oral anticoagulation or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) treatment (during the previous year) and who received VTE prophylaxis during admission...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764881/protocol-for-an-economic-evaluation-of-who-stops-childhood-obesity-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Rohan Sweeney, Marj Moodie, Phuong Nguyen, Penny Fraser, Kristy Bolton, Andrew Brown, Jennifer Marks, Nic Crooks, Claudia Strugnell, Colin Bell, Lynne Millar, Liliana Orellana, Steven Allender
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood is a priority because of associated acute and chronic conditions in childhood and later in life, which place significant burden on health systems. Evidence suggests prevention should engage a range of actions and actors and target multiple levels. The Whole of Systems Trial Of Prevention <u>S</u>trategies for childhood obesity (WHO STOPS) will evaluate the outcomes of a novel systems-based intervention that aims to engage whole communities in a locally led multifaceted response...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762555/global-transcriptome-analysis-identifies-weight-regain-induced-activation-of-adaptive-immune-responses-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#13
D S Kyung, H R Sung, Y J Kim, K D Kim, S Y Cho, J H Choi, Y-H Lee, I Y Kim, J K Seong
OBJECTIVE: Studies have indicated that weight regain following weight loss predisposes obese individuals to metabolic disorders; however, the molecular mechanism of this potential adverse effect of weight regain is not fully understood. Here we investigated global transcriptome changes and the immune response in mouse white adipose tissue caused by weight regain. DESIGN: We established a diet switch protocol to compare the effects of weight regain with those of weight gain without precedent weight loss, weight loss maintenance and chow diet...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761882/the-prevalence-of-obesity-in-children-and-young-people-with-down-syndrome
#14
Muireann O' Shea, Carol O' Shea, Louise Gibson, Jennifer Leo, Catherine Carty
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a growing concern among individuals with intellectual disabilities; however, little is known about the prevalence among children and youth with Down syndrome (CYDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity among CYDS in South West Ireland. METHODS: This cross-sectional study measured height and weight of 61 CYDS aged 4-16 years. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percentage body fat (PBF) was measured using bio-electrical impendence analysis (BIA)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759909/the-predictive-value-of-arteriogenic-erectile-dysfunction-for-coronary-artery-disease-in-men
#15
Sherif Salah Azab, Hossam El Din Hosni, Taha A El Far, Nashaat Nabil Ismail, Yasser K El Bakdady, Ahmed F Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is assumed to be connected with vascular disease caused by endothelial dysfunction, and characterized by the incapability of the smooth muscle cells lining the arterioles to relax, therefore, inhibit vasodilatation. AIM: To assess the predictive value of arteriogenic ED for coronary artery disease in men above the age of 40 years. METHODS: 75 Patients reporting arteriogenic ED and 25 men with normal erectile function were enrolled in the study...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757216/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-is-involved-in-non-obese-diabetic-mouse-thymocyte-migration-disorders
#16
Julia P Lemos, Salete Smaniotto, Carolina V Messias, Otacilio C Moreira, Vinicius Cotta-de-Almeida, Mireille Dardenne, Wilson Savino, Daniella A Mendes-da-Cruz
NOD (non-obese diabetic) mice spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes following T cell-dependent destruction of pancreatic &beta; cells. Several alterations are observed in the NOD thymus, including the presence of giant perivascular spaces (PVS) filled with single-positive (SP) CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells that accumulate in the organ. These cells have a decreased expression of membrane CD49e (the &alpha;5 integrin chain of the fibronectin receptor VLA-5 (very late antigen-5). Herein, we observed lower sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) expression in NOD mouse thymocytes when compared with controls, mainly in the mature SP CD4⁺CD62Lhi and CD8⁺CD62Lhi subpopulations bearing the CD49e&minus; phenotype...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756491/innovative-healthy-lifestyles-school-based-public-private-partnerships-designed-to-curb-the-childhood-obesity-epidemic-globally-lessons-learned-from-the-mondel%C3%A4-z-international-foundation
#17
Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been recognized as central for addressing the childhood obesity epidemic. However, very few real-world examples have been published documenting the workings of effective PPPs. The objective of this article is to identify the factors that enabled the successful implementation of school-based PPPs focusing mainly on nutrition and physical activity in 7 countries located in Asia (China and India), Africa (South Africa), Europe (Germany, United Kingdom), and Latin America (Brazil and Mexico)...
January 1, 2018: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754577/development-of-weight-and-height-in-norwegian-children-the-health-oriented-pedagogical-project-hopp
#18
Angelica Skår, Trine Johansen Meza, Per Morten Fredriksen
AIMS: High prevalence of overweight and obesity increases the disease burden with higher risk for an expanding set of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, certain types of cancers and an array of musculoskeletal disorders. Over the last decades, trends in children's weight have changed worldwide. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements of height and weight and calculations of body mass index (BMI) were recorded for 2297 children, aged 6-12 years...
May 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753403/clinical-studies-of-interventions-to-mitigate-cardiovascular-risk-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#19
REVIEW
Dev Jegatheesan, Yeoungjee Cho, David W Johnson
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent in the peritoneal dialysis (PD) population, affecting up to 60% of cohorts. CVD is the primary cause of death in up to 40% of PD patients in Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. Cardiovascular mortality rates are reported to be approximately 14 per 100 patient-years, which are 10- to 20-fold greater than those of age- and sex-matched controls. The excess risk of CVD is related to a combination of traditional risk factors (such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and insulin resistance), nontraditional (kidney disease-related) risk factors (such as anemia, chronic volume overload, inflammation, malnutrition, hyperuricemia, and mineral and bone disorder), and PD-specific risk factors (such as dialysis solutions, glycation end products, hypokalemia, residual kidney function, and ultrafiltration failure)...
May 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753371/cardiovascular-events-in-alcoholic-syndrome-with-alcohol-withdrawal-history-results-from-the-national-inpatient-sample
#20
Parasuram Krishnamoorthy, Aditi Kalla, Vincent M Figueredo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) events with moderate alcohol consumption. However, heavy and binge drinking may be associated with higher CVD risk. Utilizing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we studied the association between a troublesome alcohol history (TAH), defined as those with diagnoses of both chronic alcohol syndrome and acute withdrawal history and CVD events. METHODS: Patients >18 years with diagnoses of both chronic alcohol syndrome and acute withdrawal using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 303...
May 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
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