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International obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903157/obesity-and-other-cancers
#1
Lin Yang, Bettina F Drake, Graham A Colditz
Purpose Evidence on overweight, obesity, and an increased risk of cancer continues to accumulate and was updated in the 2016 handbook on weight control from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The underlying primary data, together with dose-response meta-analysis and, finally, pooled analysis of individual participant data, add insight into the relation between obesity and cancer risk and prognosis. We summarize the evidence for mortality from prostate cancer, hematologic malignancies, and kidney cancer...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900946/childhood-psoriasis
#2
Emmanuel Mahé
Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, few data have been published on epidemiology, comorbidity, or therapy in children with psoriasis. Psoriasis affects up to 2% of children in Europe, even during the first months of life. The link between psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities has been highlighted, notably in relation to excessive weight and obesity. The clinical picture of psoriasis in childhood resembles adult disease, however, some clinical features are noteworthy: neonatal diaper rash is relatively specific, face involvement and guttate psoriasis are more common, plaques are often smaller, and scales are finer and softer than in adults...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899810/potential-selection-effects-when-estimating-associations-between-the-infancy-peak-or-adiposity-rebound-and-later-body-mass-index-in-children
#3
C Börnhorst, A Siani, M Tornaritis, D Molnár, L Lissner, S Regber, L Reisch, A De Decker, L A Moreno, W Ahrens, I Pigeot
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate a potential selection effect caused by exclusion of children with non-identifiable infancy peak (IP) and adiposity rebound (AR) when estimating associations between age and BMI at IP and AR and later weight status. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 4 744 children with at least 4 repeated measurements of height and weight in the age interval from 0 to 8 years (37 998 measurements) participating in the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort study, fractional polynomial multi-level models were used to derive individual BMI trajectories...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899809/does-vaginal-delivery-mitigate-or-strengthen-the-intergenerational-association-of-overweight-and-obesity-findings-from-the-boston-birth-cohort
#4
N T Mueller, G Mao, W Bennet, S Hourigan, M G Dominguez-Bello, L J Appel, X Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet Cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m(2)) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother-child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5y (range 2...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899808/autoimmunity-to-hsp60-during-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#5
M E Şelli, G Wick, D C Wraith, A C Newby
Adaptive immunity has been implicated in adipose tissue inflammation, obesity and its adverse metabolic consequences. No obesity-related autoantigen has yet been identified, although heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) has been implicated in other autoimmune diseases. We investigated whether feeding a high fat diet to C57BL/6J mice would cause autoimmunity to HSP60 and whether immunomodulation with peptides from HSP60 would reverse the resulting obesity or metabolic dysfunction. Obese mice had higher circulating levels of HSP60 associated with increased T-lymphocyte proliferation responses and the emergence of circulating IgG1 and IgG2c antibody levels against HSP60...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899807/does-the-incorporation-of-portion-control-strategies-in-a-behavioral-program-improve-weight-loss-in-a-one-year-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
B J Rolls, L S Roe, B L James, C E Sanchez
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Controlling food portion sizes can help reduce energy intake, but the effect of different portion-control methods on weight management is not known. In a one-year randomized trial, we tested whether the efficacy of a behavioral weight-loss program was improved by incorporating either of two portion-control strategies instead of standard advice about eating less. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The Portion-Control Strategies Trial included 186 women with obesity (81%) or overweight (19%)...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899333/abnormalities-of-brain-neural-circuits-related-to-obesity-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#7
Ioannis Papageorgiou, Loukas G Astrakas, Vassileios Xydis, George Alexiou, Panagiotis Bargiotas, Loukia Tzarouchi, Anastasia K Zikou, Dimitrios N Kiortsis, Maria I Argyropoulou
PURPOSE: Increased Body-Mass-Index (BMI) has been associated with brain atrophy in both gray and white matter structures. However, little is known concerning the integrity of white matter tracts in obesity. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the pattern of changes in white matter microstructure in human adiposity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 268 participants (52 obese, 96 overweight and 120 normal-weight) that were retrospectively evaluated by Diffusion Tensor Imaging...
November 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899129/a-community-based-study-on-prevalence-and-correlates-of-erectile-dysfunction-among-kinondoni-district-residents-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#8
Pedro Pallangyo, Paulina Nicholaus, Peter Kisenge, Henry Mayala, Noel Swai, Mohamed Janabi
BACKGROUND: Globally, erectile dysfunction burden (ED) is rising appreciably and it is projected to affect about 332 million men by the year 2025. This rise is attributable to the rising incidence of conditions associated with ED including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease and depression. We conducted this community-based screening to elucidate on the prevalence of ED and its associated factors among men residing in an urban community in Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study and interviewed 441 men aged at least 18 years...
November 29, 2016: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896232/quality-of-life-perception-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
Cristian Petri, Laura Stefani, Vittorio Bini, Nicola Maffulli, Stefania Frau, Gabriele Mascherini, Massimiliano De Angelis, Giorgio Galanti
PURPOSE: Lifestyle analysis is often used for primary and secondary prevention in many chronic metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Questionnaires are simple and common methods for first investigation risk of factors related to the perception of quality of life (QoL). The present study evaluates the feasibility to use questionnaires for first investigation of risk factors, and ascertain whether the results of such questionnaires are associated with the perception of QoL. METHODS: Validated questionnaires from the international ACSM guidelines were used to study a cohort of 142 consecutive type 2 diabetes patients (mean age: 66...
November 2016: Translational Medicine @ UniSa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891303/constructing-public-health-policies-in-post-crisis-countries-lessons-to-learn-from-the-associations-between-free-sugars-consumption-and-diabetes-obesity-and-dental-caries-before-during-and-after-sanctions-in-iraq
#10
E Joury, R Al-Kaabi, Anwar R Tappuni
BACKGROUND: This article aims to provide evidence for an informed public health policy on free-sugar consumption in post-crisis countries. METHODS: Iraq was selected as a case study. A systematic search for published data on the prevalence/incidence of type-2 diabetes, overweight/obesity, dental caries and free-sugar consumption levels in Iraq was conducted using MEDLINE, the Iraqi Academic Scientific journals and relevant international organisations' websites. Comparable data before (1980-1990), during (1991-2002) and after (2003-2015) the United Nations sanctions (UNS) were included...
2016: Zeitschrift Für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890976/study-frequency-of-hypertension-and-obesity-and-their-relationship-with-lifestyle-factors-nutritional-habits-physical-activity-cigarette-consumption-in-ardabil-city-physicians-2012-13
#11
Afshin Fathi, Saeid Sadeghieh Ahari, Firouz Amani, Mohammad Reza Nikneghad
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have been done on lifestyle of Iranian physicians. As physicians have important role in health promotion, the main goal of the study was to assess the lifestyle of this influential group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on lifestyle of all registered physicians of Ardabil hospitals, Iran, 2012-13. In this research, 225 physicians were selected, by using simple random sampling. Demographic and lifestyle data were obtained by self-report using standard questionnaires, physical activity by official Iranian short-version of the international physical activity questionnaire, and dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890806/the-endocrine-disrupting-potential-of-monosodium-glutamate-msg-on-secretion-of-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-gut-hormone-and-glp-1-receptor-interaction
#12
Maeve Shannon, Brian Green, Gary Willars, Jodie Wilson, Natalie Matthews, Joanna Lamb, Anna Gillespie, Lisa Connolly
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a suspected obesogen with epidemiological evidence positively correlating consumption to increased body mass index and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. ELISA and high content analysis (HCA) were employed to examine the disruptive effects of MSG on the secretion of enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), respectively. Following 3h MSG exposure of the enteroendocrine pGIP/neo: STC-1 cell line model (500μg/ml) significantly increased GLP-1 secretion (1...
November 24, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888572/adverse-effect-profile-of-topical-ocular-administration-of-fingolimod-for-treatment-of-dry-eye-disease
#13
Weibao Xiao, Li Sun, Nan Zhang, Wen Ye
Fingolimod is a promising prodrug in attenuating multiple sclerosis and prolonging survival of organ allograft, with many other protective effects. Its mechanism of action is related to the internalization of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs). Our previous study indicated that fingolimod eyedrop was efficacious in inhibiting ocular inflammation in a dry eye disease (DED) model of Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice. In the current study, we evaluated potential adverse effects of fingolimod eyedrop. Inbred 10-week-old BALB/C mice were randomly divided into four groups, fingolimod-treated groups at three different concentrations (0...
November 26, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887654/proportion-of-children-meeting-recommendations-for-24-hour-movement-guidelines-and-associations-with-adiposity-in-a-12-country-study
#14
Blanca Roman-Viñas, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Mikael Fogelholm, Estelle V Lambert, Carol Maher, Jose Maia, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The Canadian 24-h movement guidelines were developed with the hope of improving health and future health outcomes in children and youth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to the 3 recommendations most strongly associated with health outcomes in new 24-h movement guidelines and their relationship with adiposity (obesity and body mass index z-score) across countries participating in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE)...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885270/gdp-per-capita-and-obesity-prevalence-worldwide-an-ambiguity-of-effect-modification-response-to-the-comment-by-prof-torsten-j-selck-does-income-positively-affect-obesity-at-the-macro-level
#15
N A Rybnikova, B A Portnov
International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 25 November 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.215.
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881930/psychological-consequences-of-childhood-obesity-psychiatric-comorbidity-and-prevention
#16
REVIEW
Jean Rankin, Lynsay Matthews, Stephen Cobley, Ahreum Han, Ross Sanders, Huw D Wiltshire, Julien S Baker
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW) or obese (OB), and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies...
2016: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881859/friends-and-social-contexts-as-unshared-environments-a-discordant-sibling-analysis-of-obesity-and-health-related-behaviors-in-young-adolescents
#17
S- Salvy, D M Feda, L H Epstein, J N Roemmich
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the contribution of best friends' weight and the peer social context (time spent alone versus with friends) as sources of unshared environment associated with variability in weight and health behaviors among weight-discordant siblings. METHODS: Pairs of same-sex biologic siblings (N=40 pairs; ages 13-17) were originally recruited as part of a study evaluating putative factors contributing to differences in adiposity among weight-discordant siblings...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881858/safety-and-efficacy-of-bariatric-surgery-in-patients-with-advanced-fibrosis-bariatric-surgery-safety-in-advanced-fibrosis
#18
T Singh, G S Kochhar, G B Goh, P Schauer, S Brethauer, M Kroh, A Aminian, R Lopez, S Dasarathy, A J McCullough
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is performed safely in NAFLD patients with minimal fibrosis (stage 1-2). However, the safety and potential benefits of bariatric surgery for NAFLD with advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4) remain unclear. This study was designed to compare the safety and efficacy of bariatric surgery in patients with biopsy proven advanced fibrosis to those with minimal fibrosis. METHODS: All patients who underwent bariatric surgery between 2005-2014 and had evidence of NAFLD with fibrosis score 3-4 (advanced fibrosis) based on the staging system defined by Kleiner et al...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881857/depressive-symptoms-body-composition-and-bone-mass-in-young-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
K Zhu, K Allen, J Mountain, S Lye, C Pennell, J P Walsh
BACKGROUND: An association between depression and obesity is well recognised, but longitudinal studies of depressive symptoms in adolescents as a predictor of body composition are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We examined depressive symptoms at age 14, 17 and 20 as predictors of lean, fat and bone mass at age 20 in a birth cohort. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In 1161 participants (569 females) in the Western Australia Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory for Youth at age 14 and 17, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 at age 20...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876761/early-infant-adipose-deposition-is-positively-associated-with-the-n-6-to-n-3-fatty-acid-ratio-in-human-milk-independent-of-maternal-bmi
#20
M C Rudolph, B E Young, D J Lemas, C E Palmer, T L Hernandez, L A Barbour, J E Friedman, N F Krebs, P S MacLean
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-months of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FA) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased 3-fold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBC) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2-weeks and 4-months postpartum...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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