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Biological reaction network

Guillermo de Anda-Jáuregui, Kai Guo, Brett A McGregor, Junguk Hur
The quintessential biological response to disease is inflammation. It is a driver and an important element in a wide range of pathological states. Pharmacological management of inflammation is therefore central in the clinical setting. Anti-inflammatory drugs modulate specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response; these drugs are traditionally classified as steroidal and non-steroidal drugs. However, the effects of these drugs are rarely limited to their canonical targets, affecting other molecules and altering biological functions with system-wide effects that can lead to the emergence of secondary therapeutic applications or adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Stephen Smith, Neil Dalchau
Synthesizing a genetic network which generates stable Turing patterns is one of the great challenges of synthetic biology, but a significant obstacle is the disconnect between the mathematical theory and the biological reality. Current mathematical understanding of patterning is typically restricted to systems of two or three chemical species, for which equations are tractable. However, when models seek to combine descriptions of intercellular signal diffusion and intracellular biochemistry, plausible genetic networks can consist of dozens of interacting species...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Benjamin G Kremkow, Kelvin H Lee
Glyco-Mapper is a novel systems biology product quality prediction tool created using a new framework termed: Discretized Reaction Network Modeling using Fuzzy Parameters (DReaM-zyP). Within Glyco-Mapper, users fix the nutrient feed composition and the glycosylation reaction fluxes to fit the model glycoform to the reference experimental glycoform, enabling cell-line specific glycoform predictions as a result of cell engineering strategies. Glyco-Mapper accurately predicts published genetically altered glycoforms resulting in the appearance or disappearance of one or more glycans between 1999 and 2014 with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 96%, 85%, and 97%, respectively...
March 6, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Brett G Olivier, Frank T Bergmann
Constraint-based modeling is a well established modeling methodology used to analyze and study biological networks on both a medium and genome scale. Due to their large size and complexity such steady-state flux models are, typically, analyzed using constraint-based optimization techniques, for example, flux balance analysis (FBA). The Flux balance constraints (FBC) Package extends SBML Level 3 and provides a standardized format for the encoding, exchange and annotation of constraint-based models. It includes support for modeling concepts such as objective functions, flux bounds and model component annotation that facilitates reaction balancing...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
Chao Qi, Yuanlei Chen, Yixuan Zhou, Xucheng Huang, Guoli Li, Jin Zeng, Zhi Ruan, Xinyou Xie, Jun Zhang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered the world's fourth most deadly cancer. Its metastasis is associated with poor prognosis and weakens the effects of treatment. However, the potential molecular mechanisms and key genes involved in CRC metastasis have remained to be comprehensively elucidated. The objective of the present study was to identify the key genes and molecular pathways underlying CRC metastasis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between primary CRC tissues and metastatic CRC were identified by analyzing the GSE2509 dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus database...
March 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
Alexandre Barrozo, Qinghua Liao, Mauricio Esguerra, Gaël Marloie, Jan Florián, Nicholas H Williams, Shina Caroline Lynn Kamerlin
β-Phosphoglucomutase (β-PGM) has served as an important model system for understanding biological phosphoryl transfer. This enzyme catalyzes the isomerization of β-glucose-1-phosphate to β-glucose-6-phosphate in a two-step process proceeding via a bisphosphate intermediate. The conventionally accepted mechanism is that both steps are concerted processes involving acid-base catalysis from a nearby aspartate (D10) side chain. This argument is supported by the observation that mutation of D10 leaves the enzyme with no detectable activity...
March 6, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Evgeny S Tiys, Timofey V Ivanisenko, Pavel S Demenkov, Vladimir A Ivanisenko
BACKGROUND: Estimation of functional connectivity in gene sets derived from genome-wide or other biological experiments is one of the essential tasks of bioinformatics. A promising approach for solving this problem is to compare gene networks built using experimental gene sets with random networks. One of the resources that make such an analysis possible is CrossTalkZ, which uses the FunCoup database. However, existing methods, including CrossTalkZ, do not take into account individual types of interactions, such as protein/protein interactions, expression regulation, transport regulation, catalytic reactions, etc...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Ana L Quiroga-Campano, Nicki Panoskaltsis, Athanasios Mantalaris
Demand for high-value biologics, a rapidly growing pipeline, and pressure from competition, time-to-market and regulators, necessitate novel biomanufacturing approaches, including Quality by Design (QbD) principles and Process Analytical Technologies (PAT), to facilitate accelerated, efficient and effective process development platforms that ensure consistent product quality and reduced lot-to-lot variability. Herein, QbD and PAT principles were incorporated within an innovative in vitro-in silico integrated framework for upstream process development (UPD)...
March 1, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Jan K Szymański, Yousef M Abul-Haija, Leroy Cronin
Millions of years of biological evolution have driven the development of highly sophisticated molecular machinery found within living systems. These systems produce polymers such as proteins and nucleic acids with incredible fidelity and function. In nature, the precise molecular sequence is the factor that determines the function of these macromolecules. Given that the ability to precisely define sequence emerges naturally, the fact that biology achieves unprecedented control over the unit sequence of the monomers through evolved enzymatic catalysis is incredible...
March 1, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Christophe Letellier, Irene Sendiña-Nadal, Ezequiel Bianco-Martinez, Murilo S Baptista
When the state of the whole reaction network can be inferred by just measuring the dynamics of a limited set of nodes the system is said to be fully observable. However, as the number of all possible combinations of measured variables and time derivatives spanning the reconstructed state of the system exponentially increases with its dimension, the observability becomes a computationally prohibitive task. Our approach consists in computing the observability coefficients from a symbolic Jacobian matrix whose elements encode the linear, nonlinear polynomial or rational nature of the interaction among the variables...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anssi Lipponen, Assam El-Osta, Antony Kaspi, Mark Ziemann, Ishant Khurana, Harikrishnan Kn, Vicente Navarro-Ferrandis, Noora Puhakka, Jussi Paananen, Asla Pitkänen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces a wide variety of cellular and molecular changes that can continue for days to weeks to months, leading to functional impairments. Currently, there are no pharmacotherapies in clinical use that favorably modify the post-TBI outcome, due in part to limited understanding of the mechanisms of TBI-induced pathologies. Our system biology analysis tested the hypothesis that chronic transcriptomics changes induced by TBI are controlled by altered DNA-methylation in gene promoter areas or by transcription factors...
February 27, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Zhiming Shu, Wang He, Mohamed Shahen, Zihu Guo, Jia Shu, Tiantian Wu, Xiaoyu Bian, Akhtar Hussain Shar, Mayada Ragab Farag, Mahmoud Alagawany, Chaobin Liu
Chronic hepatitis is a general designation class of diseases, which results in different degrees of liver necrosis and inflammatory reaction, followed by liver fibrosis, may eventually develop into cirrhosis. However, the molecular pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis is too complex to elucidate. Herbal medicines, featured with multiple targets and compounds, have long displayed therapeutic effect in treating chronic hepatitis, though their molecular mechanisms of contribution remain indistinct. This research utilized the network pharmacology to confirm the molecular pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis through providing a comprehensive analysis of active chemicals, drug targets and pathways' interaction of Sinisan formula for treating chronic hepatitis...
February 23, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Bram L T Ramaekers, Robert F Wolff, Xavier Pouwels, Marije Oosterhoff, Anoukh Van Giessen, Gill Worthy, Caro Noake, Nigel Armstrong, Jos Kleijnen, Manuela A Joore
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence invited Eli Lilly and Company Ltd, the company manufacturing ixekizumab (tradename Taltz® ), to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of ixekizumab. Ixekizumab was compared with tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab), ustekinumab, secukinumab, best supportive care and, if non-biological treatment or phototherapy is suitable, also compared with systemic non-biological therapies and phototherapy with ultraviolet B radiation for adults with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis...
February 26, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Jongrae Kim, Mathias Foo, Declan G Bates
Measurement techniques in biology are now able to provide data on the trajectories of multiple individual molecules simultaneously, motivating the development of techniques for the stochastic spatio-temporal modelling of biomolecular networks. However, standard approaches based on solving stochastic reaction-diffusion equations are computationally intractable for large-scale networks. We present a novel method for modeling stochastic and spatial dynamics in biomolecular networks using a simple form of the Langevin equation with noisy kinetic constants...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manuel Gregoritza, Kathrin Abstiens, Moritz Graf, Achim M Goepferich
Reducing burst effects, providing controlled release, and safeguarding biologics against degradation are a few of several highly attractive applications for microgels in the field of controlled release. However, the incorporation of proteins into microgels without impairing stability is highly challenging. In this proof of concept study, the combination of microfluidics and thiol-ene photoclick chemistry was evaluated for the fabrication of antibody-loaded microgels with narrow size distribution. Norbornene-modified eight-armed poly(ethylene glycol) with an average molecular mass of 10,000 Da, 20,000 Da, or 40,000 Da were prepared as macromonomers for microgel formation...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Cheng-Wei Li, Bor-Sen Chen
BACKGROUND: Two big issues in the study of pathogens are determining how pathogens infect hosts and how the host defends itself against infection. Therefore, investigating host-pathogen interactions is important for understanding pathogenicity and host defensive mechanisms and treating infections. METHODS: In this study, we used omics data, including time-course data from high throughput sequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and human microRNA (miRNA) and protein-protein interaction to construct an interspecies protein-protein and miRNA interaction (PPMI) network of human CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection through system modeling and identification...
February 19, 2018: Current HIV Research
Sriniwas Govinda Surampudi, Shruti Naik, Raju Bapi Surampudi, Viktor K Jirsa, Avinash Sharma, Dipanjan Roy
A challenging problem in cognitive neuroscience is to relate the structural connectivity (SC) to the functional connectivity (FC) to better understand how large-scale network dynamics underlying human cognition emerges from the relatively fixed SC architecture. Recent modeling attempts point to the possibility of a single diffusion kernel giving a good estimate of the FC. We highlight the shortcomings of the single-diffusion-kernel model (SDK) and propose a multi-scale diffusion scheme. Our multi-scale model is formulated as a reaction-diffusion system giving rise to spatio-temporal patterns on a fixed topology...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ying Shen, Yuandong Feng, Hongli Chen, Lingjuan Huang, Fangxia Wang, Ju Bai, Yun Yang, Jianli Wang, Wanhong Zhao, Yachun Jia, Yan Peng, Xiaoru Lei, Aili He
AIMS: Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological cancer with a higher rate of relapse. Alterations in the function of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) promote the progression and metastasis of cancer. We carry out this study to explore the expression profile of differently expressed lncRNAs in newly diagnosed MM. MAIN METHODS: The Bone marrows we analyzed were obtained from five MM and five IDA patients (serving as controls). Arraystar Human LncRNA Array V4...
March 1, 2018: Life Sciences
José Manuel Matamala, Raul Arias-Carrasco, Carolina Sanchez, Markus Uhrig, Leslie Bargsted, Soledad Matus, Vinicius Maracaja-Coutinho, Sebastian Abarzua, Brigitte van Zundert, Renato Verdugo, Patricio Manque, Claudio Hetz
The occurrence of mutations of TDP-43, FUS, and C9ORF72 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggests pathogenic alterations to RNA metabolism and specifically to microRNA (miRNA) biology. Moreover, several ALS-related proteins impact stress granule dynamics affecting miRNA biogenesis and cellular miRNA levels. miRNAs are present in different biological fluids and have been proposed as potential biomarkers. Here we used next-generation sequencing to perform a comparative analysis of the expression profile of circulating miRNAs in the serum of 2 mutant superoxide dismutase 1 transgenic mice...
April 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Lisi Flores Aguilar, Norbert Benda, Karl Broich, A Claudio Cuello, Jeffrey Cummings, Bruno Dubois, Howard J Federoff, Massimo Fiandaca, Remy Genthon, Marion Haberkamp, Eric Karran, Mark Mapstone, George Perry, Lon S Schneider, Lindsay A Welikovitch, Janet Woodcock, Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista
The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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