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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076839/chemotherapy-can-induce-weight-normalization-of-morbidly-obese-mice-despite-undiminished-ingestion-of-high-fat-diet
#1
Cheryl E Myers, Dominique B Hoelzinger, Tiffany N Truong, Lindsey A Chew, Arpita Myles, Leena Chaudhuri, Jan B Egan, Jun Liu, Sandra J Gendler, Peter A Cohen
Morbidly obese patients who accomplish substantial weight loss often display a long-term decline in their resting metabolism, causing even relatively restrained caloric intake to trigger a relapse to the obese state. Paradoxically, we observed that morbidly obese mice receiving chemotherapy for cancer experienced spontaneous weight reduction despite unabated ingestion of their high fat diet (HFD). This response to chemotherapy could also be achieved in morbidly obese mice without cancer. Optimally dosed methotrexate (MTX) or cyclophosphamide (CY) enabled the mice to completely and safely normalize their body weight despite continued consumption of obesogenic quantities of HFD...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062276/molecular-pathogenicity-of-novel-sucrase-isomaltase-mutations-found-in-congenital-sucrase-isomaltase-deficiency-patients
#2
Birthe Gericke, Mahdi Amiri, C Ronald Scott, Hassan Y Naim
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is a genetic disorder associated with mutations in the sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene. The diagnosis of congenital diarrheal disorders like CSID is difficult due to unspecific symptoms and usually requires invasive biopsy sampling of the intestine. Sequencing of the SI gene and molecular analysis of the resulting potentially pathogenic SI protein variants may facilitate a diagnosis in the future. This study aimed to categorize SI mutations based on their functional consequences...
January 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058450/collagenous-sprue-cross-sectional-imaging-a-comparative-blinded-study
#3
Badr Al-Bawardy, Shannon P Sheedy, Michelle B Herberts, Joseph A Murray, Alberto Rubio-Tapia, Elizabeth Rajan, David H Bruining, Stephanie L Hansel, John M Barlow, Joel G Fletcher, Jeff L Fidler
PURPOSE: Collagenous sprue (CS) is a rare enteropathy characterized by villous atrophy and a thickened subepithelial collagen band. The aim of this study is to describe the cross-sectional imaging findings of CS. METHODS: A case-control, retrospective study with cases of all CS patients from January 2000 to 2015 was performed. Inclusion criteria were (1) Histopathologic diagnosis and (2) Imaging with computed tomography abdomen/pelvis (CT A/P), CT enterography (CTE), or magnetic resonance enterography within 6 months of small bowel (SB) biopsy...
January 5, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051892/what-is-the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-in-the-management-of-obesity
#4
E Panteliou, A D Miras
Diet, exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy are some of the means of assisting patients to lose weight, with bariatric surgery being the most effective. Over the last two decades, the increased awareness of the systemic benefits of bariatric surgery, as well as the improved safety and the wider use of the laparoscopic approach, has made bariatric surgery flourish. In the United Kingdom, the adjustable gastric band (10%), vertical sleeve gastrectomy (37%) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (45%) are the three most common procedures...
January 4, 2017: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050116/lipomatous-pseudohypertrophy-of-pancreas-with-coexisting-chronic-calcific-pancreatitis-leading-to-malabsorption-due-to-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency
#5
Devendra Nema, Sumeet Arora, Ashutosh Mishra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043932/changes-in-presentation-of-celiac-disease-in-ireland-from-the-1960s-to-2015
#6
P Dominguez Castro, G Harkin, M Hussey, B Christopher, C Kiat, J Liong Chin, V Trimble, D McNamara, P MacMathuna, B Egan, B Ryan, D Kevans, R Farrell, V Byrnes, N Mahmud, R McManus
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy characterized with high heterogeneity in presentation among genetically predisposed individuals. In recent years, a change in the phenotypic presentation of celiac disease has been reported. We studied clinical presentation, from 1960 through 2015, in Ireland, which has a high incidence of celiac disease. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical charts from patients diagnosed with celiac disease at 5 secondary referral centers in Ireland from 1960 through 2015 (n=749; median age, 56 years; age range 18-91 years)...
December 30, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038428/ghrelin-upregulates-pept1-activity-in-the-small-intestine-epithelium-of-rats-with-sepsis
#7
Jingquan Liu, Bin Shi, Kai Shi, Guoguang Ma, Hongze Zhang, Xiaoli Lou, Hongxiang Liu, Shengxia Wan, Dongyu Liang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis causes nutritional substrate malabsorption; hence, preventing gut barrier problems and improving the nutritional status in sepsis is a compelling issue. AIMS: We tested whether ghrelin administration affects peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) activity in the intestinal epithelium of rats with sepsis. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated, sepsis, and ghrelin-treated groups. The cecum of sham-operated rats was separated after laparotomy without ligation and perforation...
December 27, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027914/vitamin-d-and-intestinal-calcium-transport-after-bariatric-surgery
#8
REVIEW
Anne L Schafer
Bariatric surgery is a highly effective treatment for obesity, but it may have detrimental effects on the skeleton. Skeletal effects are multifactorial but mediated in part by nutrient malabsorption. While there is increasing interest in non-nutritional mechanisms such as changes in fat-derived and gut-derived hormones, nutritional factors are modifiable and thus represent potential opportunities to prevent and treat skeletal complications. This review begins with a discussion of normal intestinal calcium transport, including recent advances in our understanding of its regulation by vitamin D, and areas of continued uncertainty...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027072/spectrum-of-drug-induced-chronic-diarrhea
#9
Nissy A Philip, Nazir Ahmed, Capecomorin S Pitchumoni
The evaluation of a patient with chronic diarrhea can be quite frustrating, as it is expensive and involves multiple diagnostic studies. Moreover, identification of a drug as a cause of chronic diarrhea is a challenge in patients taking multiple medications. The disease may either be associated with intestinal mucosal changes, mimicking diseases such as celiac disease, or purely functional, with no histopathologic change. Drug-induced diarrhea may or may not be associated with malabsorption of nutrients, and a clinical improvement may occur within days of discontinuation of the drug, or may take longer when associated with mucosal injury...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011645/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analyses-reveal-profound-effects-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-16-as-a-metabolic-regulator
#10
Ingrid C Rulifson, Patrick Collins, Li Miao, Dana Nojima, Ki Jeong Lee, Miki Hardy, Jamila Gupte, Kelly Hensley, Kim Samayoa, Cynthia Cam, James B Rottman, Mike Ollmann, William G Richards, Yang Li
The discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a key regulator of energy expenditure has sparked interest in identifying novel soluble factors capable of activating inducible BAT (iBAT) to combat obesity. Using a high content cell-based screen, we identified Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 16 as a potent inducer of several physical and transcriptional characteristics analogous to those of both classical BAT and iBAT. Over-expression of Fgf16 in vivo recapitulated several of our in vitro findings, specifically significant induction of Ucp1 gene and UCP1 protein expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), a common site for emergent active iBAT...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008736/congenital-glucose-galactose-malabsorption-diagnosed-from-macrohematuria-in-an-infant
#11
Ryoko Yoshimura, Tohru Fujii, Amane Endo, Takahiro Kudo, Toshiaki Shimizu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002030/anti-hyperglycemic-activity-of-aegle-marmelos-l-corr-is-partly-mediated-by-increased-insulin-secretion-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibition-and-retardation-of-glucose-absorption
#12
Prawej Ansari, Nadia Afroz, Shahnaz Jalil, Sohel Bin Azad, Md Gazi Mustakim, Sabbir Anwar, S M Nazmul Haque, Saad Mosharraf Hossain, Ramisha Rifat Tony, J M A Hannan
BACKGROUND: Aegle marmelos (commonly known as Bael, golden apple) was formerly described to have anti-hyperglycemic activity. The present study aimed to explore the possible effects, in depth, of A. marmelos extracts on carbohydrate absorption, glucose utilization, and α-amylase inhibition and insulin content in pancreases of type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS: This research begins with fasting blood glucose and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to evaluate the primary anti-hyperglycemic effect in chemically induced type 2 diabetic rats...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000520/small-bowel-villous-atrophy-celiac-disease-and-beyond
#13
Luca Elli, Federica Branchi, Reena Sidhu, Stefano Guandalini, Asaad Assiri, Firas Rinawi, Raanan Shamir, Prasenjit Das, Govind K Makharia
Small bowel villous atrophy can represent a diagnostic challenge for gastroenterologists and pathologists. In Western countries small bowel atrophy and mild non-atrophic alterations are frequently caused by celiac disease. However, other pathology can mimic celiac disease microscopically, widening the differential diagnosis. The several novelties on this topic and the introduction of the device-assisted enteroscopy in the diagnostic flowchart make an update of the literature necessary. Areas covered: In this review, a description of the different clinical scenarios when facing with small bowel mucosal damage, particularly small bowel atrophy, is described...
December 29, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000451/the-nutriqol%C3%A2-questionnaire-for-assessing-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-in-patients-with-home-enteral-nutrition-hen-validation-and-first-results
#14
Antonio Apezetxea, Lourdes Carrillo, Felipe Casanueva, Cristina Cuerda, Federico Cuesta, José Antonio Irles, María Nuria Virgili, Miquel Layola, Luis Lizán
INTRODUCTION: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) provides a global view of the state of health of a patient receiving home enteral nutrition (HEN). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the HRQoL of patients receiving HEN using the NutriQoL® questionnaire, a specific instrument regardless of the underlying disease and route of administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational, prospective and multicentre study conducted in the context of the validation and assessment of the NutriQoL® questionnaire's psychometric properties...
November 29, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999021/development-of-operationalized-intravenous-to-oral-antibiotic-switch-criteria
#15
H Akhloufi, M Hulscher, D C Melles, J M Prins, H van der Sijs, A Verbon
OBJECTIVES: Despite huge overlap in suggested criteria for a safe intravenous (iv)-to-oral antibiotic switch, there is considerable variation in their operationalization. The objective of this study was to develop a set of measurable conditions that should be met in adult hospitalized patients for a safe iv-to-oral switch. METHODS: A RAND-modified Delphi procedure was performed to develop a set of operationalized iv-to-oral switch criteria. Switch criteria and their accompanying suggested measurable conditions were extracted from the literature and appraised by a multidisciplinary expert panel during two questionnaire rounds with a face-to-face meeting between these two rounds...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995414/na-h-exchanger-3-inhibitor-diminishes-hepcidin-enhanced-duodenal-calcium-transport-in-hemizygous-%C3%AE-globin-knockout-thalassemic-mice
#16
Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Kamonshanok Kraidith, Kornkamon Lertsuwan, Chanakarn Sripong, Panan Suntornsaratoon, Saovaros Svasti, Nateetip Krishnamra, Kannikar Wongdee
Recent investigation has shown that the liver-derived iron-regulating hormone, hepcidin, can potentiate intestinal calcium absorption in hemizygous β-globin knockout thalassemic (BKO) mice. Since the upregulation of Fe(2+) and H(+) cotransporter, divalent metal transporter (DMT)-1, has been shown to correlate with thalassemia-induced intestinal calcium absorption impairment, the inhibition of the apical Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)-3 that is essential for cytoplasmic pH regulation and transepithelial sodium absorption was hypothesized to negatively affect hepcidin action...
December 19, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977357/coeliac-disease
#17
Lynne Pearce
Essential facts [Figure: see text] Coeliac disease is a lifelong autoimmune condition where the body reacts to eating gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye and barley. This leads to chronic inflammation of the small intestine and can result in malabsorption of nutrients.
December 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27971306/unspecified-intestinal-malabsorption-associated-with-angiotensin-receptor-blocker-therapy-results-from-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-italy-and-germany
#18
C Ripellino, N Cataldo, C Scarpignato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943331/genomic-investigation-of-piglet-resilience-following-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-outbreaks
#19
F Bertolini, J C S Harding, B Mote, A Ladinig, G S Plastow, M F Rothschild
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) belongs to the Coronaviridae family and causes malabsorptive watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and imbalanced blood electrolytes in pigs. Since the 1970s, PED outbreaks have become a source of problems in pig producing countries all over the world, causing large economic losses for pig producers. Although the infection in adults is not fatal, in naïve suckling piglets mortality is close to 100%. In this study, we investigated genome-wide differences between dead and recovered suckling piglets from commercial farms after PED outbreaks...
December 12, 2016: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940670/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-growth-failure-stunting-in-global-child-health
#20
REVIEW
Victor Owino, Tahmeed Ahmed, Michael Freemark, Paul Kelly, Alexander Loy, Mark Manary, Cornelia Loechl
Approximately 25% of the world's children aged <5 years have stunted growth, which is associated with increased mortality, cognitive dysfunction, and loss of productivity. Reducing by 40% the number of stunted children is a global target for 2030. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Prenatal and postnatal nutritional deficits and enteric and systemic infections clearly contribute, but recent findings implicate a central role for environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a generalized disturbance of small intestinal structure and function found at a high prevalence in children living under unsanitary conditions...
December 2016: Pediatrics
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