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Malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539166/can-secondary-osteoporosis-be-identified-when-screening-for-osteoporosis-with-digital-x-ray-radiogrammetry-initial-results-from-the-stockholm-osteoporosis-project-stop
#1
Michael L Wilczek, Johan Kälvesten, Ingrid Bergström, Ylva Pernow, Maria Sääf, Bo Freyschuss, Torkel B Brismar
OBJECTIVES: To identify causes of low age-adjusted bone mass at digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in individuals attending an osteoporosis screening program. STUDY DESIGN: In a descriptive observational cohort study, women aged 40-75 years who attended a general mammography screening program had their bone mass investigated with DXR and answered a questionnaire regarding several clinical risk factors for osteoporosis. Each month the 2% with the lowest Z-scores were selected for further clinical examination with DXA of the hip and lumbar spine and pre-defined blood tests...
July 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532242/antioxidant-supplementation-a-linchpin-in-radiation-induced-enteritis
#2
Mumtaz Anwar, Shabeer Ahmad, Reyhan Akhtar, Akhtar Mahmood, Safrun Mahmood
Radiation enteritis is one of the most feared complications of abdominal and pelvic regions. Thus, radiation to abdominal or pelvic malignancies unavoidably injures the intestine. Because of rapid cell turnover, the intestine is highly sensitive to radiation injury, which is the limiting factor in the permissible dosage of irradiation. Bowel injuries such as fistulas, strictures, and chronic malabsorption are potentially life-threatening complications and have an impact on patient quality of life. The incidence of radiation enteritis is increasing because of the current trend of combined chemotherapy and radiation...
January 1, 2017: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521835/adult-autoimmune-enteropathy-presenting-initially-with-acquired-acrodermatitis-enteropathica-a-case-report
#3
Erina Lie, Sarah Sung, Steven Hoseong Yang
BACKGROUND: Acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) is a rare dermatitis secondary to zinc deficiency most commonly seen as an inherited disease in infants. In the last decade, increased number of reports have been published on the acquired form that presents in adulthood. Unlike its inherited counterpart, acquired AE (AAE) is often secondary to underlying pathologic or iatrogenic etiologies that interfere with nutritional absorption, such as inflammatory bowel disease or alcoholism. Various gastrointestinal pathologies have been associated with AAE, but there is currently no report on its association with adult autoimmune enteropathy (AIE), a rare gastrointestinal disorder commonly seen in infants, with limited cases reported in adults...
May 18, 2017: BMC Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520707/using-molecular-characterization-to-support-investigations-of-aquatic-facility-associated-outbreaks-of-cryptosporidiosis-alabama-arizona-and-ohio-2016
#4
Michele C Hlavsa, Dawn M Roellig, Matthew H Seabolt, Amy M Kahler, Jennifer L Murphy, Taishayla K McKitt, Evelyn F Geeter, Ron Dawsey, Sherri L Davidson, Thuy N Kim, Theresa H Tucker, Sally Ann Iverson, Brenna Garrett, Nicole Fowle, Jennifer Collins, Gregory Epperson, Scott Zusy, Joli R Weiss, Ken Komatsu, Edwin Rodriguez, J Gage Patterson, Rebecca Sunenshine, Brandi Taylor, Katie Cibulskas, Lynn Denny, Keoni Omura, Boris Tsorin, Kathleen E Fullerton, Lihua Xiao
Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, which can cause profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 2-3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening wasting and malabsorption in immunocompromised patients. Fecal-oral transmission of Cryptosporidium oocysts, the parasite's infectious life stage, occurs via ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or following contact with infected persons or animals, particularly preweaned bovine calves (1)...
May 19, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513629/post-infectious-ibs-tropical-sprue-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-the-missing-link
#5
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal, Kok-Ann Gwee
Evidence is emerging that IBS, a hitherto enigmatic disorder thought to be predominantly related to psychological factors, has a microorganic basis in a subset of patients with the disease. Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS), commonly of the diarrhoea-predominant subtype (defined as new development of IBS following acute infectious diarrhoea), is one such condition known to occur in up to 10-30% individuals after acute gastroenteritis. However, following acute infectious gastroenteritis, patients can also develop post-infectious malabsorption syndrome (PI-MAS), popularly known as tropical sprue...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511266/diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis-of-hydrocephalus-in%C3%A2-adults
#6
Sönke Langner, Steffen Fleck, Jörg Baldauf, Birger Mensel, Jens Peter Kühn, Michael Kirsch
Purpose Hydrocephalus is caused by an imbalance of production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or obstruction of its pathways, resulting in ventricular dilatation and increased intracranial pressure. Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and planning of treatment. Methods This review article presents the different types of hydrocephalus und their typical imaging appearance, describes imaging techniques, and discusses differential diagnoses of the different forms of hydrocephalus...
May 16, 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510794/long-term-trends-in-hematological-and-nutritional-status-after-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer
#7
Ji-Hyun Kim, You-Jin Bae, Kyong-Hwa Jun, Hyung-Min Chin
BACKGROUND: This study investigated long-term trends in hematological and nutritional parameters after gastrectomy for gastric cancer and evaluated the influence of the reconstruction type on these trends. METHODS: The medical records of 558 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy with standard lymph node dissection for stage I gastric cancer between January 2006 and December 2013 were reviewed. The hematological and nutritional parameters evaluated included hemoglobin, ferritin, vitamin B12, total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and calcium...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508559/two-weeks-of-repetitive-gut-challenge-reduces-exercise-associated-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-malabsorption
#8
Atlanta Miall, Anthony Khoo, Christopher Rauch, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Peter R Gibson, Ricardo J S Costa
Debilitating gastrointestinal symptoms are a common feature of endurance running, and may be exacerbated by and (or) limit the ability to tolerate carbohydrate intake during exercise. The study aimed to determine whether two weeks of repetitive gut-challenge during running can reduce exercise associated gastrointestinal symptoms and carbohydrate malabsorption. Endurance runners (n= 18) performed an initial gut-challenge trial (GC1) comprising 2 h running exercise at 60% VO2max (steady state) whilst consuming a formulated gel-disc containing 30 g carbohydrates (2:1 glucose-fructose, 10% w/v) every 20 min, followed by a 1 h running effort bout...
May 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506449/improved-growth-tolerance-and-intake-with-an-extensively-hydrolysed-peptide-feed-in-infants-with-complex-disease
#9
Chris Smith, Helen McCabe, Sarah Macdonald, Lara Morrison, Ruth Prigg, Sarah Trace, Jennifer Livingstone, Julia Callan, Jacqui Cotton, Gary Hubbard, Rebecca J Stratton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Infants with complex medical conditions often display faltering growth due to elevated nutritional requirements, poor intake and intolerance of feeding with malabsorption and maldigestion. As a result their nutritional management can be extremely challenging and enteral nutritional support is required. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness, tolerance and acceptability of nutritional support with a specially formulated, paediatric peptide feed in infants with complex disease and signs of growth faltering with their current nutritional management...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491051/hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-and-autoimmune-gastritis
#10
REVIEW
Miriam Cellini, Maria Giulia Santaguida, Camilla Virili, Silvia Capriello, Nunzia Brusca, Lucilla Gargano, Marco Centanni
The term "thyrogastric syndrome" defines the association between autoimmune thyroid disease and chronic autoimmune gastritis (CAG), and it was first described in the early 1960s. More recently, this association has been included in polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type IIIb, in which autoimmune thyroiditis represents the pivotal disorder. Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most frequent autoimmune disease, and it has been reported to be associated with gastric disorders in 10-40% of patients while about 40% of patients with autoimmune gastritis also present HT...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490481/vitamin-a-deficiency-due-to-chronic-malabsorption-an-ophthalmic-manifestation-of-a-systemic-condition
#11
James Cheshire, Sai Kolli
A 47-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of progressive loss of vision, first manifesting as night blindness. Additionally, the patient reported frequent severe episodes of diarrhoea over the past month. Her medical history included end-stage renal failure for which she was currently on haemodialysis after a failed renal transplant, chronic pancreatitis and autonomic diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmological examination revealed severe bilateral corneal xerosis, bilateral Bitot's spots and inferior ulceration of the right cornea...
May 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487600/dietary-compliance-in-celiac-disease
#12
EDITORIAL
Hugh James Freeman
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disorder that causes severe architectural disturbance in the small intestinal mucosa of genetically-predisposed individuals. Impaired absorption of multiple nutrients results and diarrhea and weight loss develop. Evidence has accumulated that a strict gluten-free diet can result in resolution of diarrhea, weight gain and normalization of nutrient malabsorption. In addition, histopathological changes also normalize, but this histopathological response appears to be time-dependent, sex-dependent and age-dependent...
April 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486222/biomarkers-to-stratify-risk-groups-among-children-with-malnutrition-in-resource-limited-settings-and-to-monitor-response-to-intervention
#13
Christine J McGrath, Michael B Arndt, Judd L Walson
Despite global efforts to reduce childhood undernutrition, current interventions have had little impact on stunting and wasting, and the mechanisms underlying growth faltering are poorly understood. There is a clear need to distinguish populations of children most likely to benefit from any given intervention and to develop tools to monitor response to therapy prior to the development of morbid sequelae. In resource-limited settings, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is common among children, contributing to malnutrition and increasing childhood morbidity and mortality risk...
May 9, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481229/parenteral-nutrition-and-intestinal-failure
#14
REVIEW
Barbara Bielawska, Johane P Allard
Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN...
May 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479494/gastric-mucosal-devitalization-reduces-adiposity-and-improves-lipid-and-glucose-metabolism-in-obese-rats
#15
Andreas Oberbach, Nadine Schlichting, Marco Heinrich, Yvonne Kullnick, Ulf Retschlag, Stefanie Lehman, Mouen A Khashab, Anthony N Kalloo, Vivek Kumbhari
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gastric mucosa is an endocrine organ that regulates satiation pathways by expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), excludes gastric mucosa and reduces gastric volume. Our study aims to investigate the independent effects of altering gastric mucosa on obesity and its related comorbidities. METHODS: Gastric mucosal devitalization (GMD) of 70% of the stomach was achieved by argon plasma coagulation in a high-fat diet (HFD) rat model and compared with VSG and sham (SH)...
May 4, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475629/purification-and-characterization-of-recombinant-human-bile-salt-stimulated-lipase-expressed-in-milk-of-transgenic-cloned-cows
#16
Yuhang Wang, Fangrong Ding, Tao Wang, Wenjie Liu, Susanne Lindquist, Olle Hernell, Jianwu Wang, Jing Li, Ling Li, Yaofeng Zhao, Yunping Dai, Ning Li
Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) is a lipolytic digestive enzyme with broad substrate specificity secreted from exocrine pancreas into the intestinal lumen in all species and from the lactating mammary gland into the milk of some species, notably humans but not cows. BSSL in breast milk facilitates digestion and absorption of milk fat and promotes growth of small for gestational age preterm infants. Thus, purified recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) can be used for treatment of patients with fat malabsorption and expressing rhBSSL in the milk of transgenic cloned cows would therefore be a mean to meet a medical need...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471913/increased-fat-absorption-from-enteral-formula-through-an-in-line-digestive-cartridge-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Steven Freedman, David Orenstein, Phillip Black, Perry Brown, Karen McCoy, John Stevens, Danica Grujic, Russell Clayton
OBJECTIVES: Supplemental enteral nutrition (EN) is used by approximately 12% of people with cystic fibrosis (CF). The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and fat absorption of a new in-line digestive cartridge (Relizorb) that hydrolyzes fat in enteral formula provided to patients with CF. METHODS: Patients with CF receiving EN participated in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover trial with an open-label safety evaluation period...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469580/microbiota-is-involved-in-post-resection-adaptation-in-humans-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#18
Laura Gillard, Camille Mayeur, Véronique Robert, Isabelle Pingenot, Johanne Le Beyec, André Bado, Patricia Lepage, Muriel Thomas, Francisca Joly
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by severe intestinal malabsorption following restrictive surgery. The objective of this study was to determine the functional contribution of SBS-microbiota after resection. It is well-known that SBS-microbiota displayed specific features with a prevalence of Lactobacillus, a low amount of some anaerobic microbes (Clostridium leptum) and an accumulation of fecal lactate in some patients. Patients with jejuno-colonic anastomosis were stratified according to the presence of lactate in their feces and, we observe that the lactate-producing bacteria were predominant in the sub-group of patients accumulating fecal lactate...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467941/metabolic-surgery-in-a-pill
#19
Alexander D Miras, Carel W le Roux
Bariatric surgery has evolved from a very effective treatment of weight to a treatment of "metabolism" and end-organ damage. Even though surgery was designed with the aim of causing mechanical restriction and calorie malabsorption, mechanistic work in humans and rodents over the last 10 years or so has informed us that this could not be further from the truth. Dietary, pharmacological, and medical device interventions for weight loss and metabolic control have also evolved rapidly only very recently. In this Crosstalk we discuss how close we are to harnessing the clinical efficacy of surgery through a metabolic "polypill...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465866/kidney-stones-after-bariatric-surgery-risk-assessment-and-mitigation
#20
REVIEW
Pedro Mario Espino-Grosso, Benjamin Kirk Canales
Obesity is rampant across the spectrum of age, gender, and race in the Unites States. Paralleling this epidemic, kidney stone prevalence is also rising, affecting nearly 1 in 11 individuals. Bariatric surgical procedures, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), are the most effective weight loss options for morbidly obese or severely obese individuals with comorbidities. A number of studies have linked kidney stone development to bariatric surgical history, particularly RYGB, which portends up to a threefold increase in calcium oxalate stone risk compared with age-matched, obese controls...
March 1, 2017: Bariatric Surgical Practice and Patient Care
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