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Malabsorption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230293/influence-of-complex-childhood-diseases-on-variation-in-growth-and-skeletal-development
#1
REVIEW
Babette S Zemel
The study of human growth and skeletal development by human biologists is framed by the larger theoretical concerns regarding the underpinnings of population variation and human evolution. This unique perspective is directly relevant to the assessment of child health and well-being at the individual and group level, as well as the construction of growth charts. Environmental, behavioral (nutrition and physical activity), and disease-related factors can prevent attainment of full genetic potential for growth...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228792/malabsorption-syndrome-as-a-rare-cause-of-nephrocalcinosis
#2
Rui Abreu, Cláudia Bento, Luís Oliveira, Teresa Morgado
Nephrocalcinosis is characterized by calcification of kidney parenchyma and can be caused by an increased amount of calcium, phosphate or oxalate in urinary excretion. We report a 35-year-old female with nephrocalcinosis. She had fitful steatorrhea since last year. Physical examination was normal. Analytic exams found normal renal function and ionogram. Primary hyperparathyroidism, renal tubular acidosis and sarcoidosis were excluded. Urinalysis showed mild hematuria, without proteinuria and 24-hour urine collection exhibited hyperoxaluria...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216964/intraepithelial-lymphocytes-scores-mimickers-and-challenges-in-diagnosing-gluten-sensitive-enteropathy-celiac-disease
#3
REVIEW
Consolato Sergi, Fan Shen, Gerd Bouma
The upper digestive tract is routinely scoped for several causes of malabsorption, and the number of duodenal biopsy specimens has increased notably in the last 10 years. Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE) is an autoimmune disease, which shows an increasing prevalence worldwide and requires a joint clinico-pathological approach. The classical histopathology of GSE with partial or total villous blunting is well recognized, but the classification of GSE is not straightforward. Moreover, several mimickers of GSE with intraepithelial lymphocytosis have been identified in the last 20 years, with drug interactions and medical comorbidities adding to the conundrum...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216963/micronutrient-deficiencies-in-patients-with-chronic-atrophic-autoimmune-gastritis-a-review
#4
EDITORIAL
Federica Cavalcoli, Alessandra Zilli, Dario Conte, Sara Massironi
Chronic atrophic autoimmune gastritis (CAAG) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by an immune response, which is directed towards the parietal cells and intrinsic factor of the gastric body and fundus and leads to hypochlorhydria, hypergastrinemia and inadequate production of the intrinsic factor. As a result, the stomach's secretion of essential substances, such as hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor, is reduced, leading to digestive impairments. The most common is vitamin B12 deficiency, which results in a megaloblastic anemia and iron malabsorption, leading to iron deficiency anemia...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212712/testing-for-chronic-diarrhea
#5
M Raman
Chronic diarrhea is a frequently encountered symptom in clinical practice. The etiologies for chronic diarrhea are diverse and broad with varying clinical implications. A useful method of categorizing chronic diarrhea to guide a diagnostic work-up is a pathophysiology-based framework. Chronic diarrhea may be categorized as malabsorptive, secretory, osmotic, and inflammatory or motility related. Frequently, overlap between categories may exist for any given diarrhea etiology and diagnostic testing must occur with an understanding of the differential diagnosis...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212351/black-box%C3%A2-gastrointestinal%C3%A2-tract-needs%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-prospects%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-gaining%C3%A2-insights%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fate%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-fat-%C3%A2-protein-%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-starch%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-exocrine%C3%A2-pancreatic%C3%A2-insufficiency%C3%A2-by%C3%A2-using%C3%A2-fistulated%C3%A2-pigs
#6
REVIEW
Anne Mößeler, Josef Kamphues
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) results in the maldigestion and malabsorption of nutrients. The digestive processes in humans and other monogastric species like rat and pig are characterized by a predominantly enzymatic digestion within the small intestine and microbial fermentation located in the hindgut. For protein, it is doctrine that only prececally absorbed amino acids can be transferred to the amino acid pool of the host, while postileal absorption of nitrogen-containing compounds occurs mainly in the form of ammonia, being a burden rather than a benefit for the organism...
February 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208612/enteric-pathogens-and-their-toxin-induced-disruption-of-the-intestinal-barrier-through-alteration-of-tight-junctions-in-chickens
#7
REVIEW
Wageha A Awad, Claudia Hess, Michael Hess
Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells...
February 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197149/treatment-of-infantile-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-autoimmunity-by-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-lps-responsive-beige-like-anchor-deficiency
#8
Shahrzad Bakhtiar, Laura Gámez-Díaz, Andrea Jarisch, Jan Soerensen, Bodo Grimbacher, Bernd Belohradsky, Klaus-Michael Keller, Christoph Rietschel, Thomas Klingebiel, Sibylle Koletzko, Michael H Albert, Peter Bader
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in young children can be a clinical manifestation of various primary immunodeficiency syndromes. Poor clinical outcome is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity from the complications of prolonged immunosuppressive treatment and malabsorption. In 2012, mutations in the lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) gene were identified as the cause of an autoimmunity and immunodeficiency syndrome. Since then, several LRBA-deficient patients have been reported with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations without reliable predictive prognostic markers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192499/vitamin-d-status-in-pediatric-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#9
Benjamin Udoka Nwosu, Louise Maranda, Ninfa Candela
IMPORTANCE: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear. AIM: To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183317/practical-guide-to-exocrine-pancreatic-insufficiency-breaking-the-myths
#10
EDITORIAL
Maarten R Struyvenberg, Camilia R Martin, Steven D Freedman
BACKGROUND: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is characterized by a deficiency of exocrine pancreatic enzymes, resulting in malabsorption. Numerous conditions account for the etiology of EPI, with the most common being diseases of the pancreatic parenchyma including chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and a history of extensive necrotizing acute pancreatitis. Treatment for EPI includes dietary management, lifestyle changes (i.e., decrease in alcohol consumption and smoking cessation), and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy...
February 10, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177715/gut-training-the-impact-of-two-weeks-repetitive-gut-challenge-during-exercise-on-gastrointestinal-status-glucose-availability-fuel-kinetics-and-running-performance
#11
Ricardo J S Costa, Atlanta Miall, Anthony Khoo, Christopher Rauch, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Peter Gibson
BACKGROUND: Due to gastrointestinal tract adaptability, the study aimed to determine the impact of two weeks gut-training protocol over two weeks on gastrointestinal status, blood glucose availability, fuel kinetics, and running performance. METHODS: Endurance runners (n= 25) performed a gut-challenge trial (GC1), comprising of 2 h running exercise at 60% VO2max whilst consuming gel-discs containing 30 g carbohydrates (2:1 glucose-fructose, 10% w/v) every 20 min, and a 1 h distance test...
January 19, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176790/architectural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-small-intestinal-mucosa-in-classical-whipple-s-disease
#12
H-J Epple, J Friebel, V Moos, H Troeger, S M Krug, K Allers, K Schinnerling, A Fromm, B Siegmund, M Fromm, J D Schulzke, T Schneider
Classical Whipple's disease (CWD) affects the gastrointestinal tract and rather elicits regulatory than inflammatory immune reactions. Mechanisms of malabsorption, diarrhea, and systemic immune activation are unknown. We here analyzed mucosal architecture, barrier function, and immune activation as potential diarrheal trigger in specimens from 52 CWD patients. Our data demonstrate villus atrophy and crypt hyperplasia associated with epithelial apoptosis and reduced alkaline phosphatase expression in the duodenum of CWD patients...
February 8, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167344/unexpected-widespread-hypophosphatemia-and-bone-disease-associated-with-elemental-formula-use-in-infants-and-children
#13
Luisa F Gonzalez Ballesteros, Nina S Ma, Rebecca J Gordon, Leanne Ward, Philippe Backeljauw, Halley Wasserman, David R Weber, Linda A DiMeglio, Julie Gagne, Robert Stein, Declan Cody, Kimber Simmons, Paul Zimakas, Lisa Swartz Topor, Sungeeta Agrawal, Andrew Calabria, Peter Tebben, Ruth Faircloth, Erik A Imel, Linda Casey, Thomas O Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: Hypophosphatemia occurs with inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased renal excretion, or shifts between intracellular and extracellular compartments. We noticed the common finding of amino-acid based elemental formula [EF] use in an unexpected number of cases of idiopathic hypophosphatemia occurring in infants and children evaluated for skeletal disease. We aimed to fully characterize the clinical profiles in these cases. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children with unexplained hypophosphatemia was performed as cases accumulated from various centres in North America and Ireland...
February 4, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161789/treatment-of-pancreatic-insufficiency-using-pancreatic-extract-in-patients-with-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-a-pilot-study-picnic
#14
Nicholas Zdenkowski, George Radvan, Leanna Pugliese, Julie Charlton, Christopher Oldmeadow, Allison Fraser, Antonino Bonaventura
PURPOSE: Survival with advanced pancreatic cancer is less than 12 months. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency may contribute to pancreatic cancer-related cachexia, via nutrient malabsorption. We aimed to determine the feasibility of prescribing pancreatic extract (Creon®) for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, without frank malabsorption, were randomised in this feasibility study to pancreatic extract 50,000 units with meals and 25,000 units with snacks, or placebo...
February 4, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157786/campylobacter-jejuni-and-associated-immune-mechanisms-short-term-effects-and-long-term-implications-for-infants-in-low-income-countries
#15
Amanda E Schnee, William A Petri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as one of the most common causes of food-borne gastrointestinal illness worldwide, resulting in a self-limiting dysentery in developed countries. However, it is increasingly gaining attention due to its association with postinfectious complications such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome and recently recognized importance in early childhood diarrhea in developing countries. We hypothesize that the inflammation mediated by C. jejuni infection causes environmental enteric dysfunction, and with contribution from diet and the host, microbiome may be responsible for growth faltering in children and developmental disability...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156624/a-study-of-discrepancy-between-laboratory-calculated-and-weight-based-glomerular-filtration-rate-gfr-as-a-marker-of-renal-function-in-a-palliative-care-population
#16
Miriam Colleran
: 58 Background: Renal function is important in a palliative care population and can impact on frequently-used medications including chemotherapeutic agents, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and neuropathic agents. In local practice, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated on a presumed weight of 70kg, is displayed in laboratory results. However, the weight of palliative patients varies considerably, for example, due to cancer cachexia or malabsorption and a considerable population weigh less than 70kg...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155174/undertreated-hypothyroidism-due-to-calcium-or-iron-supplementation-corrected-by-oral-liquid-levothyroxine
#17
Salvatore Benvenga, Flavia Di Bari, Roberto Vita
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether oral liquid levothyroxine would correct tablet levothyroxine malabsorption induced by calcium or iron, two sequestrants of levothyroxine. METHODS: Nineteen adult hypothyroid patients with tablet levothyroxine malabsorption caused by calcium and/or iron supplements were switched from tablet to liquid levothyroxine at the same dose. Primary outcomes were: (1) significantly lower mean serum thyroid-stimulating hormone with the liquid compared with the tablet formulation, and (2) significantly greater rate of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone less than or equal to 4...
February 3, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154909/beyond-moulage-sign-and-ttg-levels-the-role-of-cross-sectional-imaging-in-celiac-sprue
#18
Shannon P Sheedy, John M Barlow, Joel G Fletcher, Thomas C Smyrk, Francis J Scholz, Don C Codipilly, Badr F Al Bawardy, Jeff L Fidler
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and destruction in the small intestine of genetically susceptible individuals following ingestion of gluten. Awareness of the disease has increased; however, it remains a challenge to diagnose. This review summarizes the intestinal and extraintestinal cross-sectional imaging findings of celiac disease. Small intestine fold abnormalities are the most specific imaging findings for celiac disease, whereas most other imaging findings reflect a more generalized pattern seen with malabsorptive processes...
February 2, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152538/two-cases-of-mistaken-polyuria-and-nephrocalcinosis-in-infants-with-glucose-galactose-malabsorption-a-possible-role-of-1-25-oh-2d3%C3%A2
#19
Melissa Fiscaletti, Marie-Jeanne Lebel, Nathalie Alos, Geneviève Benoit, Prévost Jantchou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glucose-galactose malabsorption (GGM) is a rare and potentially fatal disorder. The autosomal recessive mutation of the SGLT1 gene interferes with the active glucose transport in the gut resulting in osmotic diarrhea and failure to thrive (FTT). Two nonrelated infants with GGM are presented as well as a novel mutation in SGLT1. CASE PRESENTATION: The first case consulted for FTT and presented with hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. His mother had self-medicated with high doses of vitamin D...
February 2, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151692/oral-liquid-levothyroxine-solves-the-problem-of-tablet-levothyroxine-malabsorption-due-to-concomitant-intake-of-multiple-drugs
#20
Roberto Vita, Flavia Di Bari, Salvatore Benvenga
BACKGROUND: Unlike its tablet (TAB) formulation, liquid L-T4 (LIQ) is directly absorbed in the intestine. The aim of this study was to assess whether LIQ was superior to TAB, such that it would overcome the interference induced by co-ingestion of multiple interfering drugs (ID). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we recruited 11 patients with apparent reduced TAB absorption due to ≥2 ID, and switched them to LIQ while maintaining the daily dose and the co-ingestion of the ID...
February 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
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