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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345253/3-acetyl-oleanolic-acid-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-high-fat-diet-treated-rats-by-activating-ampk-related-pathways
#1
Qiong Ou-Yang, Chun-Xiao Xuan, Xue Wang, Han-Qiong Luo, Jin-E Liu, Lan-Lan Wang, Ting-Ting Li, Yu-Peng Chen, Jun Liu
3-Acetyl-oleanolic acid (3Ac-OA) is a derivative of oleanolic acid (OA), which has shown therapeutic beneficial effects on diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated whether 3Ac-OA exerted beneficial effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats and its potential underlying mechanisms. Treatment with 3Ac-OA (1-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the intracellular levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) in FFA-treated primary rat hepatocytes and human HepG2 cell lines in vitro...
January 18, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339110/in-vitro-anti-diabetic-effect-of-flavonoids-and-pheophytins-from-allophylus-cominia-sw-on-the-glucose-uptake-assays-by-hepg2-l6-3t3-l1-and-fat-accumulation-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#2
D G Semaan, J O Igoli, L Young, A I Gray, E G Rowan, E Marrero
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Based on ethno-botanical information collected from diabetic patients in Cuba and firstly reported inhibition of PTP1B and DPPIV enzymes activities, Allophylus cominia (A. cominia) was identified as possible source of new drugs that could be used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: in this study, the activity of the characterised extracts from A. cominia was tested on the glucose uptake using HepG2 and L6 cells, 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes as well as their effect on the fat accumulation using 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310812/pgbr-extract-ameliorates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hepatocytes
#3
Fu-Chih Chen, Kuo-Ping Shen, Jin-Bor Chen, Hui-Li Lin, Chi-Long Hao, Hsueh-Wei Yen, Shyh-Yu Shaw
Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) could ameliorate metabolic syndrome, however, not much research estimates the effect of PGBR extract on insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of PGBR extract in TNF-α induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells, hepatocytes, were cultured in DMEM medium and added with 5 μM insulin or with insulin and 30 ng/ml TNF-α or with insulin, TNF-α and PGBR extract (50, 100, 300 μg/ml). The glucose levels of the medium were decreased by insulin, demonstrating insulin promoted glucose uptake into cell...
January 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306057/the-effects-of-omega-3-and-vitamin-e-co-supplementation-on-parameters-of-mental-health-and-gene-expression-related-to-insulin-and-inflammation-in-subjects-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#4
Mehri Jamilian, Azadeh Shojaei, Mansooreh Samimi, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Esmat Aghadavod, Maryam Karamali, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Hamidreza Jamilian, Somayeh Alaeinasab, Sadegh Jafarnejad, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Forty PCOS women were allocated into two groups and treated with 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 12 weeks. Parameters of mental health were recorded at baseline and after the 12-week intervention...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300939/cgmp-pkg-i-pathway-mediated-glut1-4-regulation-by-no-nitric-oxide-in-female-rat-granulosa-cells
#5
Ye Tian, Dai Heng, Kaili Xu, Wenbo Liu, Xuechun Weng, Xusong Hu, Cheng Zhang
Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional gaseous molecule that plays important roles in mammalian reproductive functions including follicular growth and development. Although our previous study showed that NO mediated 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced granulosa cell development via upregulation of GLUT1 (glucose transporter protein ) and GLUT4 in granulosa cells, little is known about the precise mechanisms regulating ovarian development via glucose. The objective of the present study was to determine the cellular and molecular mechanism by which NO regulates GLUT expression and glucose uptake in granulosa cells...
December 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298131/a-systematic-review-of-p53-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-in-skeletal-muscle
#6
Kaitlyn Beyfuss, David A Hood
BACKGROUND: p53 is a tumor suppressor protein involved in regulating a wide array of signaling pathways. The role of p53 in the cell is determined by the type of imposed oxidative stress, its intensity and duration. The last decade of research has unravelled a dual nature in the function of p53 in mediating the oxidative stress burden. However, this is dependent on the specific properties of the applied stress and thus requires further analysis. METHODS: A systematic review was performed following an electronic search of Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases...
January 3, 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290263/abundant-tumor-promoting-stromal-cells-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-with-hypoxic-regions
#7
Hiroshi Nakamura, Tomohiro Ichikawa, Shoko Nakasone, Tomohiro Miyoshi, Masato Sugano, Motohiro Kojima, Satoshi Fujii, Atsushi Ochiai, Takeshi Kuwata, Keiju Aokage, Kenji Suzuki, Masahiro Tsuboi, Genichiro Ishii
OBJECTIVES: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a marker of hypoxia and its expression by cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) was reportedly associated with the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to characterize the hypoxic microenvironment containing CAIX (+) CAFs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we evaluated the clinicopathological significance of CAIX expression by CAFs in 3cm and above lung adenocarcinoma (n=188). We then compared the expressions of E-cadherin, ezrin, ALDH-1, CD44, EGFR, HSF-1, Glut-1, and PD-L1 in cancer cells, as well as those of CD204 and podoplanin in stromal cells between CAIX (+) CAFs and CAIX (-) CAFs cases (n=25, each)...
January 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284375/one-week-exposure-to-a-free-choice-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-does-not-disrupt-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-fed-or-overnight-fasted-rats
#8
M Rijnsburger, U A Unmehopa, L Eggels, M J Serlie, S E la Fleur
OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamus lies adjacent to the third ventricle and is in close proximity with the median eminence (ME), a circumventricular organ with an incomplete blood-brain barrier (BBB) which controls direct entry of nutrients into the brain. The blood-CSF barrier of the hypothalamus shows dynamic changes upon neuroendocrine events and adjusts permeability with the tight junction (TJ) complex. It has been shown that chronic exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) affects BBB permeability...
December 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218514/crystallization-and-structural-determination-of-the-human-glucose-transporters-glut1-and-glut3
#9
Dong Deng, Nieng Yan
Overexpression, purification, and crystallization of eukaryotic membrane proteins represent a major challenge for structural biology. In recent years, we have solved the crystal structures of the human glucose transporters GLUT1 in the inward-open conformation at 3.17 Å resolution and GLUT3 in the outward-open and occluded conformations at 2.4 and 1.5 Å resolutions, respectively. Structural elucidation of these transporters in three distinct functional states reveal the molecular basis for the alternating access transport cycle of this prototypal solute carrier family...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205863/-epicatechin-and-the-colonic-2-3-dihydroxybenzoic-acid-metabolite-regulate-glucose-uptake-glucose-production-and-improve-insulin-signalling-in-renal-nrk-52e-cells
#10
David Álvarez Cilleros, María Ángeles Martín, Sonia Ramos
SCOPE: (-)-Epicatechin (EC) and main colonic phenolic acids derived from flavonoid intake, such as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DHPAA), 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (HPPA), and vanillic acid (VA), have been suggested to exert beneficial effects in diabetes, although the mechanism for their actions remains unknown. In this study, the modulation of glucose homeostasis and insulin signalling by the mentioned compounds on renal proximal tubular NRK-52E cells was investigated...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202114/dihydrosanguinarine-enhances-glucose-uptake-in-mouse-3t3-l1-cells
#11
Yit-Lai Chow, Yuko Iwata, Fumihiko Sato
Recently, more studies have aimed at identifying selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) modulators that transactivate the expression of PPARγ-dependent genes as partial agonists to improve diabetic symptoms with fewer side effects compared to classic PPARγ agonists such as thiazolidinediones. We found that dihydrosanguinarine (DHS) treatment induced preadipocyte differentiation and lipid droplet accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, but this effect is weaker than that elicited by the full PPARγ agonist troglitazone...
October 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201096/antihyperglycemic-effect-of-rosa-damascena-is-mediated-by-ppar-%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-animal-model-of-insulin-resistance
#12
Abbas Mohammadi, Hossein Fallah, Ahmad Gholamhosseinian
Insulin resistance is a condition in which insulin signaling and action are impaired in insulin sensitive tissues and result in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our previous studies have shown that Rosa damascena has antihyperglycemic effects on diabetic and normal rats. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the effect of this medicinal plant on insulin sensitivity in rats. This study was performed on high fructose diet insulin resistant rats and pioglitazone, an insulin sensitizing drug, was used as a positive control...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183784/osteocalcin-improves-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-obese-mice-participation-of-white-adipose-tissue-and-bone
#13
J A C Guedes, J V Esteves, M R Morais, T M Zorn, D T Furuya
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The discovery of osteocalcin, a protein synthetized by osteoblasts, as a hormone that has positive effects on insulin resistance, contributed to support the concept of bone as an endocrine organ. However, very little is known about the molecular pathways involved in osteocalcin improved-insulin resistance. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of action of osteocalcin on insulin resistance and inflammation in obese mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lean control, saline-treated obese and uncarboxylated osteocalcin (uOC)-treated obese mice were subjected to insulin tolerance test in vivo...
November 26, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171775/acute-high-fat-feeding-leads-to-disruptions-in-glucose-homeostasis-and-worsens-stroke-outcome
#14
Michael J Haley, Siddharth Krishnan, David Burrows, Leon de Hoog, Jamie Thakrar, Ingo Schiessl, Stuart M Allan, Catherine B Lawrence
Chronic consumption of diets high in fat leads to obesity and can negatively affect brain function. Rodents made obese by long-term maintenance on a high-fat diet have worse outcome after experimental stroke. High-fat consumption for only three days does not induce obesity but has rapid effects on the brain including memory impairment. However, the effect of brief periods of high-fat feeding or high-fat consumption in the absence of obesity on stroke is unknown. We therefore tested the effect of an acute period of high-fat feeding (three days) in C57B/6 mice on outcome after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144823/the-relationship-of-braf-v600e-mutation-status-to-fdg-pet-ct-avidity-in-thyroid-cancer-a-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Prasanna Santhanam, Rodhan Khthir, Lilja B Solnes, Paul W Ladenson
OBJECTIVES: Papillary thyroid cancers harboring BRAF (V600E) gene mutation have been shown to exhibit aggressive tumor behaviors and higher risks of recurrence and disease-specific death. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we examine and report published evidence related to the accuracy of FDG-PET-CT in detection of residual disease in patients' with BRAF (V600E) mutated thyroid cancer. METHODS: We extracted data from PUBMED/MEDLINE and EMBASE from January, 1995 to March, 2017...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142405/antihyperglycemic-activity-of-caralluma-fimbriata-an-in-vitro-approach
#16
Shenai Ashwini, Roy Anitha
Background: An increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus necessitates the need to develop new drugs for its effective management. Plants and their bioactive compounds are found to be an alternative therapeutic approach. Caralluma fimbriata, used in this study, is well known for its various biological effects. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic leaf extract of C. fimbriata. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations (1-1000 mg/mL) of the ethanolic leaf extract of C...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142019/molecular-imaging-of-glut1-and-glut5-in-breast-cancer-a-multitracer-pet-imaging-study-in-mice
#17
Melinda Wuest, Ingrit Hamann, Vincent Bouvet, Darryl Glubrecht, Alison Marshall, Brendan Trayner, Olivier Soueidan, Daniel Krys, Michael Wagner, Chris Cheeseman, Frederick West, Frank Wuest
Use of [18F]FDG-PET in clinical breast cancer (BC) imaging is limited mainly due to insufficient expression levels of GLUT1 in up to 50% of all patients. Fructose-specific facilitative hexose transporter GLUT5 represents an alternative biomarker for PET imaging of hexose metabolism in BC. The goal of the present study was to compare uptake characteristics of selected hexose-based PET radiotracers in murine BC model EMT6. Uptake of 1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-D-fructose (1-[18F]FDF), 6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-fructose (6-[18F]FDF), 1-deoxy-1-[18F]fluoro-2,5-anhydro-mannitol (1-[18F]FDAM), 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (2-[18F]FDG) and 6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (6-[18F]FDG) was studied in EMT6 cells, tumors and muscle and correlated to GLUT1 and GLUT5 expression levels...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120354/trans-plasma-membrane-electron-transport-and-ascorbate-efflux-by-skeletal-muscle
#18
Amanda M Eccardt, Thomas P Bell, Lyn Mattathil, Rohan Prasad, Shannon C Kelly, Jonathan S Fisher
Trans-plasma membrane electron transport (tPMET) and the antioxidant roles of ascorbate reportedly play a role in protection of cells from damage by reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in causing metabolic dysfunction such as insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle comprises the largest whole-body organ fraction suggesting a potential role of tPMET and ascorbate export as a major source of extracellular antioxidant. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle is capable of tPMET and ascorbate efflux. To measure these processes, we assayed the ability of cultured muscle cells, satellite cells, and isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) to reduce two extracellular electron acceptors, water soluble tetrazolium salt 1 (WST-1), and dichlorophenolindophenol (DPIP)...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119942/18f-faza-pet-ct-in-the-preoperative-evaluation-of-nsclc-comparison-with-18f-fdg-and-immunohistochemistry
#19
Paola Mapelli, Valentino Bettinardi, Federico Fallanca, Elena Incerti, Antonia Compierchio, Francesca Rossetti, Angela Coliva, Annarita Savi, Claudio Doglioni, Giampiero Negri, Luigi Gianolli, Maria Picchio
PURPOSE: To assess the capability of 18F-FAZA PET/CT in identifying intratumoral hypoxic areas in early and locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to compare 18F-FAZA PET/CT with 18F-FDG PET/CT and histopathological biomarkers and to investigate whether the assessment of tumour to blood (T/B) and tumour to muscle (T/M) ratios provides comparable information regarding the hypoxic fractions of the tumour. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with NSCLC were prospectively enrolled (3 men, 4 women; median age: 71 years; range 63-80)...
November 8, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111280/akt-activation-a-potential-strategy-to-ameliorate-insulin-resistance
#20
REVIEW
Zhengyi Zhang, Huadong Liu, Jiankang Liu
Insulin resistance is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes and obesity while the mechanism remains unclear. Current therapy to treat type 2 diabetes is metformin, the 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, owing to the ability to augment peripheral glucose uptake. However, metformin also displays limitations, as AMPK activation remains intact and regular in most type 2 diabetes and metformin does not seem to facilitate peripheral insulin resistance. Evidence has shown that PI3K-Akt/PKB pathway could be induced via insulin and act as an important effector...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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