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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098405/shielding-engineered-islets-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhance-survival-under-hypoxia
#1
Bhawna Chandravanshi, Ramesh Ramchandra Bhonde
In the present study we focused on the improvisation of islet survival in hypoxia.The Islet like cell aggregates (ICAs) derived from wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ MSC) were cultured with and without WJ MSC for 48h in hypoxia and normoxia and tested for their direct trophic effect on β cell survival. The WJ MSCs themselves secreted insulin upon glucose challenge and expressed the pancreatic markers at both transcription and translational level (C-peptide, Insulin,Glucagon and Glut 2). Direct contact of MSCs with ICAs facilitated highest viability under hypoxia as evidenced by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068944/the-acceleration-of-glucose-accumulation-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-assessed-by-fdg-pet-ct-demonstrated-acquisition-of-resistance-to-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-therapy
#2
Noboru Nakaigawa, Keiichi Kondo, Daiki Ueno, Kazuhiro Namura, Kazuhide Makiyama, Kazuki Kobayashi, Koichi Shioi, Ichiro Ikeda, Takeshi Kishida, Tomohiro Kaneta, Ryogo Minamimoto, Ukihide Tateishi, Tomio Inoue, Masahiro Yao
BACKGROUND: Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting angiogenesis improves the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but its effect is temporary. In order to understand the mechanism by which RCC acquires resistance to TKI, we investigated the change of glucose accumulation in RCC by FDG PET/CT when they demonstrated progression disease (PD) against TKI. METHODS: We monitored the FDG accumulation in RCC of 38 patients treated with TKI by 162 PET/CT sequentially until they were judged to demonstrate PD...
January 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065232/establishment-of-an-alloxan-induced-diabetes-model-in-daphnia-pulex
#3
An-Min Hu, Tao Zhu, Ye Jiang, Li Dong, Hong Gao, Gui-Zhi DU
Objective To establish a Daphnia model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Methods Daphnia were exposed to three different concentrations of alloxan (3, 5, and 10 mmol/L) for 30 minutes. Blood glucose and survival rate were recorded for 72 hours after alloxan insult. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic inference for glucose transporters (GLUT) were clustered with the maximum-likelihood method. Using reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques, we investigated the transcriptional changes of GLUT at 12 hours after alloxan (5 mmol/L) exposure...
December 20, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052033/glut-1-overexpression-as-an-unfavorable-prognostic-biomarker-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#4
Jing Yang, Jing Wen, Tian Tian, Zhongsheng Lu, Yao Wang, Zikai Wang, Xiangdong Wang, Yunsheng Yang
BACKGROUND: Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) exhibits altered expression in colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to explore the association between GLUT-1 and survival conditions, as well as clinical features in CRC by meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant studies were searched through predefined strategies, hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as effective measures. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies with 2,077 patients were included in this meta-analysis...
December 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034722/specific-regions-of-the-brain-are-capable-of-fructose-metabolism
#5
Sarah A Oppelt, Wanming Zhang, Dean R Tolan
High fructose consumption in the Western diet correlates with disease states such as obesity and metabolic syndrome complications, including type II diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and non-alcoholic fatty acid liver disease. Liver and kidneys are responsible for metabolism of 40-60% of ingested fructose, while the physiological fate of the remaining fructose remains poorly understood. The primary metabolic pathway for fructose includes the fructose-transporting solute-like carrier transport proteins 2a (SLC2a or GLUT), including GLUT5 and GLUT9, ketohexokinase (KHK), and aldolase...
December 26, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922941/exercise-training-ameliorates-glucosamine-induced-insulin-resistance-in-ovariectomized-rats
#6
Chung-Hwan Chen, Tsang-Hai Huang, Tsung-Lin Cheng, Chi-Fen Chang, Chau-Zen Wang, Meng-Hsing Wu, Lin Kang
OBJECTIVE: Glucosamine (GlcN), which has been reported to induce insulin resistance (IR), is a popular nutritional supplement used to treat osteoarthritis in menopausal women. We previously demonstrated that GlcN treatment caused IR in ovariectomized rats by reducing the expression of glucose transport protein subtype 4 (GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we hypothesized that endurance exercise training can reverse GlcN-induced IR. METHODS: Fifty female rats were randomly divided into five groups with 10 rats in each group: (1) sham-operated group; (2) sham-operated group with GlcN treatment for 14 days; (3) ovariectomy (OVX) group; (4) OVX with GlcN treatment; and (5) OVX with GlcN treatment followed by exercise training (running program) for 8 weeks...
December 5, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878249/ets-1-a-potential-target-of-glycolysis-for-metabolic-therapy-by-regulating-glucose-metabolism-in-pancreatic-cancer
#7
Xiu Zhang, Dan Wu, Mohanad Aldarouish, Xiaodong Yin, Chunyan Li, Cailian Wang
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies of all types of cancer due to lack of early symptoms and its resistance to conventional therapy. In our previous study, we have shown that v‑ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog‑1 (ETS‑1) promote cell migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cells. However, the function of ETS‑1 in regulation of glycolysis and autophagy during progression of pancreatic cancer has not been defined yet. In this study, we sought to identify the potential role for silencing ETS‑1 in reducing the expression of glucose transporter‑1 (GLUT‑1) to disturb glycolysis through alteration of 'Warburg effect', by which could result in AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, autophagy induction and reduction of cell viability...
January 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828852/prognostic-value-of-glut-1-expression-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-prisma-compliant-meta-analysis
#8
Chen-Xi Li, Jia-Lin Sun, Zhong-Cheng Gong, Zhao-Quan Lin, Hui Liu
BACKGROUND: A variety of studies have evaluated the correlation between glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); however, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic significance of GLUT-1 in OSCC. METHODS: Electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. The last search was updated on July 2016. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the relationship between GLUT-1 and clinical features and hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were combined to measure the effect of GLUT-1 on overall survival (OS)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816720/multivacuolated-mucin-filled-cells-a-unique-cell-characteristic-of-plexiform-neurofibroma-a-report-of-11-cases
#9
Michael Michal, Dmitry V Kazakov, Ladislav Hadravský, Květoslava Michalová, Boris Rychlý, Michal Michal
The authors present 11 cases of plexiform neurofibroma (PN) that featured a very characteristic type of cell appearing as multivacuolated mucin-filled cells (MMFC). The 11 cases were obtained after reviewing 109 cases of PN. Six out of 10 patients showed clinical features of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The size of PN ranged from 0.8 cm to 11.5 cm in the largest dimension. The lesions represented classical PN in all cases with myxoid, hypocellular stroma. The MMFC were found within the most myxoid tumorous nodules and were haphazardly located, typically featuring a variably sized, multivacuolated cytoplasm divided by a fine septa with a small polygonal nucleus on one side, which was often compressed or slightly indented by the cytoplasmic mucous substances...
November 2, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771652/fanconi-bickel-syndrome-with-hypercalciuria-due-to-glut-2-mutation
#10
Ruchi Shah, Sudha Rao, Ruchi Parikh, Tahir Sophia, Hussain Khalid
BACKGROUND: Fanconi Bickel Syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive, disorder of carbohydrate metabolism. Presence of hypercalciuria is rare. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: 4.5-years-old boy presented with growth failure, hepatomegaly, rickets, fasting hypoglycemia with postprandial hyperglycemia, fanconi syndrome and hypercalciuria. OUTCOME: A rare mutation in GLUT-2 gene suggestive of Fanconi Bickel Syndrome. MESSAGE: Fanconi Bickel Syndrome may present with hypercalciuria with proximal renal tubulopathy along with fasting hypoglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia...
September 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753987/sy-10-1-renal-glucose-handling-and-sglt2
#11
Resham Poudel
The kidneys maintain glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption. Glucose is freely filtered and reabsorbed in order to retain energy essential between meals. The amount of glucose reabsorbed by the kidneys is equivalent to the amount entering the filtration system. With a daily glomerular filtration rate of 180 L, approximately 180 g (180 L/day × 100 mg/dL) of glucose must be reabsorbed each day to maintain an average fasting plasma glucose concentration of 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27735783/abundance-in-proteins-expressed-after-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-or-arm-cycling-ergometry-training-in-persons-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Ashraf S Gorgey, Zachary A Graham, William A Bauman, Christopher Cardozo, David R Gater
STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal design. OBJECTIVES: The study determined the effects of two forms of exercise training on the abundance of two proteins, (glucose transporter-4 [GLUT-4], adenosine monophosphate kinase [AMPK]) involved in glucose utilization and the transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) coactivator 1 alpha [PGC-1α]), in muscles in men with chronic motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725859/a-mixture-of-apple-pomace-and-rosemary-extract-improves-fructose-consumption-induced-insulin-resistance-in-rats-modulation-of-sarcolemmal-cd36-and-glucose-transporter-4
#13
Peng Ma, Ling Yao, Xuemei Lin, Tieguang Gu, Xianglu Rong, Robert Batey, Johji Yamahara, Jianwei Wang, Yuhao Li
Apple pomace is a by-product of the processing of apple for juice, cider or wine preparation. Rosemary is a herb commonly used as spice and flavoring agent in food processing. Evidence suggests that both apple pomace and rosemary have rich bioactive molecules with numerous metabolic effects. To provide more information for using apple pomace and rosemary as functional foods for management of metabolism-associated disorders, the present study investigated the insulin-sensitizing effect of a mixture of apple pomace and rosemary extract (AR)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679426/is-the-canine-corpus-luteum-an-insulin-sensitive-tissue
#14
Liza Margareth Sousa, Renata Silva, Vanessa Fonseca, Rafael Leandro, Thiago Di Vincenzo, Ana Bárbara Alves-Wagner, Ubiratan Fabres Machado, Paula Papa
This study aimed to determine in the canine corpus luteum throughout the diestrus: 1) the influence of insulin on glucose utilization; 2) the regulation of genes potentially involved; and 3) the influence of hypoxia on glucose transporter expression and steroidogenesis, after treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Glucose uptake by luteal cells increased 2.7 folds (P<0.05) in response to insulin; a phenomenon related to increased expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642898/sy-10-1-renal-glucose-handling-and-sglt2
#15
Resham Poudel
The kidneys maintain glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption. Glucose is freely filtered and reabsorbed in order to retain energy essential between meals. The amount of glucose reabsorbed by the kidneys is equivalent to the amount entering the filtration system. With a daily glomerular filtration rate of 180 L, approximately 180 g (180 L/day × 100 mg/dL) of glucose must be reabsorbed each day to maintain an average fasting plasma glucose concentration of 5.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595398/expression-of-jak3-sensitive-na-coupled-glucose-carrier-sglt1-in-activated-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes
#16
Shefalee K Bhavsar, Yogesh Singh, Piyush Sharma, Vishal Khairnar, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Shaqiu Zhang, Monica Palmada, Ivan Sabolic, Hermann Koepsell, Karl S Lang, Philipp A Lang, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND: Similar to tumor cells, activated T-lymphocytes generate ATP mainly by glycolytic degradation of glucose. Lymphocyte glucose uptake involves non-concentrative glucose carriers of the GLUT family. In contrast to GLUT isoforms, Na+-coupled glucose-carrier SGLT1 accumulates glucose against glucose gradients and is effective at low extracellular glucose concentrations. The present study explored expression and regulation of SGLT1 in activated murine splenic cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and human Jurkat T cells...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27587462/hydroquinone-strongly-alleviates-focal-ischemic-brain-injury-via-blockage-of-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-rats
#17
Joon Ha Park, Ki-Yeon Yoo, In Hye Kim, Jeong-Hwi Cho, Jae-Chul Lee, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Hyun Jin Tae, Bing Chun Yan, Dae Won Kim, Ok Kyu Park, Seung-Hae Kwon, Song Her, Jin Su Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Jae Youl Cho, Jun Hwi Cho, Young-Guen Kwon, Sungwoo Ryoo, Young-Myeong Kim, Moo-Ho Won, Il Jun Kang
Hydroquinone (HQ), a major benzene metabolite, occurs naturally in various plants and is manufactured for commercial use. Although HQ displays various biological effects, its neuroprotective effects following ischemic insults have not been investigated. In this study, we first examined neuroprotective effects of HQ in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Animals were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 120 min. HQ (50 or 100 mg/kg) or vehicle was intraperitoneally administered once at 30 min after ischemia-reperfusion...
December 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563223/new-abietane-diterpenes-from-euphorbia-pseudocactus-berger-euphorbiaceae-and-their-antimicrobial-activity
#18
Azza Ramy Abdel-Monem, Enas Hussein Abdelrahman
BACKGROUND: Euphorbia is the largest genus in Euphorbiaceae. Terpenoids were isolated from most species of this genus. OBJECTIVE: Since no previous study was reported about Euphorbia pseudocactus Berger, we started here a phytochemical investigation on this species to isolate and identify its terpenoid constituents and to estimate the antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The n-hexane fraction of the ethanolic extract of E...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544473/amenable-treatable-severe-pediatric-epilepsies
#19
Phillip L Pearl
Vitamin-dependent epilepsies and multiple metabolic epilepsies are amenable to treatment that markedly improves the disease course. Knowledge of these amenably treatable severe pediatric epilepsies allows for early identification, testing, and treatment. These disorders present with various phenotypes, including early onset epileptic encephalopathy (refractory neonatal seizures, early myoclonic encephalopathy, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), infantile spasms, or mixed generalized seizure types in infancy, childhood, or even adolescence and adulthood...
May 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508153/the-effect-of-exercise-training-combined-with-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-on-skeletal-muscle-glucose-uptake-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-induced-diabetic-obese-zucker-rats
#20
Jae-Cheol Kim
PURPOSE: Exercise training with PPARγ agonist is expected to increase glucose uptake and improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of patients with diabetes. However, its mechanisms to effect glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle are unclear. METHODS: The mechanism of action was determined by co-treatment with PPARγ agonist- rosiglitazone and exercise training in streptozotocin induced-diabetic obese Zucker rats. Exercise training was carried out for 6 weeks (swimming, 1 h/day, 5 times/week, 5% weight/g, 32±1℃) with rosiglitazone treatment (3mg/kg/day, 6weeks)...
June 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
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