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Glut 5

Tijan Pinnock, Johanna Voordouw, Gerrit Voordouw
A consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria consisting mostly of Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfocurvus from oil field produced water was cultivated in a chemostat, receiving medium with 20 mM formate and 10 mM sulfate as the energy and 1 mM acetate as the carbon source. The chemostat effluent, containing 5 mM sulfide and 0.5 mM of residual acetate, was passed through 1-ml syringe columns with 60 carbon steel ball bearings (BBs) of 53.6 ± 0.1 mg each at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/h per column...
May 10, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Shui-Lan Zhu, Ting Lei, Xu Gao, Jun Tu
This paper aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect and relative mechanism of jatrorrhizine in insulin-resistance (IR)-3T3-L1 adipocytes. The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were used to induce mature adipocytes, then the stable IR model was established with 1 μmol·L⁻¹ dexamethasone. The adipocytes were divided into normal group, IR model group, rosiglitazone positive group and jatrorrhizine group (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 μmol·L⁻¹). After different time points (12, 24, 30, 36, 48 h) treatment, glucose content of 3T3-L1 adipocytes was detected by the glucose oxidase peroxidase method and TG content was measured by glycerol phosphate oxidase method, whereas cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
T Drevytska, E Gonchar, I Okhai, O Linnyk, I Mankovska, D Klionsky, V Dosenko
The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway activation in cardiomyocytes under anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R) injury. In this study, rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were pretreated with anti-Hif3A/Hif-3α siRNA or HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor prior to A/R injury. Our results showed that both HIF3A silencing and HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibition effectively increased the cell viability during A/R, led to changes in mRNA expression of HIF1-target genes, and reduced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm )...
April 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Monica J Chau, Todd C Deveau, Xiaohuan Gu, Yo Sup Kim, Yun Xu, Shan Ping Yu, Ling Wei
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, yet there are limited treatments available. Intranasal administration is a novel non-invasive strategy to deliver cell therapy into the brain. Cells delivered via the intranasal route can migrate from the nasal mucosa to the ischemic infarct and show acute neuroprotection as well as functional benefits. However, there is little information about the regenerative effects of this transplantation method in the delayed phase of stroke...
April 12, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Yoshinobu Ikeno, Satoru Seo, Keiko Iwaisako, Tomoaki Yoh, Yuji Nakamoto, Hiroaki Fuji, Kojiro Taura, Hideaki Okajima, Toshimi Kaido, Shimon Sakaguchi, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection remains the mainstay of curative treatment for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Prognosis after surgery is unsatisfactory despite improvements in treatment and post-operative clinical management. Despite developments in the molecular profiling of ICC, the preoperative prediction of prognosis remains a challenge. This study aimed to identify clinical prognostic indicators by investigating the molecular profiles of ICC and evaluating the preoperative imaging data of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG-PET)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
P Hussar, M Kaerner, I Duritis, A Plivca, L Pendovski, T Jaerveots, F Popovska-Percinic
The temporospatial patterns in the localization of hexose transporters as well as in the quantitative and qualitative differences of glycoprotein mucin produced by the goblet cells of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) small intestine during their first postnatal month were studied. The integral membrane proteins glucose transporter-2 and -5 (GLUT-2 and GLUT-5) that facilitate the transport of hexoses across epithelial cell layers that separate distinct compartments in organism were detected in the chicken intestinal epithelial cells using immunohistochemical labeling with polyclonal primary antibodies Rabbit anti-GLUT-2 and Rabbit anti-GLUT-5 (IHC kit, Abcam, UK)...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Manuel García-Herreros, Constantine A Simintiras, Patrick Lonergan
Proteomic analyses are useful for understanding the metabolic pathways governing embryo development. This study investigated the presence of enzymes involved in glycolysis and glycogenesis in in vitro-produced bovine embryos at five developmental stages leading up to blastocyst formation. The enzymes examined were: (1) glycolytic: hexokinase-I (HK-I), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), pyruvate kinase mutase 1/2 (PKM-1/2), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and (2) glycogenic: glycogen synthase kinase-3 isoforms α/ β (GSK-3α/β)...
March 23, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Emma F Johnson, Dawn M Davis, Megha M Tollefson, Karen Fritchie, Lawrence E Gibson
Vascular tumors in infants present a diagnostic and treatment dilemma for both clinicians and pathologists. Infantile hemangioma, the most common vascular tumor in infants, can be confused for other less common vascular tumors in infants. Correct and timely diagnosis is important, as some vascular tumors can be associated with life-threatening coagulopathy. We present the cases of 5 vascular tumors that have clinical and histologic overlap: infantile hemangioma, pyogenic granuloma, noninvoluting congenital hemangioma, tufted angioma, and kaposiform hemangioendothelioma...
April 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Ashish K Rehni, Vibha Shukla, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon, Kunjan R Dave
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia is a serious possible manifestation of diabetic vascular disease. Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) enhances ischemic brain injury in insulin-treated diabetic (ITD) rats. In the present study, we determined the role of ischemic acidosis in enhanced ischemic brain damage in RH-exposed ITD rats. METHODS: Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and mild/moderate RH was induced for 5 days. Three sets of experiments were performed. The first set evaluated the effects of RH exposure on global cerebral ischemia-induced acidosis in ITD rats...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Inês Amaral, Cláudia Silva, Ana Correia-Branco, Fátima Martel
This work aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on cellular glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells, as a mechanism contributing to its anticancer properties. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines were used as in vitro models of breast cancer. Short-term (26 min) exposure of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to metformin inhibited uptake of3 H-deoxy-D-glucose (3 H-DG). In contrast, long-term (24 h) exposure to metformin (5 μM-1 mM) concentration-dependently increased3 H-DG uptake in both cell lines...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Huijun Wang, Mark I Fowler, David J Messenger, Leon A Terry, Xuelan Gu, Luxian Zhou, Ruimin Liu, Juan Su, Songshan Shi, Jose Juan Ordaz-Ortiz, Guoping Lian, Mark J Berry, Shunchun Wang
Foods of high carbohydrate content such as sucrose or starch increase postprandial blood glucose concentrations. The glucose absorption system in the intestine comprises two components: sodium-dependent glucose transporter-1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). Here five sappanin-type (SAP) homoisoflavonoids were identified as novel potent GLUT2 inhibitors, with three of them isolated from the fibrous roots of Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce. SAP homoisolflavonoids had a stronger inhibitory effect on 25 mM glucose transport (41...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ting Deng, Yu Zhang, Yang Wu, Ping Ma, Jiufei Duan, Wei Qin, Xu Yang, Mingqing Chen
Epidemiological studies suggest a positive relationship between phthalate exposure and diabetes. However, little is known about the impact of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure on the development of diabetes. To determine the role of DBP exposure on the development of type 2 diabetes, mice were orally exposed to DBP dosages of 0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg/day for 7 weeks, combined with a high fat diet and injections of a low dose of streptozotocin (STZ). The results showed that exposure to 50 mg/kg/day DBP alone induced a marked decrease in insulin secretion and glucose intolerance, but had no influence on insulin resistance...
June 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Jyotibala Banjare, Prerna Raina, Prakash Mansara, Ruchika Kaul Ghanekar, Supriya Bhalerao
Background: Triphala, an Ayurvedic polyherbal formulation, is used for the treatment of various diseases including obesity. Objective: The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-adipogenic potential of aqueous extract of Triphala (TPaq ) using 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line model. Methods: The effect of aqueous extract of Triphala (TPaq ) was tested on the viability of 3T3- L1 cells by MTT assay. The cells were treated with a cocktail of dexamethasone (DEX), isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and insulin to induce adipogenesis...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Taiming Liu, Meijuan Zhang, Michael H Terry, Hobe Schroeder, Sean M Wilson, Gordon G Power, Qian Li, Trent E Tipple, Dan Borchardt, Arlin B Blood
Glutathione-liganded binuclear dinitrosyl iron complex (glut-BDNIC) has been proposed to be a donor of nitric oxide (NO). This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms of vasoactivity, systemic hemodynamic effects, and pharmacokinetics of glut-BDNIC. To test the hypothesis that glut-BDNICs vasodilate by releasing NO in its reduced [nitroxyl (HNO)] state, a bioassay method of isolated, preconstricted ovine mesenteric arterial rings was used in the presence of selective scavengers of HNO or NO free radical (NO• ); the vasodilatory effects of glut-BDNIC were found to have characteristics similar to those of an HNO donor and markedly different than an NO• donor...
May 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Kuo-Ping Shen, Hui-Li Lin, Hsueh-Wei Yen, Su-Ling Hsieh, Li-Mei An, Bin-Nan Wu
This study examined the effects of eugenosedin-A (Eu-A) in a streptozotocin (STZ)/nicotinamide-induced rat model of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) RD group, normal rats fed a regular diet (RD), (2) DM group, T2DM rats fed a high-fat diet, and (3) Eu-A group, T2DM rats fed a high fat diet plus oral Eu-A (5 mg/kg/day). After 30 days, the DM group had higher body weight, higher blood glucose and lower insulin levels than the RD group...
March 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Yan Cao, Xiaoli Chen, Ying Sun, Jialiang Shi, Xiaojuan Xu, Yong-Cheng Shi
Pyrodextrin shares some properties of resistant starch, which is metabolically beneficial, and has potential applications as a functional food. In this study, we report that the oral administration of pyrodextrin (50 mg/kg/d for 7 weeks) decreased blood glucose (from 9.18 ± 1.47 to 7.67 ± 0.42 mmol/L), serum HbA1c, triglycerides, adipocyte size, and body weight (from 24.4 ± 1.2 to 22.5 ± 1.2 g) in mice with high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Western-blotting analysis suggested that pyrodextrins decreased intestinal SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression to ∼70 and ∼60% of the obese control, respectively, which slowed down glucose transportation from the gut into the blood and tentatively improved hepatic metabolism...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ri-Su Na, Cong Ma, Qiao-Rui Liu, Li-Ming Wu, Xu-Lei Zheng, Zhi-Wen Liu
The primarily metabolic abnormality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the defect in gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Itraconazole (ITCZ) is a traditional azole drug with anti-fungal and anticancer properties. However, limited attention has been directed towards the contribution of ITCZ to hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake in T2DM. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of ITCZ on hepatic gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake as well as the underlying mechanisms. No obvious change in cell viability was detected by MTT assay in HepG2 cells with ITCZ treatment at gradually increasing concentrations...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Ragıp Pala, Eyup Genc, Mehmet Tuzcu, Cemal Orhan, Nurhan Sahin, Besir Er, Vedat Cinar, Kazim Sahin
In this study, the effects of L-Carnitine supplementation on the lipid peroxidation and expression of PPAR-γ and glucose transporters in the liver and muscles of chronically and acutely exercised rats were investigated. A total of 42 male Wistar Albino rats (8-week-old) were divided into six groups as follows: Control, L-Carnitine, Chronic Exercise (CE), Chronic Exercise + L-Carnitine, Acute Exercise (AE) and L-Carnitine + Acute Exercise. Chronic exercise consists of 30 m/min, 30 min/day, and 5 days/week for 6 weeks...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Edouard Coudert, Christophe Praud, Joëlle Dupont, Sabine Crochet, Estelle Cailleau-Audouin, Thierry Bordeau, Estelle Godet, Anne Collin, Cécile Berri, Sophie Tesseraud, Sonia Métayer-Coustard
Glucose transport into cells is the first limiting step for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In mammals, it is mediated by a family of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) (encoded by SLC2A* genes), with a constitutive role (GLUT1), or insulin-sensitive transporters (GLUT4, GLUT8, and GLUT12). Compared to mammals, the chicken shows high levels of glycemia and relative insensitivity to exogenous insulin. To date, only GLUT1, GLUT8, and GLUT12 have been described in chicken skeletal muscles but not fully characterized, whereas GLUT4 was reported as lacking...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Juncheng Zhuo, Qiaohuang Zeng, Dake Cai, Xiaohui Zeng, Yuxing Chen, Haining Gan, Xuejun Huang, Nan Yao, Dane Huang, Chengzhe Zhang
Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, is a comprehensive dysfunction of metabolism. The insulin receptor (INSR)/phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway is well acknowledged as a predominant pathway associated with glucose uptake; however, the effect of streptozotocin (STZ) plus a high fat and sugar diet (HFSD) on the proteins associated with this pathway requires further elucidation. In order to explore this effect, a T2DM rat model was constructed to investigate T2DM pathogenesis and potential therapeutic advantages...
April 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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