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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526983/low-source-sink-ratio-reduces-reserve-starch-in-grapevine-woody-canes-and-modulates-sugar-transport-and-metabolism-at-transcriptional-and-enzyme-activity-levels
#1
Angélica Silva, Henrique Noronha, Zhanwu Dai, Serge Delrot, Hernâni Gerós
Severe leaf removal decreases storage starch and sucrose in grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings and modulates the activity of key enzymes and the expression of sugar transporter genes. Leaf removal is an agricultural practice that has been shown to modify vineyard efficiency and grape and wine composition. In this study, we took advantage of the ability to precisely control the number of leaves to fruits in Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings to study the effect of source-sink ratios (2 (2L), 6 (6L) and 12 (12) leaves per cluster) on starch metabolism and accumulation...
May 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501191/tlc-uv-hyphenated-with-maldi-tofms-for-the-screening-of-invertase-substrates-in-plant-extracts
#2
Justine Ferey, David Da Silva, Pierre Lafite, Richard Daniellou, Benoît Maunit
In this study, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) hyphenated with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) was developed for the screening of invertase substrates in complex matrices. BfrA, a specific β-D-fructofuranosidase from Leishmania major, was chosen as a model enzyme to screen biological activity in plant extracts due to its capacity to hydrolyze specific carbohydrates. TLC was considered to be a reliable technique for screening substrates (bioactive molecules) in plant extracts due to its quantitative capabilities whereas MALDI-TOFMS was particularly useful for rapid identification...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480172/high-sucrolytic-activity-by-invertase-immobilized-onto-magnetic-diatomaceous-earth-nanoparticles
#3
Mariana P Cabrera, Caio R D Assis, David F M Neri, Claudete F Pereira, Fernando Soria, Luiz B Carvalho
Invertase immobilized on magnetic diatomaceous earth nanoparticles (mDE-APTES-invertase) with high sucrolytic activity was obtained by an easy and low-cost method. An experimental design was carried out to investigate the best immobilization conditions and it allowed obtaining an immobilized derivative with a residual specific activity equal to 92.5%. Then, a second experimental design selected the mDE-APTES-invertase with higher specific activity in relation to other derivatives reported in the literature (2...
March 2017: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467462/synergistic-toxicity-and-physiological-impact-of-imidacloprid-alone-and-binary-mixtures-with-seven-representative-pesticides-on-honey-bee-apis-mellifera
#4
Yu Cheng Zhu, Jianxiu Yao, John Adamczyk, Randall Luttrell
Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in the world. In this study, we used spraying methods to simulate field exposures of bees to formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL) alone and binary mixtures with seven pesticides from different classes. Synergistic toxicity was detected from mixtures of Advise (58.6 mg a.i./L imidacloprid)+Domark (512.5 mg a.i. /L tetraconazole), Advise+Transform (58.5 mg a.i./L sulfoxaflor), and Advise+Vydate (68 mg a.i./L oxamyl), and mortality was significantly increased by 20%, 15%, and 26% respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463701/influence-of-root-components-of-celery-on-pyrene-bioaccessibility-soil-enzymes-and-microbial-communities-in-pyrene-and-pyrene-diesel-spiked-soils
#5
Jing Wei, Xinying Zhang, Xiaoyan Liu, Xia Liang, Xueping Chen
Though phytoremediation is deemed as a promising approach to restore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) contaminated sites, studies about how the biodegradation of PAHs is enhanced still remains incomprehensive. Effects of root components on pyrene bioaccessibility, soil enzymes and microbial communities were explored in the paper, and their interactions in simulated pyrene and pyrene-diesel spiked microcosms were tried to give a reasonable explanation. Results indicated that root components enhanced the pyrene removal of bioaccessible and adsorbed fractions by 16...
April 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452060/cimyb17-a-stress-induced-chicory-r2r3-myb-transcription-factor-activates-promoters-of-genes-involved-in-fructan-synthesis-and-degradation
#6
Hongbin Wei, Anja Bausewein, Steffen Greiner, Nicolas Dauchot, Karsten Harms, Thomas Rausch
In Cichorium intybus, inulin metabolism is mediated by fructan-active enzymes (FAZYs): sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT), and fructan 1-exohydrolases 1, 2a and 2b (1-FEH1, -2a and -2b), respectively. While these enzymes have been rigorously characterized, the transcriptional network orchestrating their development- and stress-related expression has remained largely unknown. Here, the possible role of R2R3-MYB transcription factors in FAZY regulation was explored via bioinformatic identification of R2R3-MYBs (using an RNA sequencing (RNAseq) database), studies of co-expression of these factors with target genes, in vivo transient transactivation assays of FAZY target promoters (dual luciferase assay), and a yeast one-hybrid assay investigating the specificity of the binding of these factors to cis-elements...
April 28, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450028/effects-of-high-pressure-processing-on-activity-and-structure-of-soluble-acid-invertase-in-mango-pulp-crude-extract-purified-form-and-model-systems
#7
Renjie Li, Yongtao Wang, Jiangang Ling, Xiaojun Liao
The effects of high pressure processing (HPP) on the activity of soluble acid invertase (SAI) in mango pulp, crude extract, purified SAI and purified SAI in model systems (pectin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), sugars and pH 3-7) were investigated. The activity of SAI in mango pulp was increased after HPP, and that in crude extract stayed unchanged. The activity of purified SAI was decreased after HPP at 45 and 50°C. Pectin exhibited a concentration-dependent protection for purified SAI against HPP at 50°C/600MPa for 30min...
September 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445812/portable-aptamer-biosensor-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb-using-a-personal-glucose-meter-with-triply-amplified
#8
Lu Hong, Fu Zhou, Dongmin Shi, Xiaojun Zhang, Guangfeng Wang
Sensitive and rapid detection of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), a cancer-related protein, could help early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancers. Although some methods have been developed to detect PDGF-BB, few can provide quantitative results using an affordable and portable device that is suitable for home use or field application. In this work, we report the first use of a portable kind of personal glucose meter (PGM) combining a catalytic and molecular beacon (CAMB) system with a cation exchange reaction (CX reaction) for ultrasensitive PDGF-BB assay...
September 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416853/changes-in-soluble-sugar-metabolism-in-loquat-fruit-during-different-cold-storage
#9
Yingying Wei, Feng Xu, Xingfeng Shao
To investigate soluble sugar metabolism and its relationship to chilling injury (CI), loquat fruits were stored at 0 and 5 °C for 5 weeks. CI symptoms were monitored during storage, and soluble sugar content and related enzyme activities were measured. Enzymes activities and substrate levels in the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle were also determined. Fruit at 0 °C had lower sucrose levels and higher levels of glucose and fructose than fruit maintained at 5 °C, and also manifested less severe CI symptoms...
April 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415033/physiological-investigation-of-c4-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-introduced-rice-line-shows-that-sucrose-metabolism-is-involved-in-the-improved-drought-tolerance
#10
Chen Zhang, Xia Li, Yafei He, Jinfei Zhang, Ting Yan, Xiaolong Liu
We compared the drought tolerance of wild-type (WT) and transgenic rice plants (PC) over-expressing the maize C4PEPC gene, which encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) gene, and evaluated the roles of saccharide and sugar-related enzymes in the drought response. Pot-grown seedlings were subjected to real drought conditions outdoors, and the yield components were compared between PC and untransformed wild-type (WT) plants. The stable yield from PC plants was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate under the real drought treatment...
March 30, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411320/addition-of-straw-from-hyperaccumulator-plants-to-cadmium-contaminated-soil-increases-cadmium-uptake-by-loquat-seedlings
#11
Lijin Lin, Ming'an Liao, Xiulan Lv, Dong Liang, Hui Xia, Jin Wang, Xun Wang
The straw from three different cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulators (Galinsoga parviflora, Youngia erythrocarpa, and Solanum photeinocarpum) was added to Cd-contaminated soil, and its effects on plant growth and Cd accumulation in loquat seedlings were evaluated. Straw from each of G. parviflora, Y. erythrocarpa, and S. photeinocarpum was added to Cd-contaminated soil before planting seedlings of two varieties of loquat (Dawuxing and Chuanzao). Addition of straw from G. parviflora and S. photeinocarpum increased the root and shoot biomasses of both loquat varieties, compared with that in the control...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403831/the-role-of-tre6p-and-snrk1-in-maize-early-kernel-development-and-events-leading-to-stress-induced-kernel-abortion
#12
Samuel W Bledsoe, Clémence Henry, Cara A Griffiths, Matthew J Paul, Regina Feil, John E Lunn, Mark Stitt, L Mark Lagrimini
BACKGROUND: Drought stress during flowering is a major contributor to yield loss in maize. Genetic and biotechnological improvement in yield sustainability requires an understanding of the mechanisms underpinning yield loss. Sucrose starvation has been proposed as the cause for kernel abortion; however, potential targets for genetic improvement have not been identified. Field and greenhouse drought studies with maize are expensive and it can be difficult to reproduce results; therefore, an in vitro kernel culture method is presented as a proxy for drought stress occurring at the time of flowering in maize (3 days after pollination)...
April 12, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371560/differential-scanning-calorimetry-and-fluorimetry-measurements-of-monoclonal-antibodies-and-reference-proteins-effect-of-scanning-rate-and-dye-selection
#13
Brian E Lang, Kenneth D Cole
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) were used to measure the transition temperatures of four proteins: RNase A, invertase, rituximab, and the NISTmAb (NIST Reference Material, RM 8671). The proteins were combined with several different fluorescent dyes for the DSF measurements. This study compares the results of DSC and DSF measurements of transition temperatures with different types of proteins, dye combinations, and thermal scan rates. As protein unfolding is often influenced by kinetic effects, we measured the transition temperatures of the proteins using DSC over a range of temperature scan rates and compared them to the data obtained from DSF over comparable temperature scan rates...
April 3, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359854/optimizing-culture-conditions-for-production-of-intra-and-extracellular-inulinase-and-invertase-from-aspergillus-niger-atcc-20611-by-response-surface-methodology-rsm
#14
Mojdeh Dinarvand, Malahat Rezaee, Majid Foroughi
The aim of this study was obtain a model that maximizes growth and production of inulinase and invertase by Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611, employing response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. Results showed that the experimental data could be appropriately fitted into a second-order polynomial model with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) more than 0.90 for all responses. This model adequately explained the data variation and represented the actual relationships between the parameters and responses...
February 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349670/metabolic-engineering-to-expand-the-substrate-spectrum-of-pseudomonas-putida-toward-sucrose
#15
Hannes Löwe, Lukas Schmauder, Karina Hobmeier, Andreas Kremling, Katharina Pflüger-Grau
Sucrose is an important disaccharide used as a substrate in many industrial applications. It is a major component of molasses, a cheap by-product of the sugar industry. Unfortunately, not all industrially relevant organisms, among them Pseudomonas putida, are capable of metabolizing sucrose. We chose a metabolic engineering approach to circumvent this blockage and equip P. putida with the activities necessary to consume sucrose. Therefore, we constructed a pair of broad-host range mini-transposons (pSST - sucrose splitting transposon), carrying either cscA, encoding an invertase able to split sucrose into glucose and fructose, or additionally cscB, encoding a sucrose permease...
March 27, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336973/microbial-community-composition-is-related-to-soil-biological-and-chemical-properties-and-bacterial-wilt-outbreak
#16
Rui Wang, Hongchun Zhang, Liguang Sun, Gaofu Qi, Shu Chen, Xiuyun Zhao
Soil microbes play important roles in plant growth and health. Little is known about the differences of soil microbes between healthy and bacterial wilt infected soils with Ralstonia solanacearum. By Illumina-MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene amplicons, we found the soil microbial composition and diversity were distinct between healthy and bacterial wilt infected soils. Soil microbial community varied at different plant growth stages due to changes of root exudates composition and soil pH. Healthy soils exhibited higher microbial diversity than the bacterial wilt infected soils...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330196/cloning-and-expression-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-suc2-gene-in-yeast-platform-and-characterization-of-recombinant-enzyme-biochemical-properties
#17
Nooshin Mohandesi, Seyed Omid Ranaei Siadat, Kamahldin Haghbeen, Ardeshir Hesampour
Invertase (EC.3.2.1.26) catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to an equimolar mixture of D-glucose and D-fructose which is of interest for various industrial applications. In this research, Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase gene (SUC2) was optimized based on Pichia pastoris codon preference. The synthetic gene was introduced into the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under the control of the inducible AOX1 promoter. High level of the extracellular recombinant invertase (R-inv) production was achieved via methanol induction for 4 days and purified by His-Tag affinity chromatography which appeared to be a mixture of glycosylated proteins with various sizes of 85-95 kDa on SDS-PAGE...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324683/thermal-stress-impacts-reproductive-development-and-grain-yield-in-rice
#18
REVIEW
Muhammad Shakeel Arshad, Muhammad Farooq, Folkard Asch, Jagadish S V Krishna, P V Vara Prasad, Kadambot H M Siddique
Rice is highly sensitive to temperature stress (cold and heat), particularly during the reproductive and grain-filling stages. In this review, we discuss the effects of low- and high-temperature sensitivity in rice at various reproductive stages (from meiosis to grain development) and propose strategies for improving the tolerance of rice to terminal thermal stress. Cold stress impacts reproductive development through (i) delayed heading, due to its effect on anther respiration, which increases sucrose accumulation, protein denaturation and asparagine levels, and decreases proline accumulation, (ii) pollen sterility owing to tapetal hypertrophy and related nutrient imbalances, (iii) reduced activity of cell wall bound invertase in the tapetum of rice anthers, (iv) impaired fertilization due to inhibited anther dehiscence, stigma receptivity and ability of the pollen tube to germinate through the style towards the ovary, and (v) floret sterility, which increases grain abortion, restricts grain size, and thus reduces grain yield...
March 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292708/dioscorea-alata-tuber-proteome-analysis-shows-over-thirty-dioscorin-isoforms-and-novel-tuber-proteins
#19
Shruti Sharma, Ravi Gupta, Renu Deswal
In Dioscorea, dioscorin (31 kDa) is the major storage protein constituting 85% of the total tuber proteins. An integrated proteomic and biochemical approach was used to understand the physiological role of dioscorin in the two contrasting growth stages (germinating and mature tuber). HPLC analysis showed 3 fold reduction in mannitol and 12.88 and 1.24 fold increase in sucrose and maltose in the germinating tuber. A 1.8 and 3 fold increase in sucrose phosphate synthase and mannitol dehydrogenase activity respectively was observed in the germinating tuber while a 2 fold higher invertase probably lowers the sucrose accumulation in the mature tuber...
March 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279167/novel-snp-markers-in-invge-and-sssi-genes-are-associated-with-natural-variation-of-sugar-contents-and-frying-color-in-solanum-tuberosum-group-phureja
#20
Diana Duarte-Delgado, Deissy Juyó, Christiane Gebhardt, Felipe Sarmiento, Teresa Mosquera-Vásquez
BACKGROUND: Potato frying color is an agronomic trait influenced by the sugar content of tubers. The candidate gene approach was employed to elucidate the molecular basis of this trait in Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja, which is mainly diploid and represents an important genetic resource for potato breeding. The objective of this research was to identify novel genetic variants related with frying quality in loci with key functions in carbohydrate metabolism, with the purpose of discovering genetic variability useful in breeding programs...
March 9, 2017: BMC Genetics
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