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Shamitha Rao Morey, Tatsuro Hirose, Yoichi Hashida, Akio Miyao, Hirohiko Hirochika, Ryu Ohsugi, Junko Yamagishi, Naohiro Aoki
BACKGROUND: Rice is a major crop feeding the majority of the global population, and increasing its sink strength is one of the modes to alleviate the declining availability of food for the rapidly growing world population. We demonstrate a role for an important rice vacuolar invertase isoform, OsINV3, in sink strength determination. RESULTS: OsINV3 mutants showed shorter panicles with lighter and smaller grains, owing to a smaller cell size on the outer and inner surfaces of the palea and lemma as observed by scanning electron microscopy...
January 17, 2018: Rice
Yafei Shen, Ruimei Cheng, Wenfa Xiao, Shao Yang, Yan Guo, Na Wang, Lixiong Zeng, Lei Lei, Xiaorong Wang
The effects of forest management on carbon (C) sequestration are poorly understood, particularly in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. We aimed to identify the effects of forest management on C sequestration in Pinus massoniana plantations. An intact control forest (CK), a site undergoing regular shrub cutting with the simultaneous removal of residues (SC), a site under low-intensity thinning (LIT), and a site under high-intensity thinning (HIT) were compared for soil labile organic carbon (LOC), related enzyme activities, and soil characteristics...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
S A Sheshadri, M J Nishanth, N Harita, P Brindha, S Bindu
Plant secondary metabolites are widely used in human disease treatment; though primary metabolism provides precursors for secondary metabolism, not much has been studied to unravel the link connecting both the processes. Most common form of gene regulation interconnecting diverse metabolism occurs at the transcriptional and/or posttranscriptional level mediated by regulatory cis-elements. The present study aims at understanding the common cis-elements network connecting the major primary metabolic enzyme, cell wall invertase (CWIN) and secondary metabolism genes in Nicotiana benthamiana (N...
November 13, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Lei Gao, Shengjie Zhao, Xuqiang Lu, Nan He, Hongju Zhu, Junling Dou, Wenge Liu
Soluble sugars and organic acids are important components of fruit flavor and have a strong impact on the overall organoleptic quality of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit. Several studies have analyzed the expression levels of the genes related to soluble sugar accumulation and the dynamic changes in their content during watermelon fruit development and ripening. Nevertheless, to date, there have been no reports on the organic acid content in watermelon or the genes regulating their synthesis. In this study, the soluble sugars and organic acids in watermelon were measured and a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the key genes involved in the accumulation of these substances during fruit development and ripening...
2018: PloS One
Long-Bin Shen, Yuan Yao, Huang He, Yu-Ling Qin, Zi-Ji Liu, Wei-Xia Liu, Zhi-Qiang Qi, Li-Jia Yang, Zhen-Mu Cao, Yan Yang
Alkaline/neutral invertase (NINV) proteins irreversibly cleave sucrose into fructose and glucose, and play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism and plant development. To investigate the role of NINVs in the development of pepper fruits, seven NINV genes (CaNINV1-7) were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CaNINV family could be divided into α and β groups. CaNINV1-6 had typical conserved regions and similar protein structures to the NINVs of other plants, while CaNINV7 lacked amino acid sequences at the C-terminus and N-terminus ends...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yanyu Song, Changchun Song, Jiusheng Ren, Wenwen Tan, Shaofei Jin, Lei Jiang
Nitrogen (N) availability affects litter decomposition and nutrient dynamics, especially in N-limited ecosystems. We investigated the response of litter decomposition to N additions in Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium uliginosum peatlands. These two species dominate peatlands in Northeast China. In 2012, mesh bags containing senesced leaf litter of Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium uliginosum were placed in N addition plots and sprayed monthly for two years with NH4NO3 solution at dose rates of 0, 6, 12, and 24gNm-2year-1 (CK, N1, N2 and N3, respectively)...
January 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Marco Mason, Matteo Scampicchio, Colette F Quinn, Mark K Transtrum, Nicholas Baker, Lee D Hansen, Jason D Kenealey
The aim of this work is to develop calorimetric methods for characterizing the activity and stability of membrane immobilized enzymes. Invertase immobilized on a nylon-6 nanofiber membrane is used as a test case. The stability of both immobilized and free invertase activity was measured by spectrophotometry and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure the thermal stability of the structure and areal concentration of invertase on the membrane. This is the 1st demonstration that ITC can be used to determine activity and stability of an enzyme immobilized on a membrane...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Macarena Farcuh, Bosheng Li, Rosa M Rivero, Lyudmila Shlizerman, Avi Sadka, Eduardo Blumwald
We investigated sugar metabolism in leaves and fruits of two Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) cultivars, the climacteric Santa Rosa and its bud sport mutant the non-climacteric Sweet Miriam, during development on the tree. We previously characterized differences between the two cultivars. Here, we identified key sugar metabolic pathways. Pearson coefficient correlations of metabolomics and transcriptomic data and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data allowed the identification of 11 key sugar metabolism-associated genes: sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, cytosolic invertase, vacuolar invertase, invertase inhibitor, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, galactokinase, trehalase, galactinol synthase, and raffinose synthase...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Hongjian Wan, Limin Wu, Yuejian Yang, Guozhi Zhou, Yong-Ling Ruan
In higher plants, invertases hydrolyze sucrose (Suc), the major end product of photosynthesis, into glucose (Glc) and fructose (Fru), which are used as nutrients, energy sources, and signaling molecules for plant growth, yield formation, and stress responses. The invertase enzymes, named CWINs, VINs, and CINs, are located in the cell wall, vacuole, and cytosol, respectively. We hypothesize, based on their distinctive subcellular locations and physiological roles, that invertases may have undergone different modes during evolution with important functional implications...
November 25, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Fang Du, Junmiao Fan, Ting Wang, Yun Wu, Donald Grierson, Zhongshan Gao, Yiping Xia
BACKGROUND: Lily is an economically important plant, with leaves and bulbs consisting of overlapping scales, large ornamental flowers and a very large genome. Although it is recognized that flowers and bulb scales are modified leaves, very little is known about the genetic control and biochemical differentiation underlying lily organogenesis and development. Here we examined the differentially expressed genes in flower, leaf and scale of lily, using RNA-sequencing, and identified organ-specific genes, including transcription factors, genes involved in photosynthesis in leaves, carbohydrate metabolism in bulb scales and scent and color production in flowers...
November 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
Pujia Yu, Shiwei Liu, Liang Zhang, Qiang Li, Daowei Zhou
Understanding the influences of land use conversions on soil quality (SQ) and function are essential to adopt proper agricultural management practices for a specific region. The primary objective of this study was to develop soil quality indices (SQIs) to assess the short-term influences of different land uses on SQ in semiarid alkaline grassland in northeastern China. Land use treatments were corn cropland (Corn), alfalfa perennial forage (Alfalfa), monoculture Lyemus chinensis grassland (MG) and successional regrowth grassland (SRG), which were applied for five years...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Cheenou Her, Jaideep Singh, V V Krishnan
Sucralose, a derivative of sucrose, is widely used in noncaloric artificial sweeteners (NAS). Contrary to the belief that sucralose is physiologically inert and a healthy alternative sweetener to natural sugar, emerging studies indicate that sucralose alters the host metabolism as well as the composition of the microbiome. In this manuscript, we use real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to demonstrate that sucralose alters the enzymatic conversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose. The real-time NMR progress curve analysis suggests that sucralose has the characteristic of a competitive inhibitor on the kinetics of the enzymatic process...
October 31, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Xiao-Xia Xu, Qin Hu, Wan-Nian Yang, Ye Jin
BACKGROUND: Hexoses are important metabolic signals that respond to abiotic and biotic stresses. Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development, limiting productivity. The mechanism by which sugars regulate plant cold tolerance remains elusive. RESULTS: We examined the function of INVINH1, a cell wall invertase inhibitor, in tomato chilling tolerance. Cold stress suppressed the transcription of INVINH1 and increased that of cell wall invertase genes, Lin6 and Lin8 in tomato seedlings...
November 9, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Michaela Griesser, Sara Crespo Martinez, Markus W Eitle, Benedikt Warth, Christelle M Andre, Rainer Schuhmacher, Astrid Forneck
Timescale analyses suggest the berry shrivel (BS) disorder is induced before veraison with strong effects on anthocyanin biosynthesis, and minor effects on sugar transport and metabolism. Berry shrivel (BS)-affected grapes have low sugar contents, high acidity, less anthocyanins and flaccid berries. To date no pathogenic causes are known, and studies to elucidate the molecular basis leading to symptom induction and development are limited. Here we present a study on pre-symptomatic as well as symptomatic BS berries to characterize early metabolic changes, with focus on anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugars metabolism...
October 26, 2017: Planta
Ernesto Ramírez-Briones, Ramón Rodríguez-Macías, Eduardo Salcedo-Pérez, Norma Martínez-Gallardo, Axel Tiessen, Jorge Molina-Torres, John P Délano-Frier, Julia Zañudo-Hernández
This study was performed to test the working hypothesis that the primary determinants influencing seasonal driven modifications in carbon mobilization and other key biochemical parameters in leaves of poorly known Diospyros digyna (Ddg; semi-domesticated; perennial) and D. rekoi (Dre; undomesticated; deciduous) trees are determined by environmental growing conditions, agronomic management and physiological plasticity. Thus, biochemical changes in leaves of both trees were recorded seasonally during two successive fruiting years...
2017: PloS One
Diego Bergareche, Joaquín Royo, Luis M Muñiz, Gregorio Hueros
Studies in cell wall bound invertase mutants indicate that the promoter of the transfer cell-specific transcription factor, ZmMRP - 1 , is modulated by the carbohydrate balance. Transfer cells are highly specialized plant cells located at the surfaces that need to support an intensive exchange of nutrients, such as the entrance of fruits, seeds and nodules or the young branching points along the stem. ZmMRP-1 is a one-domain MYB-related transcription factor specifically expressed at the transfer cell layer of the maize endosperm...
October 25, 2017: Planta
Qi Wang, Wen-Ji Zhang, Lin-Yan He, Xia-Fang Sheng
A Cd-resistant and immobilizing Bacillus megaterium H3 was characterized for its impact on the biomass and quality and heavy metal uptake of edible tissues of two vegetables (Brassica campestris L. var. Aijiaohuang and Brassica rapa L. var. Shanghaiqing) grown in heavy metal-polluted soil. The impact of strain H3 on the soil quality was also evaluated. The increase in the edible tissue biomass and the contents of soluble proteins and vitamin C of the vegetables inoculated with strain H3 ranged from 18% to 33%, 17% to 31%, and 15% to 19%, respectively, compared with the controls...
October 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Peng-Chao Guo, Qian Wang, Zhan Wang, Zhaoming Dong, Huawei He, Ping Zhao
Invertase or β-fructofuranosidase (EC belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 32, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Here, we report the biochemical and functional characterization of invertase Bmsuc1 from Bombyx mori. Bmsuc1 showed optimal hydrolysis at pH 7.0-8.0 and its optimum temperature is 50°C using sucrose as substrate. Circular dichroism spectra indicated Bmsuc1 had a primarily β-strand structure. The thermal denaturations transition of Bmsuc1 was a cooperative process with a Tm, ΔH, and ΔS of 53...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fengchun Huang, Huilin Zhang, Lei Wang, Weihua Lai, Jianhan Lin
Combining double-layer capillary based high gradient immunomagnetic separation, invertase-nanocluster based signal amplification and glucose meter based signal detection, a novel biosensor was developed for sensitive and rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in this study. The streptavidin modified magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) were conjugated with the biotinylated polyclonal antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 to form the immune MNBs, which were captured by the high gradient magnetic field in the double-layer capillary to specifically separate and efficiently concentrate the target bacteria...
October 3, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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