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Yu Gu, Ting-Ting Zhang, Zhi-Feng Huang, Shan-Wen Hu, Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
The development of non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of cancer, characterization of mutation and monitoring treatment response could greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by cancer. Nevertheless, the extremely low amount of cell free nucleic acids makes liquid biopsy a very challenging task. Herein, taking advantage of the pocket size, reliable quantitative results and simple operation of the pocket-sized personal glucose meter (PGM), we report an approach of circulating microRNA-21 (miR-21) detection with high precision and low cost...
April 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Suresha G Shivalingamurthy, Raveendra Anangi, Sundaravelpandian Kalaipandian, Donna Glassop, Glenn F King, Anne L Rae
In sugarcane, invertase enzymes play a key role in sucrose accumulation and are also involved in futile reactions where sucrose is continuously degraded during the pre- and post-harvest period, thereby reducing sugar yield and recovery. Invertase inhibitor (INVINH) proteins play a key role in post-translation regulation of plant invertases through which sucrose hydrolysis is controlled. INVINH proteins are small (18 kDa) members of the pectin methylesterase inhibitor superfamily and they are moderately conserved across plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Md Rezaul Islam, Baohua Feng, Tingting Chen, Weimeng Fu, Caixia Zhang, Longxing Tao, Guanfu Fu
Heat stress at the pollen mother cell (PMC) meiotic stage leads to pollen sterility in rice, in which the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sugar homeostasis are always adversely affected. This damage is reversed by abscisic acid (ABA), but the mechanisms underlying the interactions among the ABA, sugar metabolism, ROS and heat shock proteins (HSPs) in rice spikelets under heat stress are unclear. Two rice genotypes, Zhefu802 (a recurrent parent) and fgl (its near-isogenic line) were subjected to heat stress of 40°C after pre-foliage sprayed with ABA and its biosynthetic inhibitor fluridone at the meiotic stage of PMC...
May 16, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Michael J Lentze
The history of maltose-active disaccharidases is closely related to the history of the sugar and starch industry. It began in the 19th century, when a shortage of cane sugar occurred in continental Europe, because Napoleon Bonaparte decreed that no goods could be imported from England to the countries he occupied. Other sugar sources had to be found, and it led to the identification of sugar beets as alternative source of sugar by Marggraf in 1774, to the detection of starch hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid by Kirchhoff in 1812, and to the starch digestion enzyme, α-amylase, by Payen in 1833...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Fan Yang, Wan Qin Yang, Fu Zhong Wu, Hui Wang, Li Ying Lan, Yu Wei Liu, Cai Hong Guo, Bo Tan
As a biocide to reduce soil and litter faunal populations in field experiments, naphthalene has been widely used in the study of ecological functions of soil fauna, but the non-target effects of naphthalene bring about enormous uncertainty to its application. In order to understand whether there were non-target effects of naphthalene in subalpine forest soil, soil in the subalpine forests of west Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was taken as study object. The short-term responses of soil respiration rate, nutrient content and enzyme activity to naphthalene were studied in microcosms...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xing Hua Xing, Ze Jun Xui, Yu Jun Qi, Xiao Jun Wang, Dong Lei Sun, Neng Fei Bian, Xing Wang
With pot experiment, two soybean (Glycine max) varieties, Jindou 21 (drought-tole-rant) and Xudou 22 (drought-sensitive), were used to examine the effects of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on carbon metabolism of soybean under drought stress at flowering stage. The results showed that under drought stress, compared to Xudou 22, Jindou 21 had smaller decrease in net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), smaller increase in photorespiration rate (Pr ) and soluble sugar content of leaves, while a greater increase in the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthetase (SS) (synthesis) of leaves and sucrose content of roots...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Peng Peng Zhang, Xiao Zhen Pu, Wang Feng Zhang
To reveal the regulatory mechanism of agricultural management practices on soil quality, an experiment was carried out to study the different cropping system and straw management on soil organic carbon and fractions and soil enzyme activity in farmland of arid oasis region, which would provide a scientific basic for enhancing agricultural resources utilization and sustainable development. In crop planting planning area, we took the mainly crop (cotton, wheat, maize) as research objects and designed long-term continues cropping and crop rotation experiments...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Rabia Naz, Asia Nosheen, Humaira Yasmin, Asghari Bano, Rumana Keyani
Two experiments (pot and field experiments) were conducted in two consecutive years to evaluate the protective effects of botanical-chemical formulations on physiological, biochemical performance and grain yield of wheat inoculated with Bipolaris sorokiniana. We compared different formulations comprising Calotropis procera, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Thevetia peruviana extracts, chemical fungicide (mefenoxam) and salicylic acid to modulate the defense system of wheat host plants. Among the selected plant species J...
2018: PloS One
Alexandra de Andrade Santos, Joaquim Albenísio Gomes da Silveira, Eliezer de Araujo Guilherme, Aurenivia Bonifacio, Artenisa Cerqueira Rodrigues, Márcia do Vale Barreto Figueiredo
To mitigate the deleterious effects of abiotic stress, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria along with diazotrophic bacteria has been increasing. The objectives of this study were to investigate the key enzymes related to nitrogen and carbon metabolism in the biological nitrogen fixation process and to elucidate the activities of these enzymes by the synergistic interaction between Bradyrhizobium and plant growth-promoting bacteria in the absence and presence of salt stress. Cowpea plants were cultivated under axenic conditions, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium and co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp...
March 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Ya Li Yin, Yu Qin Wang, Gen Sheng Bao, Hong Sheng Wang, Shi Xiong Li, Mei Ling Song, Bao Lian Shao, Yu Cun Wen
Soil microbial biomass C and N, microbial diversities and enzyme activity in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers of different degraded grasslands (non-degradation, ND; light degradation, LD; moderate degradation, MD; sever degradation, SD; and black soil beach, ED) were measured by Biolog and other methods. The results showed that: 1) There were significant diffe-rences between 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers in soil microbial biomass, diversities and inver-tase activities in all grasslands. 2) The ratio of soil microbial biomass C to N decreased significantly with the grassland degradation...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Rui Li, Rui Tai, Dan Wang, Gui-Xin Chu
A four year field study was conducted to determine how soil biological properties and soil aggregate stability changed when organic fertilizer and biofertilizer were used to reduce chemical fertilizer application to a drip irrigated cotton field. The study consisted of six fertilization treatments: unfertilized (CK); chemical fertilizer (CF, 300 kg N·hm-2 ; 90 kg P2O5 · hm-2 , 60 kg K2 O·hm-2 ); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm-2 organic fertilizer (80%CF+OF); 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm-2 organic fertilizer (60%CF+OF); 80% CF plus 3000 kg·hm-2 biofertilizer (80%CF+BF); and 60% CF plus 6000 kg·hm-2 biofertilizer (60%CF+BF)...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Yan Feng Wang, Bo Xiao, Bing Wang, Shuang Ma, Xiao-Meng Yao
The 30-year-old biological soil crusts dominated by mosses (hereafter moss crusts) and corresponding uncrusted soil (hereafter no crust) were sampled on loess soil and aeolian soil at 0-12 cm depth on the Loess Plateau of China. Afterwards, the hydrolase activities of the samples were measured, and their correlations with soil physicochemical properties were analyzed. Compared with no crust, the activities of urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, and protease of the moss crusts were 2.4, 7.6, 20.7, 2.4 times higher on loess soil, respectively; while they were 3...
November 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Wei Qin Yin, Hao Qi Jing, Ya Bo Wang, Si Yu Wei, Yue Sun, Sheng Sen Wang, Xuai Zhi Wang
The elevated concentration of tropospheric ozone (O3 ) is an important global climate change driver, with adverse impacts on soil ecological environment and crop growth. In this study, a pot experiment was carried out in an open top chamber (OTC), to investigate the effects of elevated ozone concentration on soil enzyme activities (catalase, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and invertase), organic acids contents (oxalic acid, citric acid and malic acid) at different growth stages (tillering, jointing, heading and ripening stages) of wheat, and combined with the rhizospheric soil physicochemical properties and plant root characteristics to analyze the underlying reasons...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Jianrui Li, Yingming Xu
A field-scale trial was conducted to investigate the remediation effects of sepiolite on Cd-polluted paddy soils under different moisture managements, using a series of variables (pH and extractable Cd of soil, plant Cd concentration, plant nutrition and enzyme activity in soil). Results revealed that soil pH increased significantly after sepiolite addition, which promoted the reduction in extractable Cd in soil. After applying 0.5-2.5% sepiolite into soil, due to higher pH and lower TCLP Cd concentration, brown rice Cd reduced by 17-67% under continuous flooding, 14-62% under conventional irrigation, and 13-61% under wetting irrigation (p < 0...
April 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Lynette Lincoln, Sunil S More
AIM: To screen and identify a potential extracellular β-D-fructofuranosidase or invertase producing bacterium from soil, and comparatively evaluate the enzyme biosynthesis under submerged and solid-state fermentation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Extracellular invertase producing bacteria were screened from soil. Identification of the potent bacterium was performed based on microscopic examinations and 16S rDNA molecular sequencing. Bacillus subtilis LYN12 invertase secretion was surplus with wheat bran humidified with molasses medium (70%), with elevated activity at 48 h and 37 °C under solid-state fermentation, whereas under submerged conditions increased activity was observed at 24 h and 45 °C in the molasses medium...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Qianqian Shi, Zhenchuan Mao, Xiaoping Zhang, Jian Ling, Runmao Lin, Xi Zhang, Rui Liu, Yunsheng Wang, Yuhong Yang, Xinyue Cheng, Bingyan Xie
Meloidogyne incognita is highly specialized parasite that interacts with host plants using a range of strategies. The effectors are synthesized in the esophageal glands and secreted into plant cells through a needle-like stylet during parasitism. In this study, based on RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis, we predicted 110 putative Meloidogyne incognita effectors that contain nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Combining the Burkholderia glumae -pEDV based screening system with subcellular localization, from 20 randomly selected NLS effector candidates, we identified an effector MiISE6 that can effectively suppress B...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xavier Laffray, Laurence Alaoui-Sehmer, Mohamed Bourioug, Pascale Bourgeade, Badr Alaoui-Sossé, Lotfi Aleya
Salt is widely used to melt snow on roads especially in mountain regions. Whether as rock salt or aerosols, spread or sprayed over road surfaces, salt may result in increased salt concentrations in soils, which, in turn, affect natural vegetation, especially tree seedlings already subjected to various other types of abiotic stress. The authors investigated the effects of salt treatment-related stress on seedling growth and certain biochemical parameters in Quercus robur to determine ion concentrations in root tips...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ofer Stein, David Granot
Sucrose, a glucose-fructose disaccharide, is the main sugar transported in the phloem of most plants and is the origin of most of the organic matter. Upon arrival in sink tissues, the sucrose must be cleaved by invertase or sucrose synthase. Both sucrose-cleaving enzymes yield free fructose, which must be phosphorylated by either fructokinase (FRK) or hexokinase (HXK). The affinity of FRK to fructose is much higher than that of HXK, making FRKs central for fructose metabolism. An FRK gene family seems to exist in most, if not all plants and usually consists of several cytosolic FRKs and a single plastidic FRK...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emily E Chea, Lisa M Jones
Hydroxyl radical footprinting (HRF) is a nonspecific protein footprinting method that has been increasingly used in recent years to analyze protein structure. The method oxidatively modifies solvent accessible sites in proteins, which changes upon alterations in the protein such as ligand binding or a change in conformation. For HRF to provide accurate structural information, the method must probe the native structure of proteins. This requires careful experimental controls since an abundance of oxidative modifications can induce protein unfolding...
March 25, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
William J Barnes, Charles T Anderson
In plants, UDP-glucose is the direct precursor for cellulose biosynthesis, and can be converted into other NDP-sugars required for the biosynthesis of wall matrix polysaccharides. UDP-glucose is generated from sucrose by two distinct metabolic pathways. The first pathway is the direct conversion of sucrose to UDP-glucose and fructose by sucrose synthase. The second pathway involves sucrose hydrolysis by cytosolic invertase (CINV), conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate, and UDP-glucose generation by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP)...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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