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Pujia Yu, Shiwei Liu, Liang Zhang, Qiang Li, Daowei Zhou
Understanding the influences of land use conversions on soil quality (SQ) and function are essential to adopt proper agricultural management practices for a specific region. The primary objective of this study was to develop soil quality indices (SQIs) to assess the short-term influences of different land uses on SQ in semiarid alkaline grassland in northeastern China. Land use treatments were corn cropland (Corn), alfalfa perennial forage (Alfalfa), monoculture Lyemus chinensis grassland (MG) and successional regrowth grassland (SRG), which were applied for five years...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Cheenou Her, Jaideep Singh, V V Krishnan
Sucralose, a derivative of sucrose, is widely used in noncaloric artificial sweeteners (NAS). Contrary to the belief that sucralose is physiologically inert and a healthy alternative sweetener to natural sugar, emerging studies indicate that sucralose alters the host metabolism as well as the composition of the microbiome. In this manuscript, we use real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to demonstrate that sucralose alters the enzymatic conversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose. The real-time NMR progress curve analysis suggests that sucralose has the characteristic of a competitive inhibitor on the kinetics of the enzymatic process...
October 31, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Xiao-Xia Xu, Qin Hu, Wan-Nian Yang, Ye Jin
BACKGROUND: Hexoses are important metabolic signals that respond to abiotic and biotic stresses. Cold stress adversely affects plant growth and development, limiting productivity. The mechanism by which sugars regulate plant cold tolerance remains elusive. RESULTS: We examined the function of INVINH1, a cell wall invertase inhibitor, in tomato chilling tolerance. Cold stress suppressed the transcription of INVINH1 and increased that of cell wall invertase genes, Lin6 and Lin8 in tomato seedlings...
November 9, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Michaela Griesser, Sara Crespo Martinez, Markus W Eitle, Benedikt Warth, Christelle M Andre, Rainer Schuhmacher, Astrid Forneck
Timescale analyses suggest the berry shrivel (BS) disorder is induced before veraison with strong effects on anthocyanin biosynthesis, and minor effects on sugar transport and metabolism. Berry shrivel (BS)-affected grapes have low sugar contents, high acidity, less anthocyanins and flaccid berries. To date no pathogenic causes are known, and studies to elucidate the molecular basis leading to symptom induction and development are limited. Here we present a study on pre-symptomatic as well as symptomatic BS berries to characterize early metabolic changes, with focus on anthocyanin biosynthesis and sugars metabolism...
October 26, 2017: Planta
Ernesto Ramírez-Briones, Ramón Rodríguez-Macías, Eduardo Salcedo-Pérez, Norma Martínez-Gallardo, Axel Tiessen, Jorge Molina-Torres, John P Délano-Frier, Julia Zañudo-Hernández
This study was performed to test the working hypothesis that the primary determinants influencing seasonal driven modifications in carbon mobilization and other key biochemical parameters in leaves of poorly known Diospyros digyna (Ddg; semi-domesticated; perennial) and D. rekoi (Dre; undomesticated; deciduous) trees are determined by environmental growing conditions, agronomic management and physiological plasticity. Thus, biochemical changes in leaves of both trees were recorded seasonally during two successive fruiting years...
2017: PloS One
Diego Bergareche, Joaquín Royo, Luis M Muñiz, Gregorio Hueros
Studies in cell wall bound invertase mutants indicate that the promoter of the transfer cell-specific transcription factor, ZmMRP - 1 , is modulated by the carbohydrate balance. Transfer cells are highly specialized plant cells located at the surfaces that need to support an intensive exchange of nutrients, such as the entrance of fruits, seeds and nodules or the young branching points along the stem. ZmMRP-1 is a one-domain MYB-related transcription factor specifically expressed at the transfer cell layer of the maize endosperm...
October 25, 2017: Planta
Qi Wang, Wen-Ji Zhang, Lin-Yan He, Xia-Fang Sheng
A Cd-resistant and immobilizing Bacillus megaterium H3 was characterized for its impact on the biomass and quality and heavy metal uptake of edible tissues of two vegetables (Brassica campestris L. var. Aijiaohuang and Brassica rapa L. var. Shanghaiqing) grown in heavy metal-polluted soil. The impact of strain H3 on the soil quality was also evaluated. The increase in the edible tissue biomass and the contents of soluble proteins and vitamin C of the vegetables inoculated with strain H3 ranged from 18% to 33%, 17% to 31%, and 15% to 19%, respectively, compared with the controls...
October 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Peng-Chao Guo, Qian Wang, Zhan Wang, Zhaoming Dong, Huawei He, Ping Zhao
Invertase or β-fructofuranosidase (EC belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 32, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into fructose and glucose. Here, we report the biochemical and functional characterization of invertase Bmsuc1 from Bombyx mori. Bmsuc1 showed optimal hydrolysis at pH 7.0-8.0 and its optimum temperature is 50°C using sucrose as substrate. Circular dichroism spectra indicated Bmsuc1 had a primarily β-strand structure. The thermal denaturations transition of Bmsuc1 was a cooperative process with a Tm, ΔH, and ΔS of 53...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fengchun Huang, Huilin Zhang, Lei Wang, Weihua Lai, Jianhan Lin
Combining double-layer capillary based high gradient immunomagnetic separation, invertase-nanocluster based signal amplification and glucose meter based signal detection, a novel biosensor was developed for sensitive and rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in this study. The streptavidin modified magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) were conjugated with the biotinylated polyclonal antibodies against E. coli O157:H7 to form the immune MNBs, which were captured by the high gradient magnetic field in the double-layer capillary to specifically separate and efficiently concentrate the target bacteria...
October 3, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Margarita Stritzler, María Noelia Muñiz García, Mariana Schlesinger, Juan Ignacio Cortelezzi, Daniela Andrea Capiati, John Lunn
This study presents the characterization of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases in potato, focusing on their role in stolon and tuber development. Seven PM H+-ATPase genes were identified in the Solanum tuberosum genome, designated PHA1-PHA7. PHA genes show distinct expression patterns in different plant tissues and under different stress treatments. Application of PM H+-ATPase inhibitors arrests stolon growth, promotes tuber induction, and reduces tuber size, indicating that PM H+-ATPases are involved in tuberization, acting at different stages of the process...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Genaina Aparecida de Souza, Denise Cunha Fernandes Dos Santos Dias, Thaline Martins Pimenta, Andrea Lanna Almeida, Edgard Augusto de Toledo Picoli, Antônio de Pádua Alvarenga, José Cleydson Ferreira da Silva
Changes in the concentration of sugars and sucrose metabolism enzymes can characterize the developmental stages of a seed. In recalcitrant species such as Hevea brasiliensis L., little is known about these changes. We aimed to evaluate the three main stages of development of rubber tree seeds - histodifferentiation, cell elongation and accumulation of reserves. The activities of acid and neutral invertases (E.C. and sucrose synthase (EC, and the concentrations of reducing sugars (RS), total soluble sugars (TSS), and sucrose (Suc) were determined concomitantly with the histochemical and anatomical evaluation of seed structure...
October 9, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Ke Yang, Xiaojun Zhou, Yueyue Wang, Hualing Feng, Xiaolong Ren, Huidong Liu, Wenzhe Liu
Background and Aims: Tapiscia sinensis (Tapisciaceae) is a functional androdioecious species with both male and hermaphroditic individuals, and fruit ripening overlaps with flowering in the hermaphroditic individuals. Pollen vitality was lower in the hermaphrodites than in the males. Anther development requires nutrients, and carbohydrates are the basic nutrients; abnormal carbohydrate metabolism will result in pollen abortion. The aim of this research was to gain insight into the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and the weakening of the male function of hermaphroditic flowers in T...
September 5, 2017: Annals of Botany
Corina M Fusari, Rik Kooke, Martin A Lauxmann, Maria Grazia Annunziata, Beatrice Encke, Melanie Hoehne, Nicole Krohn, Frank F M Becker, Armin Schlereth, Ronan Sulpice, Mark Stitt, Joost J B Keurentjes
Central metabolism is a coordinated network that is regulated at multiple levels by resource availability and by environmental and developmental cues. Its genetic architecture has been investigated by mapping metabolite quantitative trait loci (QTL). A more direct approach is to identify enzyme activity QTL, which distinguishes between cis-QTL in structural genes encoding enzymes and regulatory trans-QTL. Using genome-wide association studies, we mapped QTL for 24 enzyme activities, 9 metabolites, 3 structural components, and biomass in Arabidopsis thaliana...
September 27, 2017: Plant Cell
Yan Rong, Yi Wang, Yina Guan, Jiangtao Ma, Zhiqiang Cai, Guanghua Yang, Xiyue Zhao
Graphene (GN) and graphene oxides (GOs) are novel carbon nanomaterial; they have been attracting much attention because of their excellent properties and are widely applied in many areas, including energy, electronics, biomedicine, environmental science, etc. With industrial production and consumption of GN/GO, they will inevitably enter the soil and water environments. GN/GO may directly cause certain harm to microorganisms and lead to ecological and environmental risks. GOs are GN derivatives with abundant oxygen-containing functional groups in their graphitic backbone...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Marina E Battaglia, María Victoria Martin, Leandra Lechner, Giselle M A Martínez-Noël, Graciela L Salerno
Alkaline/neutral invertases (A/N-Inv), glucosidases that irreversibly hydrolyze sucrose into glucose and fructose, play significant roles in plant growth, development, and stress adaptation. They occur as multiple isoforms located in the cytosol or organelles. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two mitochondrial A/N-Inv genes (A/N-InvA and A/N-InvC) have already been investigated. In this study, we functionally characterized A/N-InvH, a third Arabidopsis gene coding for a mitochondrial-targeted protein. The phenotypic analysis of knockout mutant plants (invh) showed a severely reduced shoot growth, while root development was not affected...
2017: PloS One
Simona Nardozza, Helen L Boldingh, Mark W Wohlers, Andrew P Gleave, Zhiwei Luo, Guglielmo Costa, Elspeth A MacRae, Michael J Clearwater, Annette C Richardson
Exogenous application of a cytokinin-like compound forchlorfenuron (CPPU) can promote fruit growth, although often at the expense of dry matter (DM), an important indicator of fruit quality. Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa 'Hayward' fruit are very responsive to CPPU treatments, but the mechanism underlying the significant fruit weight increase and associated decrease in DM is unclear. In this study, we hypothesised that CPPU-enhanced growth increases fruit carbohydrate demand, but limited carbohydrate supply resulted in decreased fruit DM...
2017: Horticulture Research
Abera Belay, Gulelat Desse Haki, Marc Birringer, Hannelore Borck, Young-Chul Lee, Kyung-Tack Kim, Kaleab Baye, Samuel Melaku
The enzymes activity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and amino acids in honeys are relatively low. However, they play very significant role for honey quality. In this study, enzymes, amino acids and HMF contents of Ethiopian monofloral honeys were investigated. Diastase, invertase and HMF were analyzed based on the Harmonized International Honey Commission method and amino acids using amino acids analyzer (HPLC). Diastase activity ranged from 3.91 ± 0.730 (Schefflera abyssinica) to 13.6 ± 2.30 [Becium grandiflorum (L: Lalibella)]; invertase 36...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Lei Ru, Sonia Osorio, Lu Wang, Alisdair R Fernie, John W Patrick, Yong-Ling Ruan
Fruit set is a developmental transition from ovaries to fruitlets that determines yield potential. Cell wall invertase (CWIN) is essential for fruit and seed set, but the underlying molecular basis remains elusive. We addressed this issue by using CWIN-elevated transgenic tomato, focusing on ovaries and fruitlets at 2 d before and after anthesis, respectively. RNAseq analyses revealed that ovaries and fruitlets exhibited remarkable differences in their transcriptomic responses to elevated CWIN activity. Ovaries 2 d before anthesis were far more responsive to elevated CWIN activity compared with the fruitlets...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Bruna C Condé, Eloïse Bouchard, Julie A Culbert, Kerry L Wilkinson, Sigfredo Fuentes, Kate S Howell
Proteins and amino acids are known to influence the foam characteristics of sparkling wines. However, it is unclear to what extent they promote foam formation and/or stability. This study aimed to investigate the effect of protein content and amino acid composition, measured via the bicinchoninic acid assay and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively, on the foaming properties of 28 sparkling white wines, made by different production methods. Foam volume and stability were determined using a robotic pourer and computer vision algorithms...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Katharina Herkendell, Ran Tel-Vered, Andreas Stemmer
Enzymatic fuel cells may become more accessible for applications powering portable electronic devices by broadening the range of potentially usable fuels and oxidizers. In this work we demonstrate the operation of an integrated, yet versatile multi-substrate biofuel cell utilizing either glucose, fructose, sucrose or combinations of thereof as biofuels, and molecular oxygen originating from solution phase and/or an internal chemical source, as the oxidizer. In order to achieve this goal we designed an enzymatic cascade-functionalized anode consisting of invertase (INV), mutarotase (MUT), glucose oxidase (GOX), and fructose dehydrogenase (FDH), deposited on top of a mesoporous carbon nanoparticle matrix, in which electron relay molecules had been entrapped...
September 28, 2017: Nanoscale
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