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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787037/effects-of-perinatal-exposure-to-dibutyltin-chloride-on-fat-and-glucose-metabolism-in-mice-and-molecular-mechanisms-in-vitro
#1
Raquel Chamorro-García, Bassem M Shoucri, Sigal Willner, Heidi Käch, Amanda Janesick, Bruce Blumberg
BACKGROUND: The organotin dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, in construction materials, and in medical devices. Previous animal studies showed detrimental effects of DBT during in utero development at relatively high doses, but little was known about the effects of DBT exposure at environmentally relevant doses on endpoints such as obesity and metabolic disease. OBJECTIVES: We tested the potential obesogenic effects of DBT using in vitro and in vivo models...
May 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786956/rho-kinase-and-protein-kinase-c-pathways-are-responsible-for-enhanced-carbachol-contraction-in-permeabilized-detrusor-in-a-rat-model-of-cystitis
#2
Merve Denizalti, N Tugba Durlu-Kandilci, G Simsek, T Emrah Bozkurt, Inci Sahin-Erdemli
Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome characterized by detrusor overactivity and chronic inflammation of the bladder. The mechanisms responsible for the altered smooth muscle contractility remain poorly understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of intracellular signalling pathways in carbachol-induced detrusor contraction in a rat model of interstitial cystitis. Cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg, dissolved in saline) was injected to rats (Sprague-Dawley, female, 200-250 g) intraperitoneally once a day on days 1, 4 and 7 to induce interstitial cystitis...
May 22, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786934/origin-of-photoluminescence-enhancement-of-gold-doped-silver-nanoclusters-importance-of-relativistic-effects-and-heterogeneous-gold-silver-interaction
#3
Xiao-Ying Xie, Pin Xiao, Xiaoyan Cao, Wei-Hai Fang, Ganglong Cui, Michael Franz Dolg
The weak photoluminescence of silver nanoclusters suppresses their broad applications as luminescent nanomaterials. Recent experiments however showed that Au-doping can significantly enhance the photoluminescence intensity of Ag_29 nanoclusters, whereas molecular and physical origins of this effect remain unknown. Therefore we have computationally explored geometric and electronic structures of Ag_29 and its Au-doped Ag_29-xAu_x (x=1-5) nanoclusters in the S_0 and S_1 states. We found that (1) relativistic effects mainly originating from the Au atoms play an important role in enhancing the fluorescence intensity, especially for highly doped Ag_26Au_3, Ag_25Au_4, and Ag_24Au_5; (2) heteronuclear Au-Ag bonds can increase stabilities and regulate fluorescence intensities of isomers of these Au-doped nanoclusters...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786924/reproductive-ecology-of-ocotea-catharinensis-an-endangered-tree-species
#4
Tiago Montagna, Juliano Zago da Silva, Tiago Georg Pickart, Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis
Ocotea catharinensis (Lauraceae) is an endangered tree species from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Currently, little is known about the reproductive ecology of this species. Aiming to propose conservation measures, we described aspects related to phenology, floral biology, pollination, seed dispersal, and mating system of O. catharinensis. We conducted phenological observations in 62 individuals for two years. In one reproductive event, we evaluated nectar production, stigmatic receptivity, and pollen viability...
May 22, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786907/simulation-of-the-degradation-of-cyclic-ketene-acetal-and-vinyl-based-copolymers-synthesized-via-a-radical-process-influence-of-the-reactivity-ratios-on-the-degradability-properties
#5
Didier Gigmes, Paul H M Van Steenberge, Didier Siri, Dagmar R D'hooge, Yohann Guillaneuf, Catherine Lefay
The radical copolymerization of vinyl and cyclic ketene acetal (CKA) monomers is a promising way to prepare degradable vinyl polymers. The reactivity of the comonomer pair is known to be dependent of the vinyl monomer structure that requires to play with experimental conditions (feed ratio, overall monomer conversion, etc.) to target a desired cumulative (average) copolymer composition. Even if the materials are completely degradable, there is no information about the homogeneity of the degraded products. This theoretical study, using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, allows simulating degradation at the molecular level...
May 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786905/quasi-3d-structured-interfaces-by-polymer-brushes
#6
REVIEW
Edmondo M Benetti
The fabrication of polymer brushes via surface-initiated controlled radical polymerizations has progressively developed beyond a simple surface functionalization technique, enabling the design of complex polymer interfaces with a quasi-3D molecular organization. The modulation of polymer brush structure has led to an extremely broad tuning potential for technologically relevant interfacial, physicochemical properties, allowing one to precisely tune swelling, nanomechanical, and nanotribological characteristics of polymer films...
May 22, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786870/the-association-between-local-atherosclerosis-of-the-prostatic-artery-and-benign-prostatic-enlargement-in-humans-putative-mechanism-of-chronic-ischemia-for-prostatic-enlargement
#7
Nobuhiro Haga, Hidenori Akaihata, Junya Hata, Ken Aikawa, Tomohiko Yanagida, Kanako Matsuoka, Tomoyuki Koguchi, Seiji Hoshi, Soichiro Ogawa, Masao Kataoka, Yuichi Sato, Kei Ishibashi, Osamu Suzuki, Yuko Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki Kojima
BACKGROUND: To investigate the possible pathogenesis of the benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) induced by local atherosclerosis, the association between local atherosclerosis and prostatic enlargement was investigated, and molecular biological analyses were performed using human prostatectomy specimens. METHODS: A total of 69 consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) participated in this prospective study. To evaluate actual local atherosclerosis, prostatic arteries were removed during RARP...
May 21, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786867/growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-antagonists-reduce-prostatic-enlargement-and-inflammation-in-carrageenan-induced-chronic-prostatitis
#8
Petra Popovics, Renzhi Cai, Wei Sha, Ferenc G Rick, Andrew V Schally
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a key role in the etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) through multiple pathways involving the stimulation of proliferation by cytokines and growth factors as well as the induction of the focal occurrence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have previously reported that GHRH acts as a prostatic growth factor in experimental BPH and in autoimmune prostatitis models and its blockade with GHRH antagonists offer therapeutic approaches for these conditions...
May 21, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786765/analysis-of-streptomyces-ghanaensis-atcc14672-gene-ssfg_07725-for-putative-%C3%AE-butyrolactone-synthase
#9
Yuriy Kuzhyk, Halyna Mutenko, Victor Fedorenko, Bohdan Ostash
Low molecular weight signaling compounds (LMWC) are important players in regulating various aspects of Streptomyces biology. Their exact roles in certain strain will ultimately depend on overall configuration of regulatory network and thus cannot be predicted on basis of in silico studies. Here, we explored S. ghanaensis gene SSFG_07725 (afsA gh ) presumably involved in initial steps of formation of γ-butyrolactone LMWC. Disruption of afsA gh impaired aerial mycelium formation and increased the transcription of pleiotropic regulatory gene adpA gh , whereas level of moenomycin production remained virtually unaffected...
May 21, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786763/mir-124-promotes-proliferation-and-neural-differentiation-of-neural-stem-cells-through-targeting-dact1-and-activating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathways
#10
Shujie Jiao, Yaling Liu, Yaobing Yao, Junfang Teng
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent and undifferentiated cells with the potential to differentiate into neuronal lineages and gliocytes. NSCs have the ability to generate and regenerate the brain, indicating the possibility of cell-based therapies for neurological disorders. miR-124 has been demonstrated as a modulator in the survival, expansion, and differentiation of NSCs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-124 in NSC development are still far from being understood. The expressions of miR-124, dishevelled binding antagonist of beta-catenin 1 (DACT1), ki-67, Nestin, β-tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), β-catenin, cyclinD1, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were examined by qRT-PCR or western blot...
May 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786761/engineering-terpenoid-production-through-transient-expression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#11
REVIEW
James Reed, Anne Osbourn
Terpenoids are the most structurally diverse class of plant natural products with a huge range of commercial and medical applications. Exploiting this enormous potential has historically been hindered due to low levels of these compounds in their natural sources, making isolation difficult, while their structural complexity frequently makes synthetic chemistry approaches uneconomical. Engineering terpenoid biosynthesis in heterologous host production platforms provides a means to overcome these obstacles. In particular, plant-based production systems are attractive as they provide the compartmentalisation and cofactors necessary for the transfer of functional pathways from other plants...
May 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786754/regulation-of-interferon-signaling-and-hcv%C3%A2-rna-replication-by-extracellular-matrix
#12
Takuya Kuwashiro, Shinji Iwane, Xia Jinghe, Sachiko Matsuhashi, Yuichiro Eguchi, Keizo Anzai, Kazuma Fujimoto, Toshihiko Mizuta, Naoya Sakamoto, Masanori Ikeda, Nobuyuki Kato, Iwata Ozaki
Although interferon (IFN)‑based treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widely applied, treatment resistance is often observed in patients with advanced liver fibrosis. Given that the molecular mechanisms of IFN resistance in liver fibrosis remain elusive, the present study investigated the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) on IFN signaling in hepatic cells. The native HuH‑7 human hepatoma cell line and HuH‑7 cells were stably transfected with full‑length HCV‑RNA fused with Renilla luciferase (OR6 cells) were cultured on ECM‑coated dishes or non‑coated plastic dishes (NDs), and treated with human IFN‑α...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786747/microrna-137-dysregulation-predisposes-to-osteoporotic-fracture-by-impeding-alp-activity-and-expression-via-suppression-of-leucine-rich-repeat-containing-g-protein-coupled-receptor-4-expression
#13
Xiangjun Liu, Xiaohui Xu
Osteoporosis is defined as a loss of bone mass and deterioration of its architecture resulting in bone weakness, which becomes prone to fracture. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which miR-137 can reduce the risk of fracture in patients with osteoporosis. An online miRNA database and a luciferase reporter assay system were used to confirm that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) was the target of miR-137. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to study miR-137 mRNA, the expression of LGR4 mRNA and protein among different groups or cells transfected with a scrambled miRNA control, miR-137 mimic, LGR4 siRNA and miR-137 inhibitor...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786739/synthesis-of-pure-silica-mfi-zeolites-using-imidazolium-based-long-dications-a-comparative-study-of-structure-directing-effects-derived-from-a-further-spacer-length-increase
#14
Peng Lu, Luis Gómez-Hortigüela, Miguel A Camblor
Length-dependent structure direction of linear methylimidazolium-based dications towards MFI zeolite, previously known only for the tetramethylene spacer, has also been found for octamethylene and decamethylene spacers. This works only under highly concentrated conditions, whereas dilution always tends to favor TON, a default structure that is the only zeolite obtained with the other reported dications (with tri-, penta-, and hexamethylene spacers). The locations and conformations of the dications have been studied by molecular mechanics simulations...
May 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786721/versatile-organoaluminium-catalysts-based-on-heteroscorpionate-ligands-for-the-preparation-of-polyesters
#15
J Martínez, M Martínez de Sarasa Buchaca, F de la Cruz-Martínez, C Alonso-Moreno, L F Sánchez-Barba, J Fernandez-Baeza, A M Rodríguez, A Rodríguez-Diéguez, J A Castro-Osma, A Otero, A Lara-Sánchez
A series of alkyl aluminium complexes based on heteroscorpionate ligands were designed as catalysts for the ring-opening polymerisation of cyclic esters and ring-opening copolymerisation of epoxides and anhydrides. Treatment of AlX3 (X = Me, Et) with ligands bpzbeH [bpzbe = 1,1-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-3,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide], bpzteH [bpzte = 2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-1-para-tolylethoxide], and (R,R)-bpzmmH [(R,R)-bpzmm = (1R)-1-{(1R)-6,6-dimethyl-bicyclo[3.1.1]-2-hepten-2-yl}-2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)ethoxide] for 2 hours at 0 °C afforded the mononuclear dialkyl aluminium complexes [AlMe2{κ2-bpzbe}] (1), [AlEt2{κ2-bpzbe}] (2), [AlMe2{κ2-(R,R)-bpzmm}] (3) and [AlEt2{κ2-(R,R)-bpzmm}] (4), and the dinuclear dialkyl complexes [AlMe2{κ2-bpzte}]2 (5) and [AlEt2{κ2-bpzte}]2 (6)...
May 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786716/unexpected-protonation-state-of-glu197-discovered-from-simulations-of-tacrine-in-butyrylcholinesterase
#16
Xiao Wan, Yuan Yao, Lei Fang, Junjun Liu
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has been actively involved in drug discoveries from many fields for decades. In the crystal structure of the BChE-tacrine complex, there is an unanticipated formyl-proline molecule resolved very close to tacrine, raising an essential question on how reliable it is to apply the binding pose in a crystal structure to analyze related experimental observations, in which no formyl-proline is actually involved. In this study, by performing a series of 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that it is safe to employ the structural information from this crystal structure to analyze related experimental observations...
May 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786692/corrigendum-configurational-molecular-glue-one-optically-active-polymer-attracts-two-oppositely-configured-optically-active-polymers
#17
Hideto Tsuji, Soma Noda, Takayuki Kimura, Tadashi Sobue, Yuki Arakawa
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep45170.
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786671/mechanisms-of-action-and-cell-death-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-toxins
#18
REVIEW
Mauricio A Navarro, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans...
May 22, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786669/protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-inhibition-and-glucose-uptake-potentials-of-mulberrofuran-g-albanol-b-and-kuwanon-g-from-root-bark-of-morus-alba-l-in-insulin-resistant-hepg2-cells-an-in-vitro-and-in-silico-study
#19
Pradeep Paudel, Ting Yu, Su Hui Seong, Eun Bi Kuk, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue Choi
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes and has become a major health problem across the world. The root bark of Morus alba L. is widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment and management of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the enzyme inhibitory potentials of three principle components, mulberrofuran G ( 1 ), albanol B ( 2 ), and kuwanon G ( 3 ) in M. alba root bark against diabetes, establish their enzyme kinetics, carry out a molecular docking simulation, and demonstrate the glucose uptake activity in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786664/enable-2017-the-first-european-phd-and-post-doc-symposium-session-3-in-vitro-to-in-vivo-modeling-life-in-3d
#20
Gianmarco Di Mauro, Ambra Dondi, Giovanni Giangreco, Alexander Hogrebe, Elja Louer, Elisa Magistrati, Meeli Mullari, Gemma Turon, Wouter Verdurmen, Helena Xicoy Cortada, Sanja Zivanovic
The EUROPEAN ACADEMY FOR BIOMEDICAL SCIENCE (ENABLE) is an initiative funded by the European Union Horizon 2020 program involving four renowned European research institutes (Institute for Research in Biomedicine-IRB Barcelona, Spain; Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences-RIMLS, the Netherlands; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research-NNF CPR, Denmark; European School of Molecular Medicine-SEMM, Italy) and an innovative science communication agency (Scienseed). With the aim to promote biomedical science of excellence in Europe, ENABLE organizes an annual three-day international event...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Personalized Medicine
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