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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714051/contributions-of-genes-and-environment-to-developmental-change-in-alcohol-use
#1
E C Long, B Verhulst, S H Aggen, K S Kendler, N A Gillespie
The precise nature of how genetic and environmental risk factors influence changes in alcohol use (AU) over time has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the nature of longitudinal changes in these risk factors to AU from mid-adolescence through young adulthood. Using a large sample of male twins, we compared five developmental models that each makes different predictions regarding the longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental risks for AU. The best-fitting model indicated that genetic influences were consistent with a gradual growth in the liability to AU, whereas unique environmental risk factors were consistent with an accumulation of risks across time...
July 17, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711725/the-cost-effectiveness-of-a-patient-centred-pressure-ulcer-prevention-care-bundle-findings-from-the-intact-cluster-randomised-trial
#2
Jennifer A Whitty, Elizabeth McInnes, Tracey Bucknall, Joan Webster, Brigid M Gillespie, Merrilyn Banks, Lukman Thalib, Marianne Wallis, Jose Cumsille, Shelley Roberts, Wendy Chaboyer
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are serious, avoidable, costly and common adverse outcomes of healthcare. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a patient-centred pressure ulcer prevention care bundle compared to standard care. DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses of pressure ulcer prevention performed from the health system perspective using data collected alongside a cluster-randomised trial. SETTINGS: Eight tertiary hospitals in Australia...
June 27, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705249/vector-control-with-driving-y-chromosomes-modelling-the-evolution-of-resistance
#3
Andrea Beaghton, Pantelis John Beaghton, Austin Burt
BACKGROUND: The introduction of new malaria control interventions has often led to the evolution of resistance, both of the parasite to new drugs and of the mosquito vector to new insecticides, compromising the efficacy of the interventions. Recent progress in molecular and population biology raises the possibility of new genetic-based interventions, and the potential for resistance to evolve against these should be considered. Here, population modelling is used to determine the main factors affecting the likelihood that resistance will evolve against a synthetic, nuclease-based driving Y chromosome that produces a male-biased sex ratio...
July 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701299/modeled-changes-in-us-sodium-intake-from-reducing-sodium-concentrations-of-commercially-processed-and-prepared-foods-to-meet-voluntary-standards-established-in-north-america-nhanes
#4
Mary E Cogswell, Sheena M Patel, Keming Yuan, Cathleen Gillespie, WenYen Juan, Christine J Curtis, Michel Vigneault, Jenifer Clapp, Paula Roach, Alanna Moshfegh, Jaspreet Ahuja, Pamela Pehrsson, Lauren Brookmire, Robert Merritt
Background: Approximately 2 in 3 US adults have prehypertension or hypertension that increases their risk of cardiovascular disease. Reducing sodium intake can decrease blood pressure and prevent hypertension. Approximately 9 in 10 Americans consume excess sodium (≥2300 mg/d). Voluntary sodium standards for commercially processed and prepared foods were established in North America, but their impact on sodium intake is unclear.Objective: We modelled the potential impact on US sodium intake of applying voluntary sodium standards for foods...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700580/infant-viewing-of-social-scenes-is-under-genetic-control-and-is-atypical-in-autism
#5
John N Constantino, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Claire Weichselbaum, Natasha Marrus, Alyzeh Haider, Anne L Glowinski, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
Long before infants reach, crawl or walk, they explore the world by looking: they look to learn and to engage, giving preferential attention to social stimuli, including faces, face-like stimuli and biological motion. This capacity-social visual engagement-shapes typical infant development from birth and is pathognomonically impaired in children affected by autism. Here we show that variation in viewing of social scenes, including levels of preferential attention and the timing, direction and targeting of individual eye movements, is strongly influenced by genetic factors, with effects directly traceable to the active seeking of social information...
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698159/identification-of-novel-and-hotspot-mutations-in-the-channel-domain-of-itpr1-in-two-patients-with-gillespie-syndrome
#6
M L Dentici, S Barresi, M Nardella, E Bellacchio, P Alfieri, A Bruselles, F Pantaleoni, A Danieli, G Iarossi, M Cappa, E Bertini, M Tartaglia, G Zanni
ITPR1 encodes an intracellular receptor for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) which is highly expressed in the cerebellum and is involved in the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis. Missense mutations in the InsP3-binding domain (IRBIT) of ITPR1 are frequently associated with early onset cerebellar atrophy. Gillespie syndrome is characterized by congenital ataxia, mild to moderate intellectual disability and iris hypoplasia. Dominant or recessive ITPR1 mutations have been recently associated with this form of syndromic ataxia...
July 8, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693718/partners-in-recovery-program-evaluation-changes-in-unmet-needs-and-recovery
#7
Nicola Hancock, Justin Newton Scanlan, James A Gillespie, Jennifer Smith-Merry, Ivy Yen
Objective Partners in Recovery (PIR) is an Australian government initiative designed to provide support and service linkage for individuals with complex needs living with severe and persistent mental illness. The aim of the present study was to examine whether consumers engaged in PIR programs in two large regions of Sydney experienced: (1) a reduction in unmet needs (either via self- or staff report); and (2) progress in their self-reported mental health recovery.Methods Unmet needs were measured using the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Scale and recovery was measured using the Recovery Assessment Scale - Domains and Stages...
July 11, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688672/an-examination-of-pre-and-posttreatment-acoustic-versus-auditory-perceptual-analyses-of-voice-across-four-common-voice-disorders
#8
Amanda I Gillespie, Jackie Gartner-Schmidt, Ali Lewandowski, Shaheen N Awan
OBJECTIVE: The objective, instrumental acoustic measure of Cepstral Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID) correlates with audio-perceptual measures, is sensitive in detecting voice abnormalities, and tracks change following treatment. The goals of the current study were to (1) test the agreement between CSID versus auditory perceptual measures of pre- versus posttreatment voice change, and (2) investigate whether change in scores is based on voice disorder or phonemic structure of sentence stimuli...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686879/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-qatar-one-year-anniversary
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Bakr, Ibrahim Al-Hijji, Naziha Menasria, Zeyd Merenkov, Safaa Al-Azzawi, Ruba Taha, Amaal Gulied, Catherine Anne Gillespie, Said Dermime, Effie Liakopoulou, Alexander Knuth
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers potentially curative therapy for many hematologic and nonhematologic conditions. As a successful outcome of Qatar's National Cancer Strategy, the HSCT program was started in the National Center for Cancer Care and Research (NCCCR) in October 2015. The HSCT program in NCCCR is the only transplant program in Qatar and self-sufficient with all three core components: the stem cell collection facility, the stem cell processing facility, and the clinical program, which are locally available at Hamad Medical Corporation...
June 29, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683569/perspective-taking-is-two-sided-misunderstandings-between-people-with-asperger-s-syndrome-and-their-family-members
#10
Brett Heasman, Alex Gillespie
Misunderstandings are social in nature, always having two sides. Yet the misunderstandings experienced by people with Asperger's syndrome are usually studied in terms of the individual with a diagnosis, with less emphasis on social relations. We use a two-sided methodology to map out misunderstandings within 22 dyads (n = 44) consisting of people with Asperger's syndrome and their family members. Both sides of the relationship were asked about 12 topics in terms of one's rating of Self, one's rating of Other and one's predicted rating by Other...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678782/transcription-elongation-factors-represent-in-vivo-cancer-dependencies-in-glioblastoma
#11
Tyler E Miller, Brian B Liau, Lisa C Wallace, Andrew R Morton, Qi Xie, Deobrat Dixit, Daniel C Factor, Leo J Y Kim, James J Morrow, Qiulian Wu, Stephen C Mack, Christopher G Hubert, Shawn M Gillespie, William A Flavahan, Thomas Hoffmann, Rohit Thummalapalli, Michael T Hemann, Patrick J Paddison, Craig M Horbinski, Johannes Zuber, Peter C Scacheri, Bradley E Bernstein, Paul J Tesar, Jeremy N Rich
Glioblastoma is a universally lethal cancer with a median survival time of approximately 15 months. Despite substantial efforts to define druggable targets, there are no therapeutic options that notably extend the lifespan of patients with glioblastoma. While previous work has largely focused on in vitro cellular models, here we demonstrate a more physiologically relevant approach to target discovery in glioblastoma. We adapted pooled RNA interference (RNAi) screening technology for use in orthotopic patient-derived xenograft models, creating a high-throughput negative-selection screening platform in a functional in vivo tumour microenvironment...
July 5, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676416/noise-slows-the-rate-of-michaelis-menten-reactions
#12
J David Van Dyken
Microscopic randomness and the small volumes of living cells combine to generate random fluctuations in molecule concentrations called "noise". Here I investigate the effect of noise on biochemical reactions obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics, concluding that substrate noise causes these reactions to slow. I derive a general expression for the time evolution of the joint probability density of chemical species in arbitrarily connected networks of non-linear chemical reactions in small volumes. This equation is a generalization of the chemical master equation (CME), a common tool for investigating stochastic chemical kinetics, extended to reaction networks occurring in small volumes, such as living cells...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667019/retrotransposons-are-the-major-contributors-to-the-expansion-of-the-drosophila-ananassae-muller-f-element
#13
Wilson Leung, Christopher D Shaffer, Elizabeth J Chen, Thomas J Quisenberry, Kevin Ko, John M Braverman, Thomas C Giarla, Nathan T Mortimer, Laura K Reed, Sheryl T Smith, Srebrenka Robic, Shannon R McCartha, Danielle R Perry, Lindsay M Prescod, Zenyth A Sheppard, Ken J Saville, Allison McClish, Emily A Morlock, Victoria R Sochor, Brittney Stanton, Isaac C Veysey-White, Dennis Revie, Luis A Jimenez, Jennifer J Palomino, Melissa D Patao, Shane M Patao, Edward T Himelblau, Jaclyn D Campbell, Alexandra L Hertz, Maddison F McEvilly, Allison R Wagner, James Youngblom, Baljit Bedi, Jeffery Bettincourt, Erin Duso, Maiye Her, William Hilton, Samantha House, Masud Karimi, Kevin Kumimoto, Rebekah Lee, Darryl Lopez, George Odisho, Ricky Prasad, Holly Lyn Robbins, Tanveer Sandhu, Tracy Selfridge, Kara Tsukashima, Hani Yosif, Nighat P Kokan, Latia Britt, Alycia Zoellner, Eric P Spana, Ben T Chlebina, Insun Chong, Harrison Friedman, Danny A Mammo, Chun L Ng, Vinayak S Nikam, Nicholas U Schwartz, Thomas Q Xu, Martin G Burg, Spencer M Batten, Lindsay M Corbeill, Erica Enoch, Jesse J Ensign, Mary E Franks, Breanna Haiker, Judith A Ingles, Lyndsay D Kirkland, Joshua M Lorenz-Guertin, Jordan Matthews, Cody M Mittig, Nicholaus Monsma, Katherine J Olson, Guillermo Perez-Aragon, Alen Ramic, Jordan R Ramirez, Christopher Scheiber, Patrick A Schneider, Devon E Schultz, Matthew Simon, Eric Spencer, Adam C Wernette, Maxine E Wykle, Elizabeth Zavala-Arellano, Mitchell J McDonald, Kristine Ostby, Peter Wendland, Justin R DiAngelo, Alexis M Ceasrine, Amanda H Cox, James E B Docherty, Robert M Gingras, Stephanie M Grieb, Michael J Pavia, Casey L Personius, Grzegorz L Polak, Dale L Beach, Heaven L Cerritos, Edward A Horansky, Karim A Sharif, Ryan Moran, Susan Parrish, Kirsten Bickford, Jennifer Bland, Juliana Broussard, Kerry Campbell, Katelynn E Deibel, Richard Forka, Monika C Lemke, Marlee B Nelson, Catherine O'Keeffe, S Mariel Ramey, Luke Schmidt, Paola Villegas, Christopher J Jones, Stephanie L Christ, Sami Mamari, Adam S Rinaldi, Ghazal Stity, Amy T Hark, Mark Scheuerman, Cathy Silver Key, Briana D McRae, Adam S Haberman, Sam Asinof, Harriette Carrington, Kelly Drumm, Terrance Embry, Richard McGuire, Drew Miller-Foreman, Stella Rosen, Nadia Safa, Darrin Schultz, Matt Segal, Yakov Shevin, Petros Svoronos, Tam Vuong, Gary Skuse, Don W Paetkau, Rachael K Bridgman, Charlotte M Brown, Alicia R Carroll, Francesca M Gifford, Julie Beth Gillespie, Susan E Herman, Krystal L Holtcamp, Misha A Host, Gabrielle Hussey, Danielle M Kramer, Joan Q Lawrence, Madeline M Martin, Ellen N Niemiec, Ashleigh P O'Reilly, Olivia A Pahl, Guadalupe Quintana, Elizabeth A S Rettie, Torie L Richardson, Arianne E Rodriguez, Mona O Rodriguez, Laura Schiraldi, Joanna J Smith, Kelsey F Sugrue, Lindsey J Suriano, Kaitlyn E Takach, Arielle M Vasquez, Ximena Velez, Elizabeth J Villafuerte, Laura T Vives, Victoria R Zellmer, Jeanette Hauke, Charles R Hauser, Karolyn Barker, Laurie Cannon, Perouza Parsamian, Samantha Parsons, Zachariah Wichman, Christopher W Bazinet, Diana E Johnson, Abubakarr Bangura, Jordan A Black, Victoria Chevee, Sarah A Einsteen, Sarah K Hilton, Max Kollmer, Rahul Nadendla, Joyce Stamm, Antoinette E Fafara-Thompson, Amber M Gygi, Emmy E Ogawa, Matt Van Camp, Zuzana Kocsisova, Judith L Leatherman, Cassie M Modahl, Michael R Rubin, Susana S Apiz-Saab, Suzette M Arias-Mejias, Carlos F Carrion-Ortiz, Patricia N Claudio-Vazquez, Debbie M Espada-Green, Marium Feliciano-Camacho, Karina M Gonzalez-Bonilla, Mariela Taboas-Arroyo, Dorianmarie Vargas-Franco, Raquel Montañez-Gonzalez, Joseph Perez-Otero, Myrielis Rivera-Burgos, Francisco J Rivera-Rosario, Heather L Eisler, Jackie Alexander, Samatha K Begley, Deana Gabbard, Robert J Allen, Wint Yan Aung, William D Barshop, Amanda Boozalis, Vanessa P Chu, Jeremy S Davis, Ryan N Duggal, Robert Franklin, Katherine Gavinski, Heran Gebreyesus, Henry Z Gong, Rachel A Greenstein, Averill D Guo, Casey Hanson, Kaitlin E Homa, Simon C Hsu, Yi Huang, Lucy Huo, Sarah Jacobs, Sasha Jia, Kyle L Jung, Sarah Wai-Chee Kong, Matthew R Kroll, Brandon M Lee, Paul F Lee, Kevin M Levine, Amy S Li, Chengyu Liu, Max Mian Liu, Adam P Lousararian, Peter B Lowery, Allyson P Mallya, Joseph E Marcus, Patrick C Ng, Hien P Nguyen, Ruchik Patel, Hashini Precht, Suchita Rastogi, Jonathan M Sarezky, Adam Schefkind, Michael B Schultz, Delia Shen, Tara Skorupa, Nicholas C Spies, Gabriel Stancu, Hiu Man Vivian Tsang, Alice L Turski, Rohit Venkat, Leah E Waldman, Kaidi Wang, Tracy Wang, Jeffrey W Wei, Dennis Y Wu, David D Xiong, Jack Yu, Karen Zhou, Gerard P McNeil, Robert W Fernandez, Patrick Gomez Menzies, Tingting Gu, Jeremy Buhler, Elaine R Mardis, Sarah C R Elgin
The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (~5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in Drosophila ananassae To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4 Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7 Mb region from the D element for comparison...
June 30, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665903/man-versus-machine-comparing-double-data-entry-and-optical-mark-recognition-for-processing-cahps-survey-data
#14
Matthew Fifolt, Justin Blackburn, David J Rhodes, Shemeka Gillespie, Aleena Bennett, Paul Wolff, Andrew Rucks
OBJECTIVE: Historically, double data entry (DDE) has been considered the criterion standard for minimizing data entry errors. However, previous studies considered data entry alternatives through the limited lens of data accuracy. This study supplies information regarding data accuracy, operational efficiency, and cost for DDE and Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) for processing the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems 5.0 survey. METHODS: To assess data accuracy, we compared error rates for DDE and OMR by dividing the number of surveys that were arbitrated by the total number of surveys processed for each method...
July 2017: Quality Management in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665885/the-metropolitan-atlanta-community-adolescent-rapid-testing-initiative-study-closing-the-gaps-in-hiv-care-among-youth-in-atlanta-georgia-usa
#15
Andres F Camacho-Gonzalez, Scott E Gillespie, LaTeshia Thomas-Seaton, Krystal Frieson, Sophia A Hussen, Ashley Murray, Zaneta Gaul, Traci Leong, Chanda Graves, Madeline Y Sutton, Rana Chakraborty
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of the Metropolitan Atlanta community adolescent rapid testing initiative (MACARTI) intervention relative to standard of care (SOC), in achieving early diagnosis, linkage, and retention among HIV-infected youth ages 18-24 years. DESIGN: MACARTI was a pilot single-center, prospective, nonrandomized study. METHODS: MACARTI combined nontraditional venue HIV testing, motivational interviewing, and case management...
July 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662494/gorilloflasca-africana-n-g-n-sp-entodiniomorphida-from-wild-habituated-virunga-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-in-rwanda
#16
Akira Ito, Winnie Eckardt, Tara S Stoinski, Thomas R Gillespie, Toshihiro Tokiwa
A new entodiniomorphid ciliate species, Gorilloflasca africana n. g., n. sp. was described from the Virunga mountain gorillas, Gorilla beringei beringei, in Rwanda. It is characterized by a flask-shaped body, a long tubular vestibulum, a round frontal lobe, a large posterior cavity, an ellipsoidal or peanut-shaped macronucleus and a single contractile vacuole. G. africana has the adoral and the vestibular ciliary zones in the buccal area. The adoral ciliary zone is non-retractable, encircling the vestibular opening...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657634/multiscale-modeling-of-a-rectifying-bipolar-nanopore-explicit-water-versus-implicit-water-simulations
#17
Zoltán Ható, Mónika Valiskó, Tamás Kristóf, Dirk Gillespie, Dezsö Boda
In a multiscale modeling approach, we present computer simulation results for a rectifying bipolar nanopore at two modeling levels. In an all-atom model, we use explicit water to simulate ion transport directly with the molecular dynamics technique. In a reduced model, we use implicit water and apply the Local Equilibrium Monte Carlo method together with the Nernst-Planck transport equation. This hybrid method makes the fast calculation of ion transport possible at the price of lost details. We show that the implicit-water model is an appropriate representation of the explicit-water model when we look at the system at the device (i...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653479/a-population-pharmacokinetic-model-incorporating-saturable-pharmacokinetics-and-auto-induction-for-high-rifampicin-doses
#18
Robin J Svensson, Rob E Aarnoutse, Andreas H Diacon, Rodney Dawson, Stephen H Gillespie, Martin J Boeree, Ulrika Sh Simonsson
Accumulating evidence suggest that increasing doses of rifampicin may shorten tuberculosis treatment. The PanACEA HIGHRIF1 trial assessed safety, pharmacokinetics and anti-mycobacterial activity of rifampicin at doses up to 40 mg/kg. Eighty-three pulmonary tuberculosis patients received 10, 20, 25, 30, 35 or 40 mg/kg rifampicin daily over 2 weeks, supplemented with standard doses of isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol in the second week. This study aimed at characterizing rifampicin pharmacokinetics observed in HIGHRIF1 using non-linear mixed effects modeling...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651102/childhood-stress-and-birth-timing-among-african-american-women-cortisol-as-biological-mediator
#19
Shannon L Gillespie, Lisa M Christian, Angela D Alston, Pamela J Salsberry
Preterm birth (PTB) occurs among 1:11U.S. white women and 1:7.5 African American women and is a significant driver of racial disparities in infant mortality. Maternal stress is the most common clinical phenotype underlying spontaneous PTB. Specific patterns of stress and biological mediators driving PTB remain unclear. We examined the effect of childhood stress on birth timing among African American women and evaluated maternal cortisol elevation as a biological mediator. A prospective observational design was employed, with a single study visit at 28-32 weeks gestation and medical record review...
June 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650180/acculturation-acculturative-stressors-and-family-relationships-among-latina-o-immigrants
#20
Georgiana Bostean, Brian Joseph Gillespie
OBJECTIVES: Family relationships, widely recognized as core to Latino cultures, are known to vary for Latina/o immigrants based on time in the United States. Less is known about (a) how acculturation explains differences in family relationships by time in the US, and (b) whether acculturative stressors influence different aspects of immigrants' family relationships. Drawing on an expanded acculturation framework, we explore whether and how attitudinal familism, family contact, and family conflict among immigrant Latina/os vary based on acculturation and acculturative stressors...
June 26, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
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