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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538623/impact-of-a-novel-pi3-kinase-inhibitor-in-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-accumulation-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#1
George E Black, Kyle K Sokol, Donald M Moe, Jon Simmons, David Muscat, Victor Pastukh, Gina Capley, Olena Gorodnya, Mykhalo Ruchko, Mark B Roth, Mark Gillespie, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) METHODS: 16 swine were studied using LY294002 (LY), a non-selective PI3-KI: Animals were assigned to Trauma only (TO, N=3); LY drug only (LYO, N=3); and Experimental (N=10), trauma + drug (LY+T) groups...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535332/interventions-for-treating-anxiety-after-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Peter Knapp, C Alexia Campbell Burton, John Holmes, Jenni Murray, David Gillespie, C Elizabeth Lightbody, Caroline L Watkins, Ho-Yan Y Chun, Sharon R Lewis
BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of stroke patients experience clinically significant levels of anxiety at some point after stroke. Physicians can treat these patients with antidepressants or other anxiety-reducing drugs, or both, or they can provide psychological therapy. This review looks at available evidence for these interventions. This is an update of the review first published in October 2011. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of pharmaceutical, psychological, complementary, or alternative therapeutic interventions in treating stroke patients with anxiety disorders or symptoms...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534737/integration-of-tmc1-2-into-the-mechanotransduction-complex-in-zebrafish-hair-cells-is-regulated-by-transmembrane-o-methyltransferase-tomt
#3
Timothy Erickson, Clive P Morgan, Jennifer Olt, Katherine Hardy, Elisabeth M Busch-Nentwich, Reo Maeda, Rachel Clemens-Grisham, Jocelyn F Krey, Alex V Nechiporuk, Peter G Barr-Gillespie, Walter Marcotti, Teresa Nicolson
Transmembrane O-methyltransferase (TOMT / LRTOMT) is responsible for non-syndromic deafness DFNB63. However, the specific defects that lead to hearing loss have not been described. Using a zebrafish model of DFNB63, we show that the auditory and vestibular phenotypes are due to a lack of mechanotransduction (MET) in Tomt-deficient hair cells. GFP-tagged Tomt is enriched in the Golgi of hair cells, suggesting that Tomt might regulate the trafficking of other MET components to the hair bundle. We found that Tmc1/2 proteins are specifically excluded from the hair bundle in tomt mutants, whereas other MET complex proteins can still localize to the bundle...
May 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525283/two-dimensional-electric-double-layer-structure-with-heterogeneous-surface-charge
#4
Christopher McCallum, Sumita Pennathur, Dirk Gillespie
This work presents a systematic study of the lateral (parallel to the wall) and normal (perpendicular to the wall) nano-structure of the electric double layer at a heterogeneous interface between two regions of different surface charge, often found in nanoscale electrochemical devices. Specifically, classical Density Functional Theory (DFT) is used to probe a cation concentration range of 10 mM to 1 M, for valences of +1, +2, and +3, and a diameter range of 0.15 to 0.9 nm over widely varying surface charges (between ±0...
May 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522650/examining-the-association-between-hemodialysis-access-type-and-mortality-the-role-of-access-complications
#5
Pietro Ravani, Robert Quinn, Matthew Oliver, Bruce Robinson, Ronald Pisoni, Neesh Pannu, Jennifer MacRae, Braden Manns, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Matthew James, Marcello Tonelli, Brenda Gillespie
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: People receiving hemodialysis to treat kidney failure need a vascular access (a fistula, a graft, or a central venous catheter) to connect to the blood purification machine. Higher rates of access complications are considered the mechanism responsible for the excess mortality observed among catheter or graft users versus fistula users. We tested this hypothesis using mediation analysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We studied incident patients who started hemodialysis therapy from North America, Europe, and Australasia (the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study; 1996-2011)...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520930/improved-power-for-tb-phase-iia-trials-using-a-model-based-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-approach-compared-with-commonly-used-analysis-methods
#6
Robin J Svensson, Stephen H Gillespie, Ulrika S H Simonsson
Background: The demand for new anti-TB drugs is high, but development programmes are long and costly. Consequently there is a need for new strategies capable of accelerating this process. Objectives: To explore the power to find statistically significant drug effects using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach in comparison with the methods commonly used for analysing TB Phase IIa trials. Methods: Phase IIa studies of four hypothetical anti-TB drugs (labelled A, B, C and D), each with a different mechanism of action, were simulated using the multistate TB pharmacometric (MTP) model...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514251/hepatic-hemodynamics-and-portal-flow-modulation-the-a2all-experience
#7
Jean C Emond, Nathan P Goodrich, James J Pomposelli, Talia B Baker, Abhinav Humar, David R Grant, Peter Abt, Chris E Friese, Robert A Fisher, Igal Kam, Averell H Sherker, Brenda W Gillespie, Robert M Merion
OBJECTIVE: A principal aim of the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study was to study hepatic blood flow and effect of portal flow modulation on graft outcomes in the setting of increasing use of smaller and left lobe grafts. METHODS: Recipients of 274 living donor liver transplant were enrolled in A2ALL-2, including 233 (85.0%) right lobes, 40 (14.6%) left lobes, and 1 (0.5%) left lateral section. Hepatic hemodynamics were recorded after reperfusion...
May 17, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502542/contemporary-evaluation-of-mortality-and-stroke-risk-after-thoracic-endovascular-aortic-repair
#8
Frances Y Hu, Zachary B Fang, Bradley G Leshnower, Yazan Duwayri, William D Jordan, Theresa W Gillespie, Ravi K Veeraswamy
OBJECTIVE: During the past decade, thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has increased as a treatment option for a variety of aortic pathologic processes. Despite this rise in the use of thoracic stent grafts, real-world outcomes from a robust, adjudicated, contemporary data set have yet to be reported. Previous studies have shown periprocedural mortality rates between 1.5% and 9.5% and procedure-related stroke rates of 2.3% to 8.2%. With advances in device engineering and increased experience of physicians, we hypothesized that the rates of these complications would be reduced in a more recent sample set...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497171/measuring-facial-cooling-in-outdoor-windy-winter-conditions-an-exploratory-study
#9
Andrew G S Briggs, Terry J Gillespie, Robert D Brown
Winter clothing provides insulation for almost all of a person's body, but in most situations, a person's face remains uncovered even in cold windy weather. This exploratory study used thermal imagery to record the rate of cooling of the faces of volunteers in a range of winter air temperatures and wind speeds. Different areas of the faces cooled at different rates with the areas around the eyes and neck cooling at the slowest rate, and the nose and cheeks cooling at the fastest rate. In all cases, the faces cooled at an approximately logarithmic decay for the first few minutes...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493288/outcomes-for-patients-with-locally-advanced-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-treated-with-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-versus-conventionally-fractionated-radiation
#10
Jim Zhong, Kirtesh Patel, Jeffrey Switchenko, Richard J Cassidy, William A Hall, Theresa Gillespie, Pretesh R Patel, David Kooby, Jerome Landry
BACKGROUND: As systemic therapy has improved for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), efforts to improve local control with optimal radiotherapy may be critical. Although conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) has more recently shown a limited role in LAPC, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an emerging approach with promising results. With no studies to date comparing SBRT with CFRT for LAPC, this study used the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to evaluate these 2 modalities...
May 10, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492127/obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-patients-with-previous-tuberculosis-pathophysiology-of-a-community-based-cohort
#11
Brian W Allwood, Rencia Gillespie, Maya Galperin-Aizenberg, Mary Bateman, Helena Olckers, Luis Taborda-Barata, Gregory L Calligaro, Qonita Said-Hartley, Richard Van Zyl-Smit, Christopher B Cooper, Eva Van Rikxoort, Jonathan Goldin, Nulda Beyers, Eric D Bateman
BACKGROUND: An association between chronic airflow limitation (CAL) and a history of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) has been confirmed in epidemiological studies, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unclear. It is debated whether CAL in this context should be viewed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or a separate phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To compare lung physiology and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in subjects with CAL and evidence of previous (healed) PTB with those in subjects with smoking-related COPD without evidence of previous PTB...
April 25, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490898/education-and-screening-for-chronic-kidney-disease-in-indian-youth-pilot-program-results
#12
Panduranga S Rao, Julie A Wright Nunes, Brenda W Gillespie, Rachel L Perlman, Rajan Ravichandran
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information on kidney education and screening programs in Indian youth. METHODS: Participants (n=2,158) from Chennai colleges were educated about the kidneys and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and screened in a pilot program from April to May 2013. This entailed: 1) a presentation and educational video and 2) an on-site assessment of weight, blood pressure, and demographic information. Urinalysis (UA) kits were distributed and returned in ≤48 hours...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488422/benchmarking-outcomes-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-cytogenetic-and-molecular-diagnostic-rates-in-a-retrospective-cohort
#13
Faheem Malam, Taila Hartley, Meredith K Gillespie, Christine M Armour, Erika Bariciak, Gail E Graham, Sarah M Nikkel, Julie Richer, Sarah L Sawyer, Kym M Boycott, David A Dyment
Genetic disease and congenital anomalies continue to be a leading cause of neonate mortality and morbidity. A genetic diagnosis in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a challenge given the associated genetic heterogeneity and early stage of a disease. We set out to evaluate the outcomes of Medical Genetics consultation in the NICU in terms of cytogenetic and molecular diagnostic rates and impact on management. We retrospectively reviewed 132 charts from patients admitted to the NICU who received a Medical Genetics diagnostic evaluation over a 2 year period...
May 9, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487503/combination-strategies-enhance-oncolytic-virotherapy
#14
Gregory K Friedman, James M Markert, George Yancey Gillespie
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483828/sources-of-sodium-in-us-adults-from-3-geographic-regions
#15
Lisa J Harnack, Mary E Cogswell, James M Shikany, Christopher D Gardner, Cathleen Gillespie, Catherine M Loria, Xia Zhou, Keming Yuan, Lyn M Steffen
BACKGROUND: Most US adults consume excess sodium. Knowledge about the dietary sources of sodium intake is critical to the development of effective reduction strategies. METHODS: A total of 450 adults were recruited from 3 geographic locations: Birmingham, AL (n=150); Palo Alto, CA (n=150); and the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (n=150), metropolitan areas. Equal numbers of women and men from each of 4 race/ethnic groups (blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites) were targeted for recruitment...
May 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483154/pilot-study-to-integrate-patient-reported-outcomes-after-lung-cancer-operations-into-the-society-of-thoracic-surgeons-database
#16
Onkar V Khullar, Mohammed H Rajaei, Seth D Force, Jose N Binongo, Yi Lasanajak, Scott Robertson, Allan Pickens, Manu S Sancheti, Joseph Lipscomb, Theresa W Gillespie, Felix G Fernandez
BACKGROUND: A critical gap in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Database is the absence of patient-reported outcomes (PRO), which are of increasing importance in outcomes and performance measurement. Our aim was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating PRO into the STS Database for patients undergoing lung cancer operations. METHODS: The National Institutes of Health Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) includes reliable, precise measures of PRO...
May 5, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481221/gene-expression-and-mutation-guided-synthetic-lethality-eradicates-proliferating-and-quiescent-leukemia-cells
#17
Margaret Nieborowska-Skorska, Katherine Sullivan, Yashodhara Dasgupta, Paulina Podszywalow-Bartnicka, Grazyna Hoser, Silvia Maifrede, Esteban Martinez, Daniela Di Marcantonio, Elisabeth Bolton-Gillespie, Kimberly Cramer-Morales, Jaewong Lee, Min Li, Artur Slupianek, Daniel Gritsyuk, Sabine Cerny-Reiterer, Ilona Seferynska, Tomasz Stoklosa, Lars Bullinger, Huaqing Zhao, Vera Gorbunova, Katarzyna Piwocka, Peter Valent, Curt I Civin, Markus Muschen, John E Dick, Jean C Y Wang, Smita Bhatia, Ravi Bhatia, Kolia Eppert, Mark D Minden, Stephen M Sykes, Tomasz Skorski
Quiescent and proliferating leukemia cells accumulate highly lethal DNA double-strand breaks that are repaired by 2 major mechanisms: BRCA-dependent homologous recombination and DNA-dependent protein kinase-mediated (DNA-PK-mediated) nonhomologous end-joining, whereas DNA repair pathways mediated by poly(ADP)ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) serve as backups. Here we have designed a personalized medicine approach called gene expression and mutation analysis (GEMA) to identify BRCA- and DNA-PK-deficient leukemias either directly, using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, microarrays, and flow cytometry, or indirectly, by the presence of oncogenes such as BCR-ABL1...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474672/stat3-regulates-centrosome-clustering-in-cancer-cells-via-stathmin-plk1
#18
Edward J Morris, Eiko Kawamura, Jordan A Gillespie, Aruna Balgi, Nagarajan Kannan, William J Muller, Michel Roberge, Shoukat Dedhar
Cancer cells frequently have amplified centrosomes that must be clustered together to form a bipolar mitotic spindle, and targeting centrosome clustering is considered a promising therapeutic strategy. A high-content chemical screen for inhibitors of centrosome clustering identified Stattic, a Stat3 inhibitor. Stat3 depletion and inhibition in cancer cell lines and in tumours in vivo caused significant inhibition of centrosome clustering and viability. Here we describe a transcription-independent mechanism for Stat3-mediated centrosome clustering that involves Stathmin, a Stat3 interactor involved in microtubule depolymerization, and the mitotic kinase PLK1...
May 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469711/capsular-polysaccharide-inhibits-adhesion-of-bifidobacterium-longum-105-a-to-enterocyte-like-caco-2-cells-and-phagocytosis-by-macrophages
#19
Amin Tahoun, Hisayoshi Masutani, Hanem El-Sharkawy, Trudi Gillespie, Ryo P Honda, Kazuo Kuwata, Mizuho Inagaki, Tomio Yabe, Izumi Nomura, Tohru Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium longum 105-A produces markedly high amounts of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) that should play distinct roles in bacterial-host interactions. To identify the biological function of B. longum 105-A CPS/EPS, we carried out an informatics survey of the genome and identified the EPS-encoding genetic locus of B. longum 105-A that is responsible for the production of CPS/EPS. The role of CPS/EPS in the adaptation to gut tract environment and bacteria-gut cell interactions was investigated using the ΔcpsD mutant...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466738/-telehealth-is-patient-empowerment-in-action
#20
Jennifer Trueland
As a senior nurse with many years of experience, mostly in general practice, Cathy Gillespie admits to having been a bit sceptical about telehealth at first. Surely the essence of nursing is being face-to-face with your patient, not sitting in an office perhaps many miles away? And how would patients - many of them elderly and vulnerable - cope with the demands of new technology? 'I just didn't really see how it could work. I didn't learn that until I came into the job,' she says.
May 3, 2017: Nursing Standard
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