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Robert J Gillespie, Derrick M Knapik, Ozan Akkus
Rotator cuff injuries are common in both young and elderly patients. Despite improvements in instrumentation and surgical techniques, the failure rates following tendon reconstruction remain unacceptably high. To improve outcomes, graft patches have been developed to provide mechanical strength and to furnish a scaffold for biologic growth across the delicate tendon-bone junction. Although no patch effectively re-creates the structured, highly organized system of prenatal tendon development, augmenting rotator cuff repair may help restore native tendon-to-bone attachment while reproducing the mechanical and biologic properties of native tendon...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Jonathan B Gillespie, Michelle Maclean, Martin J Given, Mark P Wilson, Martin D Judd, Igor V Timoshkin, Scott J MacGregor
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates possible advantages in pulsed over continuous 405-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light for bacterial inactivation and energy efficiency. BACKGROUND: Alternative nonantibiotic methods of disinfection and infection control have become of significant interest. Recent studies have demonstrated the application of systems using 405-nm LEDs for continuous disinfection of the clinical environment, and also for potential treatment of contaminated wounds...
October 19, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Alicia M Waters, Laura L Stafman, Evan F Garner, Smitha Mruthyunjayappa, Jerry E Stewart, Gregory K Friedman, Jennifer M Coleman, James M Markert, G Yancey Gillespie, Elizabeth A Beierle
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a tumor of skeletal muscle origin, is the most common sarcoma of childhood. Despite multidrug chemotherapy regimens, surgical intervention, and radiation treatment, outcomes remain poor, especially in advanced disease, and novel therapies are needed for the treatment of these aggressive malignancies. Genetically engineered oncolytic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV), are currently being explored as treatments for pediatric tumors. M002, an oncolytic HSV, has both copies of the γ134...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
Adam Capon, Margaret Rolfe, James Gillespie, Wayne Smith
INTRODUCTION: Manufactured nanomaterials in Australia are managed predominantly through existing chemical regulatory frameworks. Many Australian government regulators have suggested the framing of manufactured nanomaterials as 'chemicals' when communicating about manufactured nanomaterials to the general public. This paper aims to determine whether the Australian public perception of manufactured nanomaterials differs to that of 'chemicals', and to examine the relationship between attitudes towards chemicals and perceptions of nanomaterial risk...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Fernando Soto, Gregory L Wagner, Victor Garcia-Gradilla, Kyle T Gillespie, Deepak R Lakshmipathy, Emil Karshalev, Chava Angell, Yi Chen, Joseph Wang
Herein we report a new design for acoustic nanoswimmers, making use of a nanoshell geometry that was synthesized using a sphere template process. Such shell-shaped nanomotors display highly efficient acoustic propulsion on the nanoscale by converting energy from the ambient acoustic field into motion. The propulsion mechanism of the nanoshell motors relies on acoustic streaming stress over the asymmetric surface to produce the driving force for motion. The shell-shaped nanomotors offer a high surface area to volume ratio, allow for efficient scalability and provide higher cargo towing capacity (in comparison to acoustically propelled nanowires)...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
Wing-Cheong Lo, Likun Zheng, Qing Nie
Stochastic fluctuations in reaction-diffusion processes often have substantial effect on spatial and temporal dynamics of signal transductions in complex biological systems. One popular approach for simulating these processes is to divide the system into small spatial compartments assuming that molecules react only within the same compartment and jump between adjacent compartments driven by the diffusion. While the approach is convenient in terms of its implementation, its computational cost may become prohibitive when diffusive jumps occur significantly more frequently than reactions, as in the case of rapid diffusion...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Tang-Qing Yu, Jianfeng Lu, Cameron F Abrams, Eric Vanden-Eijnden
Replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) is a popular method to accelerate conformational sampling of complex molecular systems. The idea is to run several replicas of the system in parallel at different temperatures that are swapped periodically. These swaps are typically attempted every few MD steps and accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis-Hastings criterion. This guarantees that the joint distribution of the composite system of replicas is the normalized sum of the symmetrized product of the canonical distributions of these replicas at the different temperatures...
October 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kristen E Rennoll-Bankert, M Sayeedur Rahman, Mark L Guillotte, Stephanie S Lehman, Magda Beier-Sexton, Joseph J Gillespie, Abdu F Azad
Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that induce their uptake into non-phagocytic cells; however, the events instigating this process are incompletely understood. Importantly, diverse Rickettsia species are predicted to utilize divergent mechanisms to colonize host cells, as nearly all adhesins and effectors involved in host cell entry are differentially encoded in diverse Rickettsia species. One particular effector, RalF, a sec-7 domain containing protein that functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs), is critical for R...
October 3, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Jinny Ye, Mehdi Nouraie, Fernando Holguin, Amanda I Gillespie
OBJECTIVES: Goals of the current study were to (1) conduct initial validation of a new Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement Disorder Screening Questionnaire (PVFMD-SQ); (2) determine if symptom-based questionnaires can discriminate between patients with confirmed PVFMD and those with diagnosed uncontrolled asthma without clinical suspicion for PVFMD; and (3) determine if a new questionnaire with diagnostic specificity could be created from a combination of significant items on previously validated questionnaires...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Caroline C Gillespie, Stephen B Adams, George E Moore
OBJECTIVE: To determine common methods for intra-articular injections and variables associated with the risk of septic arthritis following intra-articular injection in the horse. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE POPULATION: Equine veterinarians. METHODS: A link to an online survey was distributed to equine practitioners in 2014. Responses for descriptive data were tabulated. Data on infection rates obtained from medical records were analyzed...
October 1, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Wendy Chaboyer, Tracey Bucknall, Joan Webster, Elizabeth McInnes, Brigid M Gillespie, Merrilyn Banks, Jennifer A Whitty, Lukman Thalib, Shelley Roberts, Mandy Tallott, Nicky Cullum, Marianne Wallis
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers are a serious patient safety concern, associated with poor patient outcomes and high healthcare costs. They are also viewed as an indicator of nursing care quality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle in preventing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers among at risk patients. DESIGN: Pragmatic cluster randomised trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary referral hospitals with >200 beds each in three Australian states...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Morris Muliaditan, Geraint R Davies, Ulrika S H Simonsson, Stephen H Gillespie, Oscar Della Pasqua
Despite promising advances in the field and highly effective first-line treatment, an estimated 9.6 million people are still infected with tuberculosis (TB). Innovative methods are required to effectively transition the growing number of compounds into novel combination regimens. However, progression of compounds into patients occurs despite the lack of clear understanding of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relations. The PreDiCT-TB consortium was established in response to the existing gaps in TB drug development...
September 28, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
Gordon Lee Gillespie, Tracy Pritchard, Karen Bankston, Jasmine Burno, Greer Glazer
BACKGROUND: The lack of diversity in the nursing profession could be an outcome of unconscious biases. Forums allowing the personal reflection and discourse of these unconscious biases are needed in order for a diverse and inclusive learning environment to exist. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of students, staff, faculty members, and guests participating in a forum on diversity and inclusion. METHODS: An exploratory design was used to understand the experiences of college of nursing students, staff, faculty members, and guests who participated in a diversity and inclusion intervention sponsored by the college of nursing's Diversity Advisory Council...
August 30, 2016: Nursing Outlook
R Craig Sineath, Cory Woodyatt, Travis Sanchez, Shawn Giammattei, Theresa Gillespie, Enid Hunkeler, Ashli Owen-Smith, Virginia P Quinn, Douglas Roblin, Robert Stephenson, Patrick S Sullivan, Vin Tangpricha, Michael Goodman
Purpose: Medical gender confirmation therapy (GCT) plays an important role in transgender health; however, its prevalence and determinants constitute an area of uncertainty. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from an online survey distributed from October 2012 through the end of 2013 among persons who visited the social media sites of a transgender education and social networking meeting. Eligible respondents (n=280) were persons whose gender identity was different from their sex assigned at birth and who responded to questions about previously received or planned hormonal therapy (HT), chest reconstruction, or genital surgery...
2016: Transgend Health
Colin S Gillespie, Andrew Golightly
Solving the chemical master equation exactly is typically not possible, so instead we must rely on simulation based methods. Unfortunately, drawing exact realisations, results in simulating every reaction that occurs. This will preclude the use of exact simulators for models of any realistic size and so approximate algorithms become important. In this paper we describe a general framework for assessing the accuracy of the linear noise and two moment approximations. By constructing an efficient space filling design over the parameter region of interest, we present a number of useful diagnostic tools that aids modellers in assessing whether the approximation is suitable...
October 1, 2016: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
Brandi T Wren, Melissa J Remis, Joseph W Camp, Thomas R Gillespie
There are many known benefits of social grooming among primates, including maintenance of social relationships, removal of ectoparasites, and improved physiological condition. Recently, however, researchers have noted that social grooming and social contact may also present a significant cost by facilitating transmission of some parasites and pathogens. We investigated whether the number of social grooming partners varied based on infection status for gastrointestinal parasites. We used focal animal sampling and continuous recording to collect data on the number of grooming partners for known individual vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)...
September 29, 2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Paddy Gillespie, Aoife Callan, Eamon O'Shea, Sinead Duane, Andrew W Murphy, Christine Domegan, Sandra Galvin, Akke Vellinga
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health issue. This study examines the cost effectiveness of the SIMPle (Supporting the Improvement and Management of Prescribing for Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)) intervention to improve antimicrobial prescribing in primary care in Ireland. METHODS: An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a cluster randomized controlled trial of 30 general practices and 2560 patients with a diagnosis of UTI. Practices were randomized to the usual practice control or the SIMPle intervention (arm A or B)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Public Health
Edwin K Jackson, Delbert G Gillespie, Zaichuan Mi
In vivo, guanine moieties in DNA, RNA, guanine nucleotides, guanosine or guanine can undergo nitration (for example by peroxynitrite) or hydroxylation (for example by superoxide anion) on position 8 of the purine ring. Subsequent catabolism of these modified biomolecules leads to the production of a diverse group of 8-nitro, 8-amino and 8-hydroxy guanosine and guanine compounds. Indeed, studies suggest the in vivo existence of 8-nitroguanosine, 8-nitroguanine, 8-aminoguanosine, 8-aminoguanine, 8-hydroxyguanosine, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-hydroxyguanine...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Kulika Chomvong, Eric Lin, Michael Blaisse, Abigail E Gillespie, Jamie H D Cate
Cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP) cleaves cellobiose-abundant in plant biomass-to glucose and glucose 1-phosphate. However, the pentose sugar xylose, also abundant in plant biomass, acts as a mixed-inhibitor and a substrate for the reverse reaction, limiting the industrial potential of CBP. Preventing xylose, which lacks only a single hydroxymethyl group relative to glucose, from binding to the CBP active site poses a spatial challenge for protein engineering, since simple steric occlusion cannot be used to block xylose binding without also preventing glucose binding...
October 3, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
J Zhong, J Switchenko, N Jegadeesh, T W Gillespie, V A Master, P Nieh, M Alemozaffar, O Kucuk, B Carthon, C P Filson, A Jani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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