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Cindy M Anderson, Shannon L Gillespie, Doria K Thiele, Jody L Ralph, Joyce E Ohm
INTRODUCTION: Mothers and infants are at high risk for inadequate vitamin D status. Mechanisms by which vitamin D may affect maternal and infant DNA methylation are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: This study quantified the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on DNA methylation in pregnant and lactating women and their breastfed infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled pilot study, pregnant women received vitamin D3 400 international units (IU) (n = 6; control) or 3,800 IU (n = 7; intervention) daily from late second trimester through 4-6 weeks postpartum...
May 21, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Andrea Rachow, Elmar Saathoff, Bariki Mtafya, Daniel Mapamba, Chacha Mangu, Gabriel Rojas-Ponce, Nyanda E Ntinginya, Martin Boeree, Norbert Heinrich, Stephen H Gillespie, Michael Hoelscher
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis in unprocessed or NALC/NaOH- decontaminated sputum. The effect of repeated NALC/NaOH-decontamination on several Xpert performance parameters was assessed in this study. A second NALC/NaOH-decontamination had no effect on the binary Xpert-outcome but increased the value for the quantitative readout (CTmin ). Repeated decontamination was not associated with PCR-inhibition or invalid results. The CTmin of M.tb positive samples was higher in inhibited Xpert runs...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
S E Murthy, F Chatterjee, A Crook, R Dawson, C Mendel, M E Murphy, S R Murray, A J Nunn, P P J Phillips, Kasha P Singh, T D McHugh, S H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Chest radiographs are used for diagnosis and severity assessment in tuberculosis (TB). The extent of disease as determined by smear grade and cavitation as a binary measure can predict 2-month smear results, but little has been done to determine whether radiological severity reflects the bacterial burden at diagnosis. METHODS: Pre-treatment chest x-rays from 1837 participants with smear-positive pulmonary TB enrolled into the REMoxTB trial (Gillespie et al...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medicine
Catherine M Avitabile, Matthew A Harris, Ravi S Doddasomayajula, Steven G Chopski, Matthew J Gillespie, Yoav Dori, Andrew C Glatz, Mark A Fogel, Kevin K Whitehead
Little data are available on the accuracy of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) velocity mapping in the vicinity of intravascular metal stents other than nitinol stents. Therefore, we sought to determine this accuracy using in vitro experiments. An in vitro flow phantom was used with 3 stent types: (1) 316L stainless steel, (2) nitinol self-expanding, and (3) platinum-iridium. Steady and pulsatile flow was delivered with a magnetic resonance imaging-compatible pump (CardioFlow 5000, Shelley Medical, London, Ontario, Canada)...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Hylton P Gordon, Michael G Katz, Anthony S Fargnoli, Virginia L Gillespie, Roger J Hajjar, Charles R Bridges
In humans, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death worldwide. Myocardial infarction (MI)is a leading cause of heart failure due to myocardial impairment, yet the progression of the resultant dysfunction is often undetected after incidental or induced myocardial infarction. In this study we tracked the progression of left-sided heart failure in 6-mo-old male castrated sheep in which we created 2 models of myocardial infarction, small and large. Myocardial infarction was induced through ligation of a single branch (obtuse marginal [OM] 1) of the left circumflex coronary artery to create small (mild) infarcts and of 2 branches (OM1 and OM2) for large (severe) infarcts...
May 10, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Frances Horne, Pippa Burns, Victoria Traynor, Robyn Gillespie, Judy Mullan, Amanda Baker, Lindsey Harrison, Khin Than Win
AIMS: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the "Managing Medicines for People with Dementia" ( website for informal carers. BACKGROUND: The management of medications for individuals living with a dementia by informal carers is a neglected area of care. We know that informal carers find it difficult accessing reliable and comprehensive information about medications. We also know that the Internet is a contemporary and growing medium through which consumers access health information...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Older People Nursing
Nimita Arora, Koji Makino, Dominic Tilden, Kyriakos Lobotesis, Peter Mitchell, John Gillespie
AIMS: The goal of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) from an Australian payer perspective. METHODS: We used a Markov model that employed a life-time time horizon, modelling patients from symptom onset of stroke until end of life. Clinical efficacy and safety data were taken from an individual patient level data (IPD) meta-analysis of clinical studies. The treatment effect of MT compared to usual care was measured by changes in modified Rankin Score (mRS)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Daniel Flynn, Mary Kells, Mary Joyce, Catalina Suarez, Conall Gillespie
Upon publication of the original article (1) it was highlighted by the authors that there was just one error in the manuscript in the 'Sample size' subsection of the Methods/Design.
May 7, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Kerri A Schoedel, Michael Gillespie, Naama Levy-Cooperman, Megan J Shram, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt
Pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) correlations were explored in 2 human abuse potential studies of orally and intranasally administered hydrocodone extended-release (ER) 45 mg in healthy, nondependent opioid users. In a crossover study design, subjects received intact hydrocodone ER, finely milled hydrocodone ER, and hydrocodone powder in solution in the oral study and finely milled hydrocodone ER, hydrocodone powder, and finely milled Zohydro® ER in the intranasal study. Spearman ρ2 and Pearson r2 values were calculated for PD (maximum effect [Emax ] for "at the moment" Drug Liking, Overall Drug Liking, and Take Drug Again visual analog scales [VAS]) vs PK (partial area under the concentration-time curve [AUC], maximum drug concentration [Cmax ], time to Cmax [Tmax ], and abuse quotient [PK AQ; Cmax /Tmax ]) for all treatments...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Yana Suchy, Laura G Holmes, Donald S Strassberg, Austin A Gillespie, A Renee Nilssen, Madison A Niermeyer, Bryce A Huntbach
Suppression of certain types of reflexive emotional responses is thought to temporarily deplete executive functions (EF), as evidenced by poorer performance on measures of EF, but does not deplete other, lower-order cognitive processes. This study examined whether similar decrements in performance on EF tests would occur following suppression of sexual arousal. A sample of 44 male college students underwent baseline cognitive assessment (EF and lower-order cognitive processes), followed by experimental manipulation consisting of exposure to sexually explicit audiovisual stimuli...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Robin J Svensson, Elin M Svensson, Rob E Aarnoutse, Andreas H Diacon, Rodney Dawson, Stephen H Gillespie, Mischka Moodley, Martin J Boeree, Ulrika S H Simonsson
Background: The current rifampicin dose (10 mg/kg) is sub-optimal for treating tuberculosis. The PanACEA HIGHRIF1 trial evaluated pharmacokinetics and early bactericidal activity with rifampicin doses up to 40 mg/kg. Conventional statistics revealed no significant exposure-response relationship. Our objective was to explore exposure-response for high dose rifampicin using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling and to predict early bactericidal activity of 50 mg/kg rifampicin. Methods: Data included time-to-positivity of sputum in liquid culture from 83 tuberculosis patients treated with 10 (n=8), 20, 25, 30, 35 or 40 (n=15/group) mg/kg rifampicin for 7 days (clinicaltrials...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lorenzo Duso, Christoph Zechner
Stochastic simulations of biochemical networks are of vital importance for understanding complex dynamics in cells and tissues. However, existing methods to perform such simulations are associated with computational difficulties and addressing those remains a daunting challenge to the present. Here we introduce the selected-node stochastic simulation algorithm (snSSA), which allows us to exclusively simulate an arbitrary, selected subset of molecular species of a possibly large and complex reaction network...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Susann Liebscher, Rebecca L Ambrose, Turgut E Aktepe, Andrea Mikulasova, Julia E Prier, Leah K Gillespie, Adam J Lopez-Denman, Thusitha W T Rupasinghe, Dedreia Tull, Malcolm J McConville, Jason M Mackenzie
Positive-sense RNA virus intracellular replication is intimately associated with membrane platforms that are derived from host organelles and comprised of distinct lipid composition. For flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus strain Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) we have observed that these membrane platforms are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum and are rich in (at least) cholesterol. To extend these studies and identify the cellular lipids critical for WNVKUN replication we utilized a whole cell lipidomics approach and revealed an elevation in phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity to produce lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PChol)...
April 30, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Andrea P Marshall, Georgia Tobiano, Niki Murphy, Greg Comadira, Nicola Willis, Therese Gardiner, Lucy Hervey, Wendy Simpson, Brigid M Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Transitioning a patient from the operating theatre (OT) to the intensive care unit (ICU) is a dynamic and complex process. Handover of the critically ill postoperative patient can contribute to procedural and communication errors. Standardised protocols are means for structuring and improving handover content. Both have been shown to be effective in reducing information omission and improve communication during this transition period. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this uncontrolled before and after study was to improve handover processes and communication about the care for critically ill patients transferred from OT to ICU...
April 26, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Fiona Cowell, Sharon Gillespie, Graham Cheung, Daniel Brown
STUDY DESIGN: Implementation paper. INTRODUCTION: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is relatively a common condition in the distal radius fracture (DRF) population with the effects resulting in many sufferers experiencing persistent pain and impairment 2 to 6 years after onset. Prevention is desirable as there is no known proven cure. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study demonstrates how knowledge about CRPS and its prevention generated through iterative studies can be translated into practice in the workplace and how an interdisciplinary community of practice with therapists at the core can effect change...
April 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Steven M Gillespie, Mickey T Kongerslev, Carla Sharp, Sune Bo, Ahmad M Abu-Akel
Adolescent psychopathic tendencies are associated with phenotypic increases in proactive aggression. However, the extent to which an understanding of others' affective mental states, or affective theory of mind (ToM), contributes to proactive aggression remains unknown. We examined how performance on a well-known test of affective ToM, based on cropped images of the eye region, contributes to reactive and proactive types of aggression in a mixed ethnicity sample of 80 incarcerated adolescent boys. A hierarchical regression model showed that affective ToM predicted proactive aggression over and above the influence of clinically rated psychopathic tendencies...
April 27, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Sebastian G Wicha, Oskar Clewe, Robin J Svensson, Stephen H Gillespie, Yanmin Hu, Anthony R M Coates, Ulrika S H Simonsson
A crucial step for accelerating tuberculosis drug development is bridging the gap between pre-clinical and clinical trials. In this study, we developed a pre-clinical model-informed translational approach to predict drug effects across pre-clinical systems and early clinical trials using the in vitro-based Multistate Tuberculosis Pharmacometric (MTP) model using rifampicin as an example. The MTP model predicted rifampicin biomarker response observed in (i) a hollow-fiber infection model, (ii) a murine study to determine PK/PD indices, and (iii) several clinical phase IIa early bactericidal activity (EBA) studies...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Gordon Lee Gillespie, Danny G Willis, Angela F Amar
BACKGROUND: Bullying has been long seen as a natural part of childhood and adolescence. However, a growing body of evidence suggests bullying and now cyberbullying may inflict harm or distress on targeted youth including physical, psychological, social, or educational harm. PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to endorse the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine statement, summarize the report, and apply the recommendations to two focus areas: screening and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth as they relate to bullying and cyberbullying...
March 8, 2018: Nursing Outlook
Zeeshan Butt, Andrea F DiMartini, Qian Liu, Mary Ann Simpson, Abigail R Smith, Jarcy Zee, Brenda W Gillespie, Susan Holtzman, Daniela Ladner, Kim Olthoff, Robert A Fisher, Silvia Hafliger, Chris E Freise, Mercedes Susan Mandell, Averell H Sherker, Mary Amanda Dew
BACKGROUND: Little is known about living liver donors' perceptions of their physical well-being following the procedure. METHODS: We collected data on donor fatigue, pain, and other relevant physical outcomes as part of the prospective, multi-center Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL-2) Consortium. A total of 271 (91%) of 297 eligible donors were interviewed at least once at pre-donation and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after donation using validated measures, when available...
April 26, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Stephanie A Kraft, Mildred K Cho, Katherine Gillespie, Nina Varsava, Kelly E Ormond, Benjamin S Wilfond, Sandra Soo-Jin Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
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