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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035424/cyp21a2-mutation-update-comprehensive-analysis-of-databases-and-published-genetic-variants
#1
Leandro Simonetti, Carlos D Bruque, Cecilia S Fernández, Belén Benavides-Mori, Marisol Delea, Jorge E Kolomenski, Lucía D Espeche, Noemí D Buzzalino, Alejandro D Nadra, Liliana Dain
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders of adrenal steroidogenesis. Disorders in steroid 21-hydroxylation account for over 95% of patients with CAH. Clinically, the 21-hydroxylase deficiency has been classified in a broad spectrum of clinical forms, ranging from severe or classical, to mild late onset or non-classical. Known allelic variants in the disease causing CYP21A2 gene are spread among different sources. Until recently, most variants reported have been identified in the clinical setting, which presumably bias described variants to pathogenic ones, as those found in the CYPAlleles database...
October 16, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034953/reproductive-autonomy-of-women-and-girls-under-the-convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities
#2
Charles G Ngwena
Women and girls with disabilities have historically been denied the freedom to make their own choices in matters relating to their reproduction. In the healthcare sector they experience multiple discriminatory practices. Women and girls with intellectual disabilities are particularly vulnerable to coerced or forced medical interventions. The present article considers the contribution the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities makes towards affirming the rights of women and girls with disabilities to enjoy reproductive autonomy, including autonomy related to reproductive health, on an equal basis with individuals without disabilities...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034076/accessibility-to-health-services-among-migrant-workers-in-the-northeast-of-thailand
#3
Suprawee Khongthanachayopit, Wongsa Laohasiriwong
Background. There is an increasing trend of trans-border migration from neighboring countries to Thailand. According to human rights laws, everyone must have access to health services, even if they are from other nationalities.  However, a small minority of health personnel in Thailand discriminate against immigrant workers, as they are from a lower financial bracket. Methods. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of accessibility to health services and factors associated with access to health services among migrant workers who work along the Northeast border of Thailand...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030989/genetic-and-epigenetic-factors-influencing-vitamin-d-status
#4
REVIEW
Afsane Bahrami, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Seyed-Amir Tabatabaeizadeh, Hamidreza Bahrami-Taghanaki, Negin Behboodi, Habibollah Esmaeili, Gordon A Ferns, Majid Ghayour Mobarhan, Amir Avan
The global prevalence of vitamin D deficiency appears to be increasing, and the impact of this on human health is important because of the association of vitamin D insufficiency with increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. There are few studies on the genetic factors that can influence vitamin D levels. In particular, the data from twin and family-based studies have reported that circulating vitamin D concentrations are partially determined by genetic factors. Moreover, it has been shown that genetic variants (e...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028471/water-safety-and-lead-regulation-physicians-community-health-responsibilities
#5
Bruce Jennings, Leslie Lyons Duncan
This article reviews the regulation of lead in drinking water, highlighting its epidemiological, engineering, and ethical aspects with a focus on the Flint water crisis. We first discuss water quality policy and its implementation with a focus on lead contamination of water, primarily from pipe systems between a water treatment facility and a tap. We then discuss physicians' roles and ethical responsibilities regarding safe drinking water using a human rights framework. We argue that physicians can play an important role in safeguarding drinking water in their communities by being vigilant, honoring the community's trust in them, and warning, educating, and empowering patients and broader communities so as to protect tap water safety and public health...
October 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028233/ethics-in-public-health-call-for-shared-moral-public-health-literacy
#6
Els L M Maeckelberghe, Peter Schröder-Bäck
Public Health (PH) in Europe has become much more vocal about its moral understandings since 1992. The rising awareness that PH issues were inseparable from issues of human rights and social justice almost self-evidently directed the agenda of EUPHA and the European Public Health (EPH)-conferences. Problems of cultural and behavioural change, and environmental issues on a global scale were also added. The Section Ethics in PH invited the EPH community to join in 'arm chair thinking': coming together at conferences not only to share the 'how' and 'what' of PH research, practices and policies but also the 'why'...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025480/correlates-of-observing-and-willingness-to-report-stigma-towards-hiv-clients-by-tb-health-workers-in-africa
#7
M Straetemans, M I Bakker, E M H Mitchell
SETTING: Health care facilities in Kenya, Tanzania and Namibia. OBJECTIVE: To study the factors associated with the observation of and willingness to report stigmatising behaviour towards persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among health care workers (HCWs). DESIGN: Mixed-effect logistic regression analyses of 9516 HCW interviews, including those of 4062 (43%) TB workers carried out as part of the Service Provision Assessments (SPAs) between 2006 and 2010...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025417/human-rights-and-mental-health-in-post-apartheid-south-africa-lessons-from-health-care-professionals-working-with-suicidal-inmates-in-the-prison-system
#8
Jason Bantjes, Leslie Swartz, Pieter Niewoudt
BACKGROUND: During the era of apartheid in South Africa, a number of mental health professionals were vocal about the need for socio-economic and political reform. They described the deleterious psychological and social impact of the oppressive and discriminatory Nationalist state policies. However, they remained optimistic that democracy would usher in positive changes. In this article, we consider how mental health professionals working in post-apartheid South Africa experience their work...
October 12, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024546/bone-reading-to-predict-the-future
#9
EDITORIAL
Martin Englund, Aleksandra Turkiewicz, Pawel Podsiadlo
Human skeletal remains may provide information about health status and injuries from hundreds of thousands of years ago. However, the bones in living individuals have the potential to tell us something about future health as well. In the current issue of Arthritis & Rheumatology, Kraus et al report data of prediction of osteoarthritis (OA) progression using tibial subchondral trabecular bone texture (TBT) from plain knee radiographs (1). The ability of medial TBT was assessed to predict pain progression (an increase in WOMAC score), radiographic OA progression (a loss in joint space width [JSW]), and OA status (a combination of pain and radiographic OA progression), over 24-48 months...
October 12, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024220/differential-expression-of-key-subunits-of-swi-snf-chromatin-remodeling-complexes-in-porcine-embryos-derived-in-vitro-or-in-vivo
#10
Birgit Cabot, Yu-Chun Tseng, Jennifer S Crodian, Ryan Cabot
In vitro embryo production is an established method for both humans and animals, but is fraught with inferior development and health issues in offspring born after in vitro fertilization procedures. Analysis of epigenetic changes caused by exposure to in vitro conditions should shed light on potential sources of these phenotypes. Using immunocytochemistry, we investigated the localization and relative abundance of components associated with the SWI/SNF (Switch/Sucrose non-fermentable) chromatin-remodeling complex - including BAF155, BAF170, BAF180, BAF53A, BAF57, BAF60A, BAF45D, ARID1A, ARID1B, ARID2, SNF5, and BRD7 - in oocytes and in in vitro-produced and in vivo-derived porcine embryos...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024207/maternal-vaccination-as-a-salmonella-typhimurium-reduction-strategy-on-pig-farms
#11
Richard P Smith, Victor Andres, Francesca Martelli, Becky Gosling, Francisco Marco-Jimenez, Kelly Vaughan, Monika Tchorzewska, Rob Davies
AIMS: The control of Salmonella in pig production is necessary for public and animal health and vaccination was evaluated as a strategy to decrease pig prevalence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study examined the efficacy of a live Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine, administered to sows on eight commercial farrow-to-finish herds experiencing clinical salmonellosis or Salmonella carriage associated with S. Typhimurium or its monophasic variants. Results of longitudinal Salmonella sampling were compared against eight similarly selected and studied control farms...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024170/steroids-stress-and-the-gut-microbiome-brain-axis
#12
REVIEW
Marc J Tetel, Geert J de Vries, Roberto C Melcangi, GianCarlo Panzica, Siobhain M O'Mahony
It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota, and in turn how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behavior. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023853/antibiotics-gut-microbiome-and-obesity
#13
Karen S W Leong, José G B Derraik, Paul L Hofman, Wayne S Cutfield
Antibiotics have been hailed by many as 'miracle drugs' that have been effectively treating infectious diseases for over a century, leading to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, with the increasing use of antibiotics, we are now faced not only with the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, but also with a rising concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on human health, including the development of obesity. The obesity pandemic continues to increase, a problem that affects both adults and children alike...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023742/oral-health-for-healthy-longevity-in-an-ageing-society-maintaining-momentum-and-moving-forward
#14
Kakuhiro Fukai, Hiroshi Ogawa, Patrick Hescot
The ageing of populations worldwide is rapidly accelerating. However, the global burden of oral disease remains a critical and often underestimated problem. As ageing progresses globally, oral health maintenance becomes a matter not only of public health, but also of human rights. Therefore, in low- and middle-income countries, policymakers are seeking to realize universal health coverage even as they struggle with severe resource limitations. To achieve and maintain global oral health, we propose an ongoing global monitoring cycle consisting of the following four steps: needs assessment, implementation of appropriate health care systems and provisions, reducing the global burden of oral disease, and working to achieve a healthy ageing society...
September 2017: International Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016896/poor-working-conditions-and-work-stress-among-canadian-sex-workers
#15
P Duff, J Sou, J Chapman, S Dobrer, M Braschel, S Goldenberg, K Shannon
Background: While sex work is often considered the world's oldest profession, there remains a dearth of research on work stress among sex workers (SWs) in occupational health epidemiological literature. A better understanding of the drivers of work stress among SWs is needed to inform sex work policy, workplace models and standards. Aims: To examine the factors that influence work stress among SWs in Metro Vancouver. Methods: Analyses drew from a longitudinal cohort of SWs, known as An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access (AESHA) (2010-14)...
August 23, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994164/utilization-of-increased-risk-for-transmission-of-infectious-disease-donor-organs-in-solid-organ-transplantation-retrospective-analysis-of-disease-transmission-and-safety
#16
Linda Irwin, Camille N Kotton, Nahel Elias, Julie Palafox, Debra Basler, Sarah H Shao, William Lester, Xiaofeng Zhang, Brendan Kimball, Carrie Trencher, Jay A Fishman
The inadequate supply of transplantable organs necessitates new approaches to organ availability. Serologies and nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are used in microbiologic screening of potential organ donors. Organs from donors considered at "high risk" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC 1994) or "increased risk" (U.S. Public Health Service, PHS 2013) for transmission of viral infection to recipients may provide an expanded source of organs for transplantation...
October 10, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991054/raising-the-yellow-flag-state-variation-in-quarantine-laws
#17
Rebecca Katz, Andrea Vaught, Adrienne Formentos, Jordan Capizola
Quarantine is an important but often misused tool of public health. An effective quarantine requires a process that inspires trust in government, only punishes noncompliance, and promotes a culture of social responsibility. Accomplishing successful quarantine requires incentives and enabling factors, payments, job security, and a tiered enforcement plan. In this article, we examine the variation in state-level quarantine laws and assess the effectiveness of these laws and regulations. We find that most states allow for an individual to have a hearing (63%) and to have a voice in burial and cremation procedures (71%), yet are weak on all other individual rights measures...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987020/cardiac-and-hemodynamic-influence-on-carotid-artery-longitudinal-wall-motion
#18
Jason S Au, Paula A Bochnak, Sydney E Valentino, Jem L Cheng, Eric J Stöhr, Maureen J MacDonald
Carotid artery longitudinal wall motion (CALM) has recently attracted interest as an indicator of arterial health; however, the regulation of CALM is poorly understood. We conducted a series of studies aimed at manipulating pulse pressure (PP), left ventricular (LV) motion, and carotid shear rate, which have been previously suggested to regulate various components of CALM pattern and magnitude. To determine the regulatory influences on CALM, fifteen healthy males (22 ± 2 years) were exposed to three acute interventions: the Serial Subtraction Test (SST), the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), and exposure to sublingual nitroglycerine (NTG)...
October 7, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986960/bad-wrap-myelin-and-myelin-plasticity-in-health-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Erin M Gibson, Anna C Geraghty, Michelle Monje
Human central nervous system myelin development extends well into the fourth decade of life, and this protracted period underscores the potential for experience to modulate myelination. The concept of myelin plasticity implies adaptability in myelin structure and function in response to experiences during development and beyond. Mounting evidence supports this concept of neuronal activity-regulated changes in myelin-forming cells, including oligodendrocyte precursor cell proliferation, oligodendrogenesis and modulation of myelin microstructure...
October 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981497/slavery-in-new-zealand-what-is-the-role-of-the-health-sector
#20
Paula King, Alison Blaiklock, Christina Stringer, Jay Amaranathan, Margot McLean
Contemporary forms of slavery and associated adverse health effects are a serious, complex and often neglected issue within the New Zealand health sector. Slavery in New Zealand has most recently been associated with the fishing and horticulture industries. However, victims may be found in a number of other industry sectors, including the health and aged-care sectors, or outside of the labour market such as in forced, early (underage) and servile forms of marriage. Victims of slavery are at increased risk of acute and chronic health problems, injuries from dangerous working and living conditions, and physical and sexual abuse...
October 6, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
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