keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Short gut syndrome

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638851/mucosal-biopsy-shows-immunologic-changes-of-the-colon-in-patients-with-early-ms
#1
Adrian Mathias Moser, Walter Spindelboeck, Heimo Strohmaier, Christian Enzinger, Thomas Gattringer, Siegrid Fuchs, Franz Fazekas, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Philipp Wurm, Christoph Högenauer, Michael Khalil
OBJECTIVE: To investigate immune cells of the colonic mucosa and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in treatment-naive patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or early relapsing MS. METHODS: In this cross-sectional proof-of-concept study, we obtained mucosal specimens during ileocolonoscopy from 15 untreated patients with CIS/MS and 10 controls. Mucosal immune cells were analyzed by FACS, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements of stool samples served to determine SCFA...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585202/microbiota-and-lipotoxicity
#2
Evren Doruk Engin
Obesity and metabolic syndrome is a multisystemic disorder, that is characterized by excess caloric intake and spillover lipotoxicity caused by ectopic lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues. Low grade chronic inflammation and insulin resistance are the hallmarks of the disorder, which further aggravate the condition. Gut microbiota constitutes an indispensible part of human superorganism's energy harvesting apparatus. The dynamic composition of microbiota changes with age, life style and host metabolic background...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580281/glucagon-like-peptide-2-promotes-gallbladder-refilling-via-a-tgr5-independent-glp-2r-dependent-pathway
#3
Bernardo Yusta, Dianne Matthews, Grace B Flock, John R Ussher, Brigitte Lavoie, Gary M Mawe, Daniel J Drucker
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in response to nutrients and bile acids and control metabolism via actions on structurally-related yet distinct G protein coupled receptors. GLP-1 regulates gut motility, appetite, islet function, and glucose homeostasis, whereas GLP-2 enhances intestinal nutrient absorption. GLP-1R agonists are used to treat diabetes and obesity, and a GLP-2R agonist is approved to treat short bowel syndrome. Unexpectedly, reports of gallbladder disease have been associated with the use of both GLP-1R and GLP-2R agonists and after bariatric surgery, although the mechanisms remain unknown...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562106/enteral-nutrition-in-pediatric-intestinal-failure-does-initial-feeding-impact-on-intestinal-adaptation
#4
Teresa Capriati, Valerio Nobili, Laura Stronati, Salvatore Cucchiara, Francesca Laureti, Alessandra Liguori, Elaine Tyndall, Antonella Diamanti
Primary IF can be due to impaired gut length or impaired gut function; short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the leading cause of IF. In IF patients complete enteral starvation should be avoided whenever possible and enteral/oral nutrition (EN/ON) should be employed at the maximum tolerated amount in each phase of the clinical evolution of IF. Intraluminal nutrients have stimulatory effects on epithelial cells and on trophism that enhance intestinal adaptation. Areas covered: Evidence for nutritional interventions in pediatric IF is limited and of poor quality...
June 8, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557822/gut-microbiota-and-the-gut-brain-axis-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Nicolien de Clercq, Myrthe N Frissen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Emerging pre-clinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate gastrointestinal and brain interactions...
May 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#6
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510260/markers-of-enteral-adaptation-in-pediatric-cases-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#7
Masahiro Chiba, Yutaka Sanada, Akira Toki
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to ascertain if prospective determinations of specific gut hormones and growth factors could predict bowel adaptation in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS). METHODS: We studied parenteral nutrition (PN) independency as the short-term result and discontinuation of enteral nutrition (EN) as the long-term result from a retrospective chart review of 7 patients with SBS, who were managed in the absence of growth retardation. The correlation between increased numbers of enteral feedings or enteral nutrients and fasting levels of serum gastrin, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), citrulline, and diamine oxidase (DAO) activity was analyzed...
May 16, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501098/alterations-in-intestinal-microbiota-relate-to-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-and-central-line-infections
#8
Panliang Wang, Ying Wang, Lina Lu, Weihui Yan, Yijing Tao, Kejun Zhou, Jie Jia, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a vital role in modulating the metabolic and immune functions of the intestines. We aimed to analyze the dysbiosis of microbiota in infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) with different complications. PROCEDURE: We included 26 fecal samples from 18 infants with SBS during parenteral nutrition. The samples were categorized into three groups: asymptomatic, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463404/a-synbiotic-composed-of-lactobacillus-fermentum-cect5716-and-fos-prevents-the-development-of-fatty-acid-liver-and-glycemic-alterations-in-rats-fed-a-high-fructose-diet-associated-with-changes-in-the-microbiota
#9
Belén Rivero-Gutiérrez, Reyes Gámez-Belmonte, María Dolores Suárez, José Luis Lavín, Ana María Aransay, Mónica Olivares, Olga Martínez-Augustin, Fermín Sánchez de Medina, Antonio Zarzuelo
We investigated the effect of a high fructose diet (HFD) on Sprague Dawley rats and the impact of a synbiotic composed of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 and fructooligosaccharides. Feeding the HFD for 5 weeks resulted in liver steatosis and insulin resistance but not obesity. These changes were associated with increased production of short-chain fatty acids and increased Bacteroidetes in feces, with an augmented Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, among other changes in the microbiota. In addition, barrier function was weakened, with increased LPS plasma levels...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443064/loss-of-vagal-sensitivity-to-cholecystokinin-in-rats-born-with-intrauterine-growth-retardation-and-consequence-on-food-intake
#10
Marième Ndjim, Camille Poinsignon, Patricia Parnet, Gwenola Le Dréan
Perinatal malnutrition is associated with low birth weight and an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Modification of food intake (FI) regulation was observed in adult rats born with intrauterine growth retardation induced by maternal dietary protein restriction during gestation and maintained restricted until weaning. Gastrointestinal peptides and particularly cholecystokinin (CCK) play a major role in short-term regulation of FI by relaying digestive signals to the hindbrain via the vagal afferent nerve (VAN)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434656/an-overview-of-eu-and-usa-intestinal-transplant-current-activity
#11
A Lauro, F Panaro, K R Iyer
AIM OF THE STUDY: To report the current activity of intestinal transplantation in Europe (EU) and Unites States of America (USA), underlining outcomes in the last 5 years and discussing possible trends. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data review of results was performed through analysis of ITR and UNOS registries, Eurotransplant and newsletter transplant reports, congress abstracts, international published literature, personal communications and hospital web sites. RESULTS: The absence in Europe of a sole organization collecting donors and the presence of many low-volume centers (less than 5 cases/year) makes the difference with USA: in the last 5 years (2010-2014), 222 intestinal/multivisceral transplants have been performed in EU countries (most of them in the UK), while in USA, the number of transplants achieved 634 procedures in the same period of time...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425133/fecal-microbiota-signatures-of-adult-patients-with-different-types-of-short-bowel-syndrome
#12
Yuhua Huang, Feilong Guo, Yousheng Li, Jian Wang, Jieshou Li
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a common cause of intestinal failure and can be divided into three types depending on intestinal anatomy. Gut dysbiosis has been observed in pediatric SBS patients and is associated with impaired outcome. Little is known about the changes in gut microbiota of adult SBS patients. Therefore, we aim to characterize the fecal microbiota of adult patients with different types of SBS. METHODS: Fifteen fecal samples from healthy controls and adult patients with type II or type III SBS were collected (five in each group)...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362090/effects-of-%C3%AE-galactooligosaccharides-from-chickpeas-on-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#13
Zhuqing Dai, Wanyong Lyu, Minhao Xie, Qingxia Yuan, Hong Ye, Bing Hu, Li Zhou, Xiaoxiong Zeng
The gut microbiota has the ability to modulate host energy homeostasis, which may regulate metabolic disorders. Functional oligosaccharide may positively regulate the intestinal microbiota. Therefore, effects of α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS) from chickpea on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome and gut bacterial dysbiosis were investigated. After 6 weeks of intervention, HFD led to significant increases in levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycated serum protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of mice compared to normal-chow-fed mice...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361745/short-term-impact-of-a-classical-ketogenic-diet-on-gut-microbiota-in-glut1-deficiency-syndrome-a-3-month-prospective-observational-study
#14
Anna Tagliabue, Cinzia Ferraris, Francesca Uggeri, Claudia Trentani, Simona Bertoli, Valentina de Giorgis, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Marina Elli
BACKGROUND&AIMS: The classical ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, very low-carbohydrate normocaloric diet used for drug-resistant epilepsy and Glucose Transporter 1 Deficiency Syndrome (GLUT1 DS). In animal models, high fat diet induces large alterations in microbiota producing deleterious effects on gut health. We carried out a pilot study on patients treated with KD comparing their microbiota composition before and after three months on the diet. METHODS: Six patients affected by GLUT1 DS were asked to collect fecal samples before and after three months on the diet...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351520/toll-like-receptor-4-is-critical-for-the-development-of-resection-associated-hepatic-steatosis
#15
Lauren K Barron, James W Bao, Bola G Aladegbami, Jason J Colasanti, Jun Guo, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner
BACKGROUND: A significant number of children with short bowel syndrome experience intestinal failure-associated liver disease. We recently demonstrated accelerated hepatic steatosis after 50% small bowel resection (SBR) in mice. Since SBR is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome, the purpose of this study was to determine whether TLR4 signaling is critical to the development of resection-associated hepatic steatosis. METHODS: Male C57BL6 (control) and TLR4-knockout (KO) mice underwent 50% proximal SBR...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293969/teduglutide-for-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome
#16
Lore Billiauws, Julie Bataille, Vanessa Boehm, Olivier Corcos, Francisca Joly
The European Society for Clinical Nutrition has published recommendations on the 'definition and classification of intestinal failure (IF)'. Two criteria must be present: a 'decreased absorption of macronutrients and/or water and electrolytes due to a loss of gut function' and the 'need for parenteral support'. Home parenteral support (HPS) is the primary treatment for chronic IF but is associated with complications. Areas covered: The principal cause of chronic IF is short bowel syndrome (SBS). The aim of treatment is to maximize intestinal absorption and reduce or eliminate the need for HPS to achieve the best possible quality of life...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276612/a-gut-reaction-the-combined-influence-of-exercise-and-diet-on-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-rats
#17
Romeo Batacan, Andrew Fenning, Vincent J Dalbo, Aaron T Scanlan, Mitch J Duncan, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
AIMS: Intestinal microbiota modulates the development of clinical conditions, including metabolic syndrome and obesity. Many of these conditions are influenced by nutritional and exercise behaviours. This study aimed to investigate the ability of exercise to re-shape the intestinal microbiota and the influence of the diet on the process. METHODS AND RESULTS: A rat model was used to examine the intestinal microbiota responses to four activity conditions, including: high intensity interval training, light intensity training, sedentary and normal control, each containing two nutritional conditions: high-fat high-fructose diet (HF) and standard chow (SC) diet...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266749/the-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-microcirculation-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Nikolaj Nerup, Rikard Ambrus, Joanna Lindhe, Michael P Achiam, Palle B Jeppesen, Lars B Svendsen
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and -2 (GLP-2) are gut-derived hormones used in the treatment of diabetes type-2 and short bowel syndrome, respectively. GLP-1 attenuates insulin resistance and GLP-2 reduces enterocyte apoptosis and enhances crypt cell proliferation in the small intestine. In addition, both hormones have vasoactive effects and may be useful in situations with impaired microcirculation. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the potential effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on microcirculation...
March 7, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259479/-management-of-mesenteric-ischemia-in-the-era-of-intestinal-stroke-centers-the-gut-and-lifesaving-strategy
#19
A Nuzzo, O Corcos
Mesenteric ischemia is a gut and life-threatening, medical and surgical, digestive and vascular emergency. Mesenteric ischemia is the result of an arterial or venous occlusion, a vasospasm secondary to low-flow states in intensive care patients, aortic clamping during vascular surgery or intestinal transplantation. Progression towards mesenteric infarction and its complications is unpredictable and correlates with high rates of mortality or a high risk of short bowel syndrome in case of survival. Thus, mesenteric ischemia should be diagnosed and treated at an early stage, when gut injury is still reversible...
March 1, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249284/disease-associated-changes-in-bile-acid-profiles-and-links-to-altered-gut-microbiota
#20
REVIEW
Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
The gastrointestinal microbiota plays a central role in the host metabolism of bile acids through deconjugation and dehydroxylation reactions, which generate unconjugated free bile acids and secondary bile acids respectively. These microbially generated bile acids are particularly potent signalling molecules that interact with host bile acid receptors (including the farnesoid X receptor, vitamin D receptor and TGR5 receptor) to trigger cellular responses that play essential roles in host lipid metabolism, electrolyte transport and immune regulation...
2017: Digestive Diseases
keyword
keyword
20361
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"