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Short gut syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917879/colonic-luminal-microbiota-and-bacterial-metabolite-composition-in-pregnant-huanjiang-mini-pigs-effects-of-food-composition-at-different-times-of-pregnancy
#1
Xiang-Feng Kong, Yu-Jiao Ji, Hua-Wei Li, Qian Zhu, F Blachier, Mei-Mei Geng, Wen Chen, Yu-Long Yin
The gut harbours diverse and complex microbiota, which influence body health including nutrient metabolism, immune development, and protection from pathogens. Pregnancy is associated with immune and metabolic changes that might be related to microbiota compositional dynamics. We therefore investigated the colonic luminal bacteria community in Huanjiang mini-pigs fed diets with different nutrient levels from the first to third trimester of pregnancy. The concentrations of intestinal metabolites including short-chain fat acids, NH3-N, indole, skatole, and bioamines were also determined...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896158/congenital-duodenal-obstruction-in-neonates-over-13-years-experience-from-a-single-centre
#2
Parveen Kumar, Chiranjiv Kumar, Prince Raj Pandey, Yogesh Kumar Sarin
AIM: To study the prevalence of associated anomalies with neonatal duodenal obstruction and factors impacting short-term survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Records of 31 neonates with neonatal duodenal obstruction could be retrieved and analyzed for a 13.5-year-period (October 2003-May 2016). M:F ratio was 1.58:1. The mean birth weight was 2.15 kg; 12 patients were preterm. Etiologies included duodenal atresia (n=23), duodenal web (n=8) and malrotation of gut (n= 6)...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896156/modified-gut-anastomotic-technique-in-type-iii-and-type-iv-jejunoileal-atresias
#3
Kamal Nain Rattan, Deepak Kumar Garg
BACKGROUND: Type III and IV jejunoileal atresias are associated with loss of significant length of the gut and can lead to short gut syndrome if further resection of proximal dilated gut is done. We modified the anastomotic technique so that proximal dilated segment of the gut is not resected as to prevent short gut syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical Record of patients of Type III and IV jejuno-ileal atresias managed with modified anastomotic technique in our center during 5-years was reviewed...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896153/a-minor-innovation-in-constructing-a-small-bowel-stoma-in-neonates-with-small-bowel-atresia-to-reduce-the-morbidity
#4
Naeem Khan, Saba Bakht, Nadia Zaheer
BACKGROUND: Intestinal atresia has still significant morbidity in developing countries. Stomas are now not recommended in every case of intestinal atresia; primary anastomosis is the goal of surgery after resection of dilated adynamic gut. A new type of stoma formation along with primary anastomosis is being presented here. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This report is based on our experience of many cases with this technique in last 12 years but all the details and long follow-up of each case is not available...
October 2016: Journal of Neonatal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889222/long-term-follow-up-of-composite-bladder-augmentation-incorporating-stomach-in-a-multi-institutional-cohort-of-patients-with-cloacal-exstrophy
#5
J T Casey, K H Chan, Y Hasegawa, T Large, B Judge, M Kaefer, R Misseri, R C Rink, K Ueoka, M P Cain
INTRODUCTION: Composite bladder augmentation, incorporating gastric and bowel segments, has the theoretical advantage of metabolic neutrality while potentially avoiding the morbidities of gastrocystoplasty, such as hematuria-dysuria syndrome. The most common indication for this operation is a paucity of bowel, such as in cloacal exstrophy. Despite several early descriptive studies of this technique, there are no reports, to date, of long-term follow-up in this population. OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes of composite bladder augmentation utilizing stomach in a cohort of cloacal exstrophy patients...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867410/closed-gastroschisis-vanishing-midgut-and-extreme-short-bowel-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
F A Dennison
Gastroschisis alone has excellent survival rates. Occasionally reported is closed gastroschisis, leading to vanishing small bowel and extreme short bowel syndrome. It is believed that the abdominal wall defect can contract or close in utero, which leads to strangulation of the eviscerated bowel and the rare "vanishing gut syndrome." This has a very poor prognosis with mortality as high as 70%. An 18-year-old primigravid patient's 13 week scan diagnosed a large gastroschisis affecting the fetus. After counselling, she decided to continue with the pregnancy...
August 2016: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848148/disrupted-functional-connectivity-density-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients
#7
Yifei Weng, Rongfeng Qi, Chang Liu, Jun Ke, Qiang Xu, Fangyu Wang, Long Jiang Zhang, Guang Ming Lu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder resulting from a dysregulation of the brain-gut axis. However, its exact neural substrate still remains unclear. This study investigated the changes of intrinsic whole brain functional connectivity pattern in IBS using functional connectivity density (FCD). We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from thirty-two IBS patients and thirty-two healthy controls. Functional connectivity density, a data-driven algorithm, was used to compute the long-range and short-range FCD values for each voxel in the brain of each subject, implying the amount of distant and local functional connections of cortical hubs...
November 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836748/-serpentine-like-syndrome-a-very-rare-multiple-malformation-syndrome-characterised-by-brachioesophagus-and-vertebral-anomalies
#8
Ana Beleza-Meireles, Patricia Steenhaut, Catheline Hocq, Philippe Clapuyt, Pierre Bernard, Christian Debauche, Yves Sznajer
"Serpentine-like syndrome" is a severe and rare association of multiple congenital malformations, characterised by brachioesophagus, secondary intrathoracic stomach, and vertebral anomalies. Other associated anomalies have been described, such as malposition and herniation of abdominal organs. We report the natural history of a baby girl born at 29 weeks of gestation with intra uterine growth restriction, short neck, large rachischisis from cervical to thoracic spine, a very short oesophagus, thoracic stomach associated with a midline diaphragmatic hernia, malrotated gut and median cleft lip...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747984/effects-of-varying-dietary-content-of-fermentable-short-chain-carbohydrates-on-symptoms-fecal-microenvironment-and-cytokine-profiles-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#9
T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689201/psychological-interventions-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Teodora Surdea-Blaga, Adriana Baban, Laurentiu Nedelcu, Dan L Dumitrascu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients often present psychoform symptoms or psychiatric disorders. Among the psychological factors studied in IBS patients, two seem to influence mostly its severity: catastrophizing and somatization. Somatization is an independent risk factor for IBS. In addition, somatization more than the severity of IBS influences the way the patients perceive their illness, the outcome and the efficacy of treatment. Irritable bowel syndrome patients demonstrate greater catastrophizing scores than controls, and pain catastrophizing is a significant predictor of gastrointestinal symptoms related to pain...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635781/insulin-sensitivity-enhancing-activity-of-phlorizin-is-associated-with-lipopolysaccharide-decrease-and-gut-microbiota-changes-in-obese-and-type-2-diabetes-db-db-mice
#11
Xueran Mei, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zhanguo Wang, Ziyang Gao, Gang Liu, Huiling Hu, Liang Zou, Xueli Li
Phlorizin exists in a number of fruits and foods and exhibits many bioactivities. The mechanism of its antidiabetic effect has been known as it can competitively inhibit sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs). However, phlorizin has a wide range of two-phase metabolism in systemic circulation and shows poor oral bioavailability. An alternative mechanism may involve gut microbiota in intestine. Sixteen obese mice with type 2 diabetes (db/db) and eight age-matched control mice (db/+) were divided into three groups: diabetic group treated with phlorizin (DMT group), vehicle-treated diabetic group (DM group), and normal control group (CC group)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633379/hirschsprung-s-disease-associated-with-alopecia-universalis-congenita-a-case-report
#12
Sushma Malik, Mani Singhal, Shruti Sudhir Jadhav, Charusheela Sujit Korday, Chitra Shivanand Nayak
BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease is one of the commonest causes of intestinal obstruction in neonates because of gut motility disorder. It is characterized as a complex genetic heterogenous disorder with variable inheritance. Hirschsprung's disease occurs as an isolated phenotype in majority (70 %) of cases. In other cases it may be associated with syndromes (such as Down's syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation, or cartilage-hair hypoplasia) or with a spectrum of congenital anomalies involving neurological, cardiovascular, or urological systems or with sensorineural anomalies...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617201/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-and-the-gut-microbiota
#13
Stavros Bashiardes, Hagit Shapiro, Shachar Rozin, Oren Shibolet, Eran Elinav
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is a common, multi-factorial, and poorly understood liver disease whose incidence is globally rising. NAFLD is generally asymptomatic and associated with other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Yet, up to 25% of NAFLD patients develop a progressive inflammatory liver disease termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that may progress towards cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and the need for liver transplantation. In recent years, several lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and its progression into NASH...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617199/causality-of-small-and-large-intestinal-microbiota-in-weight-regulation-and-insulin-resistance
#14
Torsten P M Scheithauer, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: The twin pandemics of obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are a global challenge for health care systems. Changes in the environment, behavior, diet, and lifestyle during the last decades are considered the major causes. A Western diet, which is rich in saturated fat and simple sugars, may lead to changes in gut microbial composition and physiology, which have recently been linked to the development of metabolic diseases. METHODS: We will discuss evidence that demonstrates the influence of the small and large intestinal microbiota on weight regulation and the development of insulin resistance, based on literature search...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609770/chemical-and-molecular-factors-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-current-knowledge-challenges-and-unanswered-questions
#15
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Ibironke Oduyebo, Houssam Halawi
Several chemical and molecular factors in the intestine are reported to be altered and to have a potentially significant role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), particularly in IBS with diarrhea. These include bile acids; short-chain fatty acids; mucosal barrier proteins; mast cell products such as histamine, proteases, and tryptase; enteroendocrine cell products; and mucosal mRNAs, proteins, and microRNAs. This article reviews the current knowledge and unanswered questions in the pathobiology of the chemical and molecular factors in IBS...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607341/bariatric-surgery-in-managing-diabetes-mellitus
#16
Mitchell S Roslin, Courtney N Cripps
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, having profound effects on Western populations. Bariatric surgery has long been employed to treat obesity and its related comorbidities. Over time, researchers have amassed significant data to support bariatric surgery in the pursuit of treating diabetes mellitus. This review serves to introduce the most recent findings and their relation to the various bariatric surgical options as bariatric surgery will continue to cement itself in the treatment paradigm of diabetes mellitus...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592213/liver-steatosis-induced-by-small-bowel-resection-is-prevented-by-oral-vancomycin
#17
Lauren K Barron, Christopher P Gayer, Anne Roberts, Jamie M Golden, Bola G Aladegbami, Jun Guo, Christopher R Erwin, Brad W Warner
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease causes significant mortality in patients with short bowel syndrome. Steatosis, a major component of intestinal failure-associated liver disease has been shown to persist even after weaning from parenteral nutrition. We sought to determine whether steatosis occurs in our murine model of short bowel syndrome and whether steatosis was affected by manipulation of the intestinal microbiome. METHODS: Male C57BL6 mice underwent 50% small bowel resection and orogastric gavage with vancomycin or vehicle for 10 weeks...
December 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580097/current-and-potential-therapeutic-targets-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2
#18
Kaori Austin, Melanie A Markovic, Patricia L Brubaker
Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gut hormone that promotes highly specific growth and function of the intestinal epithelium. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the complex mechanism of action of GLP-2, which is mediated indirectly through other intestinal factors. Although a long-acting GLP-2 analog has recently been approved for treatment of adult patients with short bowel syndrome, there remain numerous conditions characterized by intestinal insufficiency for which pre-clinical studies, as well as some limited clinical data, support further consideration of GLP-2 for expanded therapeutic use...
August 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568341/the-shift-work-and-health-research-agenda-considering-changes-in-gut-microbiota-as-a-pathway-linking-shift-work-sleep-loss-and-circadian-misalignment-and-metabolic-disease
#19
Amy C Reynolds, Jessica L Paterson, Sally A Ferguson, Dragana Stanley, Kenneth P Wright, Drew Dawson
Prevalence and impact of metabolic disease is rising. In particular, overweight and obesity are at epidemic levels and are a leading health concern in the Western world. Shift work increases the risk of overweight and obesity, along with a number of additional metabolic diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). How shift work contributes to metabolic disease has not been fully elucidated. Short sleep duration is associated with metabolic disease and shift workers typically have shorter sleep durations...
July 11, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540237/medication-management-of-the-extremely-premature-neonate-the-impact-of-a-specialist-pharmacist
#20
Karen Whitfield, Claudia Barkeij, Angela North
AIM: To present a case of an extremely premature infant and the role that the specialist neonatal pharmacist has on the quality of care of these patients. METHOD: Interventions and recommendations made by the pharmacists over the admission of a triplet born at 23 weeks and 5 days gestation were recorded. The type of interventions were categorised and classified for risk using a consequence/probability matrix.1 RESULTS: The patient required admission to the intensive care unit and subsequently the special care unit for a period of 163 days before discharge home...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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