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Short gut syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332637/pilot-rct-of-an-integrative-group-therapy-for-patients-with-refractory-irritable-bowel-syndrome-isrctn02977330
#1
S Berens, E Stroe-Kunold, F Kraus, J Tesarz, A Gauss, B Niesler, W Herzog, R Schaefert
OBJECTIVE: Different forms of psychotherapeutic treatments have been proven effective in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but disorder-oriented and integrative concepts are still rare. Therefore, we implemented and evaluated an integrative group therapeutic concept within an interdisciplinary tertiary care clinic for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). AIMS: present our integrative group concept, assess feasibility issues, and evaluate efficacy. METHODS: A pilot-RCT with a randomized controlled wait-listed group design was conducted...
February 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307992/fructo-oligosaccharide-intensifies-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-intestinal-inflammation-in-a-stress-induced-irritable-bowel-syndrome-mouse-model
#2
Bin-Rui Chen, Li-Jun Du, Hui-Qin He, John J Kim, Yan Zhao, Ya-Wen Zhang, Liang Luo, Ning Dai
AIM: To determine whether fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) affects visceral sensitivity, inflammation, and production of intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in an irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) mouse model. METHODS: Mice were randomly assigned to daily oral gavage of saline solution with or without FOS (8 g/kg body weight) for 14 d. Mice were further assigned to receive either daily one-hour water avoidance stress (WAS) or sham-WAS for the first 10 d. After 2 wk, visceral sensitivity was measured by abdominal withdrawal reflex in response to colorectal distension and mucosal inflammation was evaluated...
December 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276734/stress-the-gut-brain-axis-regulation-by-the-microbiome
#3
REVIEW
Jane A Foster, Linda Rinaman, John F Cryan
The importance of the gut-brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276170/fiber-mediated-nourishment-of-gut-microbiota-protects-against-diet-induced-obesity-by-restoring-il-22-mediated-colonic-health
#4
Jun Zou, Benoit Chassaing, Vishal Singh, Michael Pellizzon, Matthew Ricci, Michael D Fythe, Matam Vijay Kumar, Andrew T Gewirtz
Dietary supplementation with fermentable fiber suppresses adiposity and the associated parameters of metabolic syndrome. Microbiota-generated fiber-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and free fatty acid receptors including GPR43 are thought to mediate these effects. We find that while fermentable (inulin), but not insoluble (cellulose), fiber markedly protected mice against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome, the effect was not significantly impaired by either inhibiting SCFA production or genetic ablation of GPR43...
December 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231791/glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-neoplasia-a-systematic-review
#5
Linea Landgrebe Ring, Nikolaj Nerup, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Lars Bo Svendsen, Michael Patrick Achiam
Glucagon like peptide-2 is synthesized from enteroendocrine L cells primarily located in the ileum and large intestine. GLP-2 stimulates crypt cell proliferation, increases intestinal blood flow, enhances gut barrier function, induces mucosal healing, and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect. Due to these effects GLP-2 is used in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Areas covered The aim of this systematic review was to provide information on the potential risk of intestinal neoplasia in patients receiving treatment with GLP-2...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201045/functional-bowel-disorders-are-associated-with-a-central-immune-activation
#6
Per G Farup, Thor Ueland, Knut Rudi, Stian Lydersen, Knut Hestad
Background: Subjects with depression and unexplained neurological symptoms have a high prevalence of gastrointestinal comorbidity probably related to the brain-gut communication. This study explored associations between functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and inflammatory markers in subjects with these disorders. Methods: The FGID, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), were classified according to the Rome III criteria, and degree of symptoms was assessed with IBS symptom severity score (IBS-SSS)...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196510/necrotizing-enterocolitis
#7
Barrie S Rich, Stephen E Dolgin
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a frequently encountered condition in the premature neonate, which can have devastating effects. The signs and symptoms of NEC are variable and can be confused with those of sepsis. An abdominal radiograph is often obtained for diagnosis, and findings that indicate NEC include pneumatosis and portal venous gas. The treatment of NEC includes gastrointestinal rest, gastric decompression, broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, and systemic support. A finding of pneumoperitoneum signifies intestinal perforation, which requires surgical intervention...
December 2017: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192291/kif1bp-loss-in-mice-leads-to-defects-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-and-perinatal-death
#8
Caroline S Hirst, Lincon A Stamp, Annette J Bergner, Marlene M Hao, Mai X Tran, Jan M Morgan, Matthias Dutschmann, Andrew M Allen, George Paxinos, Teri M Furlong, Sonja J McKeown, Heather M Young
Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome is a poorly understood condition characterized by learning difficulties, facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, and Hirschsprung disease. GOSHS is due to recessive mutations in KIAA1279, which encodes kinesin family member 1 binding protein (KIF1BP, also known as KBP). We examined the effects of inactivation of Kif1bp in mice. Mice lacking Kif1bp died shortly after birth, and exhibited smaller brains, olfactory bulbs and anterior commissures, and defects in the vagal and sympathetic innervation of the gut...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158587/analysis-of-the-gut-microbiome-and-plasma-short-chain-fatty-acid-profiles-in-a-spontaneous-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#9
Kazuchika Nishitsuji, Jinzhong Xiao, Ryosuke Nagatomo, Hitomi Umemoto, Yuki Morimoto, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Koichi Inoue, Koichi Tsuneyama
Male Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) mice spontaneously develop obesity and obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Gut dysbiosis, an imbalance of gut microbiota, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but its mechanisms are unknown. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the main fermentation products of gut microbiota and a link between the gut microbiota and the host's physiology. Here, we investigated a correlation among gut dysbiosis, SCFAs, and metabolic syndrome in TSOD mice. We detected enriched levels of Gram-positive bacteria and corresponding decreases in Gram-negative bacteria in 24-wk-old metabolic syndrome-affected TSOD mice compared with age-matched controls...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156354/anisotropic-and-nonlinear-biaxial-mechanical-response-of-porcine-small-bowel-mesentery
#10
Keyvan Amini Khoiy, Sophia Abdulhai, Ian C Glenn, Todd A Ponsky, Rouzbeh Amini
Intestinal malrotation places pediatric patients at the risk of midgut volvulus, a complication that can lead to ischemic bowel, short gut syndrome, and even death. Even though the treatments for symptomatic patients of this complication are clear, it is still a challenge to identify asymptomatic patients who are at a higher risk of midgut volvulus and decide on a suitable course of treatment. Development of an accurate computerized model of this intestinal abnormality could help in gaining a better understanding of its integral behavior...
November 11, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147138/an-update-on-prucalopride-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-constipation
#11
REVIEW
Anam Omer, Eamonn M M Quigley
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and often under-appreciated gastrointestinal disorder associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Symptoms of constipation are typically present for a number of years prior to a patient seeking help. Lifestyle modifications followed by, or coupled with, over-the-counter laxatives represent the initial treatment option; however, relief for many is limited and dissatisfaction rates for these approaches remain high. Over recent years, therefore, considerable effort has been exerted on the development of novel pharmacological approaches...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130220/-current-research-progress-and-thinking-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#12
Ning Li, Hongliang Tian
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), also known as fecal bacteriotherapy or fecal infusion, consists of injection of a liquid filtrate of feces from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient individual. FMT has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract by reestablishment of a wide diversity of intestinal flora. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treatment guideline from American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) recommends that FMT can be used as the treatment protocols of relapse CDI...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129233/low-fermentable-oligo-di-mono-saccharides-and-polyol-diet-in-the-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Dania Schumann, Petra Klose, Romy Lauche, Gustav Dobos, Jost Langhorst, Holger Cramer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to systematically assess and meta-analyze the effects of a low fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet (LFD) on the severity of symptoms, quality of life, and safety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: The MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were screened through January 19, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared LFD to other diets were included if they assessed symptoms of IBS or abdominal pain in patients with IBS...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127753/-intestinal-adaptation-following-gut-resection
#14
Jarmila Křížová, Pavel Trachta, Eva Kotrlíková
Gut resection is followed by wide changes in the gastrointestinal tract. The goal is to increase nutrient, water and mineral absorption in the remnant intestine. These changes are going on for several months. They affect gut mucosa structure, intestine peristaltic activity and enterocytes function. The crucial role is ileum preserving. Ileum has higher adaptation ability comparing to jejunum and inhibits peristaltic function of proximal parts of GIT. A lot of factors involved in intestinal adaptation were identified, hormones, growth factors, regulating peptides, intracellular signalizing cascades, cytokines and tissue factors...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106286/duodenal-lengthening-in-an-adult-with-ultra-short-bowel-syndrome-a-case-report
#15
Javier Bueno, Rosa Burgos, Susana Redecillas, Manuel López, Joaquin Balsells
BACKGROUND: We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of lengthening the duodenum in children with short bowel syndrome and a dilated duodenum. This procedure gains additional intestinal length in a challenging area of autologous gut reconstruction. Herein, we report the successful application of this technique in an adult with ultra-short bowel syndrome. METHODS: A 25-year-old man with a history of mid-gut volvulus was referred to our center for intestinal transplant evaluation...
November 6, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097438/whole-grain-rich-diet-reduces-body-weight-and-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-without-inducing-major-changes-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#16
Henrik Munch Roager, Josef K Vogt, Mette Kristensen, Lea Benedicte S Hansen, Sabine Ibrügger, Rasmus B Mærkedahl, Martin Iain Bahl, Mads Vendelbo Lind, Rikke L Nielsen, Hanne Frøkiær, Rikke Juul Gøbel, Rikard Landberg, Alastair B Ross, Susanne Brix, Jesper Holck, Anne S Meyer, Morten H Sparholt, Anders F Christensen, Vera Carvalho, Jens Juul Holst, Jüri Johannes Rumessen, Allan Linneberg, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Marlene D Dalgaard, Andreas Blennow, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Silas Villas-Bôas, Karsten Kristiansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Claus T Ekstrøm, Christian Ritz, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Oluf Borbye Pedersen, Ramneek Gupta, Lotte Lauritzen, Tine Rask Licht
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. DESIGN: 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed...
November 1, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090088/gut-microbiota-as-a-potential-target-of-metabolic-syndrome-the-role-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#17
REVIEW
Mingqian He, Bingyin Shi
Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises central obesity, increased plasma glucose levels, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, and its incidence is increasing due to changes in lifestyle and dietary structure in recent years. MS has been proven to be associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to morbidity and mortality. In this manuscript, we review recent studies concerning the role of the gut microbiota in MS modulation. Manipulation of the gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics may assist in weight loss and reduce plasma glucose and serum lipid levels, decreasing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055396/role-of-gut-microbiota-in-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-in-children
#18
Kazunari Kaneko, Shoji Tsuji, Takahisa Kimata
Nephrotic syndrome characterized by heavy proteinuria and edema is the most common chronic kidney disease in children. It is classified into three categories, of which the idiopathic type accounts for the vast majority of cases. As indicated by the name, the etiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome remains unknown though it has been suggested that impaired T cell function is involved. Recently, evidence has mounted to suggest that dysfunction in regulatory T cells plays an important role in the development of allergic disease, a recognized comorbid condition for children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973971/effects-of-antidiabetic-drugs-on-gut-microbiota-composition
#19
REVIEW
Sophie A Montandon, François R Jornayvaz
Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It is becoming clear that gut microbiota is playing a prevalent role in pathologies such as metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes (T2D); inflammatory and bowel diseases. Obesity and related diseases; notably type 2 diabetes, induce gut dysbiosis...
September 30, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970836/fructose-a-dietary-sugar-in-crosstalk-with-microbiota-contributing-to-the-development-and-progression-of-non-alcoholic-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Jessica Lambertz, Sabine Weiskirchen, Silvano Landert, Ralf Weiskirchen
Fructose is one of the key dietary catalysts in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD comprises a complex disease spectrum, including steatosis (fatty liver), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocyte injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. It is also the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which covers abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Commensal bacteria modulate the host immune system, protect against exogenous pathogens, and are gatekeepers in intestinal barrier function and maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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