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Short gut syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147138/an-update-on-prucalopride-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-constipation
#1
REVIEW
Anam Omer, Eamonn M M Quigley
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and often under-appreciated gastrointestinal disorder associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Symptoms of constipation are typically present for a number of years prior to a patient seeking help. Lifestyle modifications followed by, or coupled with, over-the-counter laxatives represent the initial treatment option; however, relief for many is limited and dissatisfaction rates for these approaches remain high. Over recent years, therefore, considerable effort has been exerted on the development of novel pharmacological approaches...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130220/-current-research-progress-and-thinking-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#2
Ning Li, Hongliang Tian
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), also known as fecal bacteriotherapy or fecal infusion, consists of injection of a liquid filtrate of feces from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient individual. FMT has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract by reestablishment of a wide diversity of intestinal flora. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treatment guideline from American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) recommends that FMT can be used as the treatment protocols of relapse CDI...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129233/low-fermentable-oligo-di-mono-saccharides-and-polyol-diet-in-the-treatment-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Dania Schumann, Petra Klose, Romy Lauche, Gustav Dobos, Jost Langhorst, Holger Cramer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to systematically assess and meta-analyze the effects of a low fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyol (FODMAP) diet (LFD) on the severity of symptoms, quality of life, and safety in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: The MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were screened through January 19, 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared LFD to other diets were included if they assessed symptoms of IBS or abdominal pain in patients with IBS...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127753/-intestinal-adaptation-following-gut-resection
#4
Jarmila Křížová, Pavel Trachta, Eva Kotrlíková
Gut resection is followed by wide changes in the gastrointestinal tract. The goal is to increase nutrient, water and mineral absorption in the remnant intestine. These changes are going on for several months. They affect gut mucosa structure, intestine peristaltic activity and enterocytes function. The crucial role is ileum preserving. Ileum has higher adaptation ability comparing to jejunum and inhibits peristaltic function of proximal parts of GIT. A lot of factors involved in intestinal adaptation were identified, hormones, growth factors, regulating peptides, intracellular signalizing cascades, cytokines and tissue factors...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106286/duodenal-lengthening-in-an-adult-with-ultra-short-bowel-syndrome-a-case-report
#5
Javier Bueno, Rosa Burgos, Susana Redecillas, Manuel López, Joaquin Balsells
BACKGROUND: We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of lengthening the duodenum in children with short bowel syndrome and a dilated duodenum. This procedure gains additional intestinal length in a challenging area of autologous gut reconstruction. Herein, we report the successful application of this technique in an adult with ultra-short bowel syndrome. METHODS: A 25-year-old man with a history of mid-gut volvulus was referred to our center for intestinal transplant evaluation...
November 6, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097438/whole-grain-rich-diet-reduces-body-weight-and-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-without-inducing-major-changes-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#6
Henrik Munch Roager, Josef K Vogt, Mette Kristensen, Lea Benedicte S Hansen, Sabine Ibrügger, Rasmus B Mærkedahl, Martin Iain Bahl, Mads Vendelbo Lind, Rikke L Nielsen, Hanne Frøkiær, Rikke Juul Gøbel, Rikard Landberg, Alastair B Ross, Susanne Brix, Jesper Holck, Anne S Meyer, Morten H Sparholt, Anders F Christensen, Vera Carvalho, Jens Juul Holst, Jüri Johannes Rumessen, Allan Linneberg, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Marlene D Dalgaard, Andreas Blennow, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Silas Villas-Bôas, Karsten Kristiansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Claus T Ekstrøm, Christian Ritz, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Oluf Borbye Pedersen, Ramneek Gupta, Lotte Lauritzen, Tine Rask Licht
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. DESIGN: 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed...
November 1, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090088/gut-microbiota-as-a-potential-target-of-metabolic-syndrome-the-role-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#7
REVIEW
Mingqian He, Bingyin Shi
Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises central obesity, increased plasma glucose levels, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, and its incidence is increasing due to changes in lifestyle and dietary structure in recent years. MS has been proven to be associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to morbidity and mortality. In this manuscript, we review recent studies concerning the role of the gut microbiota in MS modulation. Manipulation of the gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics may assist in weight loss and reduce plasma glucose and serum lipid levels, decreasing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055396/role-of-gut-microbiota-in-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome-in-children
#8
Kazunari Kaneko, Shoji Tsuji, Takahisa Kimata
Nephrotic syndrome characterized by heavy proteinuria and edema is the most common chronic kidney disease in children. It is classified into three categories, of which the idiopathic type accounts for the vast majority of cases. As indicated by the name, the etiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome remains unknown though it has been suggested that impaired T cell function is involved. Recently, evidence has mounted to suggest that dysfunction in regulatory T cells plays an important role in the development of allergic disease, a recognized comorbid condition for children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973971/effects-of-antidiabetic-drugs-on-gut-microbiota-composition
#9
REVIEW
Sophie A Montandon, François R Jornayvaz
Gut microbiota forms a catalog of about 1000 bacterial species; which mainly belong to the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes; such as the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA); amino acids; bile acids or vitamins. It is becoming clear that gut microbiota is playing a prevalent role in pathologies such as metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes (T2D); inflammatory and bowel diseases. Obesity and related diseases; notably type 2 diabetes, induce gut dysbiosis...
September 30, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970836/fructose-a-dietary-sugar-in-crosstalk-with-microbiota-contributing-to-the-development-and-progression-of-non-alcoholic-liver-disease
#10
REVIEW
Jessica Lambertz, Sabine Weiskirchen, Silvano Landert, Ralf Weiskirchen
Fructose is one of the key dietary catalysts in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD comprises a complex disease spectrum, including steatosis (fatty liver), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatocyte injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. It is also the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, which covers abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Commensal bacteria modulate the host immune system, protect against exogenous pathogens, and are gatekeepers in intestinal barrier function and maturation...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970315/mode-of-delivery-and-outcomes-of-infants-with-gastroschisis-a-meta-analysis-of-observational-studies
#11
Dina W Kirollos, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif
BACKGROUND: There is controversy among the literature for electing caesarean section (CS) delivery for infants with gastroschisis in an attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis investigates whether there is enough evidence to support CS delivery over vaginal delivery. DATA SOURCES: We conducted our search in April 2017. We searched Cochrane, Medline, Premedline, Embase, CINAHL, GoogleScholar and Web of Science...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951014/the-significance-of-organ-prolapse-in-gastroschisis
#12
Shannon M Koehler, Aniko Szabo, Matt Loichinger, Erika Peterson, Melissa Christensen, Amy J Wagner
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and importance of organ prolapse (stomach, bladder, reproductive organs) in gastroschisis. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of gastroschisis patients from 2000 to 2014 at a single tertiary institution. Statistical analysis was performed using a chi-square test, Student's t test, log-rank test, or Cox regression analysis models. All tests were conducted as two-tailed tests, and p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948347/central-venous-catheter-salvage-in-children-with-staphylococcus-aureus-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection
#13
Kristine S Corkum, Rachel E Jones, Caroline H Reuter, Larry K Kociolek, Elaine Morgan, Timothy B Lautz
BACKGROUND: Prompt central venous catheter (CVC) removal is currently recommended in children with Staphylococcus aureus central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Our objective was to examine the outcome of attempted line salvage in children with S. aureus CLABSI and assess predictors of success. METHODS: A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed of all children with S. aureus CLABSI between 2012 and 2015. Patients with and without immediate CVC removal (≤ 2 days after first positive culture) were compared...
November 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923170/prebiotics-in-the-management-of-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Sarah O'Connor, Sarah Chouinard-Castonguay, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915953/syntrophic-imbalance-and-the-etiology-of-bacterial-endoparasitism-diseases
#15
James F White
This article outlines the proposed 'syntrophic imbalance hypothesis' for etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. This hypothesis involves microbes (archaea and bacteria) that exist in human body biofilms in syntrophic associations, where bacteria ferment nutrients to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are used by methanogenic archaeons to produce methane. Overgrowth of archaea on human tissues (e.g., in association with intestines, teeth or lungs) results in excessive removal of SCFAs from the biofilms and this triggers bacteria in the free-living biofilm state to convert to the endoparasitic state and become intracellular in host cells where they incite inflammation and disease...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880224/parenteral-nutrition-associated-liver-disease-the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota
#16
REVIEW
Monika Cahova, Miriam Bratova, Petr Wohl
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated with PN is multifactorial, including non-specific intestine inflammation, compromised intestinal permeability, and barrier function associated with increased bacterial translocation, primary and secondary cholangitis, cholelithiasis, short bowel syndrome, disturbance of hepatobiliary circulation, lack of enteral nutrition, shortage of some nutrients (proteins, essential fatty acids, choline, glycine, taurine, carnitine, etc...
September 7, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780499/how-to-feed-a-baby-recovering-from-necrotising-enterocolitis-when-maternal-milk-is-not-available
#17
REVIEW
Nicholas D Embleton, Stefan P Zalewski
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease with significant mortality and serious adverse outcomes in at least 50% including short gut and poor neurodevelopment. Research and management are complicated by a lack of robust clinical markers, and without histological confirmation, there is a risk of both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis. Interunit variations in the thresholds for surgical referral, laparotomy and postmortem rates mean the actual incidence is difficult to determine, especially because the histological term 'NEC' is used in practice to describe a heterogeneous clinical syndrome...
November 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738080/effects-of-exogenous-glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-distal-bowel-resection-on-intestinal-and-systemic-adaptive-responses-in-rats
#18
Sarah W Lai, Elaine de Heuvel, Laurie E Wallace, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Mary E Brindle, Prasanth K Chelikani, David L Sigalet
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. BACKGROUND: GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687683/substantial-harm-associated-with-failure-of-chronic-paediatric-central-venous-access-devices
#19
Amanda J Ullman, Tricia Kleidon, Marie Cooke, Claire M Rickard
Central venous access devices (CVADs) form an important component of modern paediatric healthcare, especially for children with chronic health conditions such as cancer or gastrointestinal disorders. However device failure and complications rates are high.Over 2½ years, a child requiring parenteral nutrition and associated vascular access dependency due to 'short gut syndrome' (intestinal failure secondary to gastroschisis and resultant significant bowel resection) had ten CVADs inserted, with ninesubsequently failing...
July 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638851/mucosal-biopsy-shows-immunologic-changes-of-the-colon-in-patients-with-early-ms
#20
Adrian Mathias Moser, Walter Spindelboeck, Heimo Strohmaier, Christian Enzinger, Thomas Gattringer, Siegrid Fuchs, Franz Fazekas, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Philipp Wurm, Christoph Högenauer, Michael Khalil
OBJECTIVE: To investigate immune cells of the colonic mucosa and fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in treatment-naive patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or early relapsing MS. METHODS: In this cross-sectional proof-of-concept study, we obtained mucosal specimens during ileocolonoscopy from 15 untreated patients with CIS/MS and 10 controls. Mucosal immune cells were analyzed by FACS, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements of stool samples served to determine SCFA...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
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