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Christopher R Friesen, Rasmus Johansson, Mats Olsson
Polymorphism has fascinated biologists for over a century because morphs persist within populations through evolutionary time in spite of showing disparate behavioral and physiological phenotypes; any one morph should go to fixation with the slightest fitness advantage over the others. Surely there must be trade-offs that balance selection on them. The polychromatic morphs of the Australian painted dragon lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, are one such system. The male color morphs of painted dragons have different physiological and behavioral traits including reproductive tactics, hormone levels, and the rate of body condition loss through the reproductive season...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
J Grant Mouser, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Matthew B Jessee, Samuel L Buckner, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
Much of the literature examining blood flow restriction in the lower body uses cuffs of differing widths. It is currently unknown whether similar relative pressures using cuffs of differing widths elicit the same blood flow response. PURPOSE: To examine the hemodynamic responses to relative pressures using two commonly used cuffs (10 and 12 cm). METHODS: In a random order over two laboratory visits, one cuff was applied to the right proximal thigh of the participant (men = 17, women = 14), and arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) was measured...
January 21, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Elie Nader, Nicolas Guillot, Louis Lavorel, Ivan Hancco, Romain Fort, Emeric Stauffer, Céline Renoux, Philippe Joly, Michèle Germain, Philippe Connes
We compared the effects of cycling and running exercise on hemorheological and hematological properties, as well as eryptosis markers. Seven endurance-trained subjects randomly performed a progressive and maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. Blood was sampled at rest and at the end of the exercise to analyze hematological and blood rheological parameters including hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell (RBC) deformability, aggregation and blood viscosity. Hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), blood lactate and glucose levels were also monitored...
January 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Kemal Tekin, Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu, Hasan Kiziltoprak, Sibel Doguizi, Merve Inanc, Pelin Yilmazbas
BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine normative static and dynamic pupillometry data in different age groups in a healthy population, and to investigate the effects of age on pupillometric characteristics. METHODS: Pupillometry measurements were undertaken on 155 healthy participants using an automatic quantitative pupillometry system. Static pupillometry measurements were undertaken; these included scotopic pupil diameter (PD), mesopic PD, low photopic PD and high photopic PD values...
January 21, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Anish Mitra, Marcus E Raichle
Directed signaling among and within the large-scale networks of the human brain is functionally critical. Recent advances in our understanding of spontaneous fluctuations of the fMRI BOLD signal have provided strategies to study the spatial-temporal properties of directed signaling at infra-slow frequencies. Herein we explore the relationship between two canonical systems of the human brain, the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) whose anti-correlated relationship is well known but poorly understood...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Marijana Tadic, Cesare Cuspidi, Guido Grassi
BACKGROUND: Heart rate (HR) is a predictor of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population, as well as in patients with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. We aimed to summarize current knowledge regarding the influence of HR on cardio- and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid and Embase databases was searched for large follow-up studies or meta-analysis published between January 1990 and September 2017 in the English language using the following keyword "heart rate", "resting heart rate", "mortality", "outcome", "hypertension", "heart failure", "ischemic heart disease", "coronary heart disease", "stroke"...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Xiaowei Zhuang, Ryan R Walsh, Karthik Sreenivasan, Zhengshi Yang, Virendra Mishra, Dietmar Cordes
The dynamics of the brain's intrinsic networks have been recently studied using co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis. The CAP method relies on few model assumptions and CAP-based measurements provide quantitative information of network temporal dynamics. One limitation of existing CAP-related methods is that the computed CAPs share considerable spatial overlap that may or may not be functionally distinct relative to specific network dynamics. To more accurately describe network dynamics with spatially distinct CAPs, and to compare network dynamics between different populations, a novel data-driven CAP group analysis method is proposed in this study...
January 17, 2018: NeuroImage
Adonay S Nunes, Nicholas Peatfield, Vasily Vakorin, Sam M Doesburg
Neuroimaging studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have yielded inconsistent results indicating either increases or decreases in functional connectivity, or both. Recent findings suggest that these seemingly divergent results might be underpinned by greater inter-individual variability in brain network connectivity in ASD. We tested the hypothesis that the spatial patterns of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are more idiosyncratic in ASD, and demonstrated that this increased variability is associated with symptomatology...
January 17, 2018: NeuroImage
Xiao Liu, Nanyin Zhang, Catie Chang, Jeff H Duyn
The brain is a complex system that integrates and processes information across multiple time scales by dynamically coordinating activities over brain regions and circuits. Correlations in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) signals have been widely used to infer functional connectivity of the brain, providing a metric of functional associations that reflects a temporal average over an entire scan (typically several minutes or longer). Not until recently was the study of dynamic brain interactions at much shorter time scales (seconds to minutes) considered for inference of functional connectivity...
January 17, 2018: NeuroImage
Gerd Wagner, Annegret Krause-Utz, Feliberto de la Cruz, Andy Schumann, Christian Schmahl, Karl-Jürgen Bär
Impulsive behavior, difficulties in controlling anger and suicidal behavior are typical patterns of affective/behavioral dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous functional MRI studies in the resting state condition demonstrated altered functional connectivity (FC) between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the frontoparietal executive control network (ECN), which was significantly associated with impulsivity in BPD. Impulsivity is often defined as a function of inhibitory control, strongly relying on the proper functioning of the fronto-cingulo-striatal network...
January 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Robert P Frantz, Harrison W Farber, David B Badesch, C Greg Elliott, Adaani E Frost, Michael D McGoon, Carol Zhao, David R Mink, Mona Selej, Raymond L Benza
BACKGROUND: Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level is a prognostic biomarker in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Its impact on long-term overall survival (OS) was investigated in REVEAL, a 5-year observational, multicenter, United States registry of patients with PAH. METHODS: Patients were aged ≥18 years, met right heart catheterization criteria at rest, had WHO Group I PAH, and BNP measurement at enrollment. Optimal BNP threshold was obtained via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis...
January 16, 2018: Chest
Milen Minkov
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasia driven by activation mutations alongside the MAPK pathway. Its broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and diverse course and clinical outcome, make interpretation of trial data difficult. Use of different stratification systems further complicates comparison among trials. Areas covered: This review summarizes the published data derived from prospective clinical trials from Phase II onwards. PubMed was searched using combinations of the keywords 'Langerhans cell histiocytosis', 'histiocytosis X', 'pediatric', 'children', 'treatment', and 'therapy'...
January 22, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
M S Wolff, A B Schenkel
Dental caries remains a world-wide disease despite the global distribution of fluoride. It has become apparent that the introduction of significant levels of sugar (fermentable carbohydrate) into the diet has resulted in a change in the biofilm, encouraging acid formation. Further, there has been a shift in the microbiota in the biofilm to a flora that produces acid, and thrives and reproduces in an acidic environment. The management of caries activity under these conditions has focused on brushing to remove the biofilm with fluoride pastes, and high-dose fluoride treatments...
February 2018: Advances in Dental Research
Haifeng Zhang, Fangshen Xie, Hongbin Gong, Hui Huang, Shutao Chen, Mingfei Kang, Yong Fu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of heat-sensitive moxibustion on corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and to explore the possible mechanism of heat-sensitive moxibustion on IBS. METHODS: According to random number table, 56 SD male rats were randomly divided into a blank group (n=8), a model group (n=8), a moxibustion group (n=32), and a mifepristone group (RU-486 group, n=8)...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Kaimin Luo, Tianchen Qi, Zhi Hou, Na Bian, Yuejun Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on joint dysfunction after meniscal suture surgery between rehabilitation training combined with modified shu-acupuncture and simple rehabilitation training. METHODS: Seventy-one patients with meniscal suture surgery were randomized into an observation group (n=36) and a control group (n=35). Patients in the observation group received modified shu-acupuncture combined with rehabilitation training. Acupuncture for 8 weeks were at Zutonggu (BL 65), Shugu (BL 66), Neiting (ST 44), Xiangu (ST 43), Xiaxi (GB 43), Zulinqi (GB 41), Dadu (SP 2), Taibai (SP 3), Xingjian (LR 2), and Taichong (LR 3), once a day for continuous 6 days with 1 day for rest...
September 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
A Kamari, A Sepahvand, R Mohammadi
Background and Purpose: Cryptococcus species are pathogenic and non-pathogenic basidiomycete yeasts that are found widely in the environment. Based on phenotypic methods, this genus has many species; however, its taxonomy is presently being re-evaluated by modern techniques. The Cryptococcus species complex includes two sibling taxa of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. We aimed to investigate the possible distribution of Cryptococcus species in pigeon nests and Eucalyptus trees in Ilam, Iran, using molecular techniques...
June 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
Farhan Zaidi, Ryan S Lee, Bartosz A Buchcic, Nina E Bracken, H Ari Jaffe, Min Joo, Valentin Prieto-Centurion, Ai-Yui Tan, Jerry A Krishnan
Rationale: Patients hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who require supplemental oxygen (O2) are at increased risk of hospital readmissions. There is a paucity of information regarding quality of evaluation and documentation regarding the need for supplemental O2 in this population.  Objective: To determine the extent to which evaluation and documentation regarding the need for supplemental O2 occurs prior to hospital discharge in patients with COPD.  Methods: We conducted a two-center retrospective cohort study of hospitalized adults with a physician diagnosis of COPD...
September 20, 2017: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
Hyun Ho Kong, Heui Je Bang, Jae Ung Ko, Goo Joo Lee
Objective: To determine the age-related changes in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) outcomes, which includes hemodynamic and metabolic factors, in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: CR was administered for 8 weeks to 32 men (mean age, 54.0±8.8 years) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute MI between July 2012 and January 2016. The exercise tolerance tests were performed before and after the CR. The results were stratified based on a cut-off age of 55 years...
December 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
Igor Duquesne, Lars Weisbach, Atiqullah Aziz, Luis A Kluth, Evanguelos Xylinas
Despite advances in the surgical and medical treatment of bladder cancer, there have only been minor improvements in mortality and morbidity rates over the past decades. Urine-based markers help to improve diagnosing bladder cancer with the aim of complementing or probably in future replacing cystoscopy. Biomarkers may allow individualized risk stratification and support decision-making regarding therapy and follow-up. This review summarizes the existing urine-based biomarkers in bladder cancer. We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature...
December 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
Hanne Austad, Øystein Wiggen, Hilde Færevik, Trine M Seeberg
This study investigated the usefulness of continuous sensor data for improving occupational cold stress assessment. Eleven volunteer male subjects completed a 90-120-minute protocol in cold environments, consisting of rest, moderate and hard work. Biomedical data were measured using a smart jacket with integrated temperature, humidity and activity sensors, in addition to a custom-made sensor belt worn around the chest. Other relevant sensor data were measured using commercially available sensors. The study aimed to improve decision support for workers in cold climates, by taking advantage of the information provided by data from the rapidly growing market of wearable sensors...
January 19, 2018: Industrial Health
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