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Neurocognitive disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036819/age-and-graphomotor-decision-making-assessed-with-the-digital-clock-drawing-test-the-framingham-heart-study
#1
Ryan J Piers, Kathryn N Devlin, Boting Ning, Yulin Liu, Ben Wasserman, Joseph M Massaro, Melissa Lamar, Catherine C Price, Rod Swenson, Randall Davis, Dana L Penney, Rhoda Au, David J Libon
BACKGROUND: Digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) technology enables the examination of detailed neurocognitive behavior as behavior unfolds in in real time; a capability that cannot be obtained using a traditional pen and paper testing format. OBJECTIVE: Parameters obtained from the dCDT were used to investigate neurocognitive constructs related to higher-order neurocognitive decision-making and information processing speed. The current research sought to determine the effect of age as related to combined motor and non-motor components of drawing, and higher-order, decision-making latencies...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036632/mapping-compulsivity-in-the-dsm-5-obsessive-compulsive-and-related-disorders-cognitive-domains-neural-circuitry-and-treatment
#2
Naomi A Fineberg, Annemieke M Apergis-Schoute, M Matilde Vaghi, Paula Banca, Claire M Gillan, Valerie Voon, Samuel R Chamberlain, Cinosi Eduardo, Reid Jemma, Sonia Shahper, Edward T Bullmore, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins
Compulsions are repetitive, stereotyped thoughts and behaviors designed to reduce harm. Growing evidence suggests that the neurocognitive mechanisms mediating behavioural inhibition (motor inhibition, cognitive inflexibility) reversal learning and habit formation (shift from goal-directed to habitual responding) contribute toward compulsive activity in a broad range of disorders. In obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), distributed network perturbation appears focussed around the pre-frontal cortex, caudate, putamen and associated neuro-circuitry...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034489/modification-of-automatic-alcohol-approach-tendencies-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#3
Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033857/an-update-overview-on-brain-imaging-studies-of-internet-gaming-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Aviv M Weinstein
There are a growing number of studies on structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that IGD adolescents and adults had reduced gray matter volume in regions associated with attention motor coordination executive function and perception. Adolescents with IGD showed lower white matter (WM) integrity measures in several brain regions that are involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition, and emotional regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033017/neurocognitive-and-psychological-outcomes-in-adults-with-dextro-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-corrected-by-the-arterial-switch-operation
#5
Leïla Kasmi, Johanna Calderon, Michèle Montreuil, Nikoletta Geronikola, Virginie Lambert, Emrè Belli, Damien Bonnet, David Kalfa
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental impairments have frequently been described in children and adolescents with dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA). The arterial switch operation (ASO) to correct d-TGA has been used for more than 30 years, and more than 90% of these patients now reach adulthood. However, very little is known about their long-term functional outcomes. The present study investigated neurocognitive outcomes and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adults with d-TGA corrected by ASO...
October 12, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031336/psychosocial-issues-in-geriatric-rehabilitation
#6
REVIEW
Ricardo M Rodriguez
Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation...
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030878/the-association-between-ptsd-and-functional-outcome-is-mediated-by-perception-of-cognitive-problems-rather-than-objective-neurological-test-performance
#7
Kristin W Samuelson, Linda Abadjian, Joshua T Jordan, Alisa Bartel, Jennifer Vasterling, Karen Seal
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been consistently linked to poorer functional outcomes, including quality of life, health problems, and social and occupational functioning. Less is known about the potential mechanisms by which PTSD leads to poorer functional outcomes. We hypothesized that neurocognitive functioning and perception of cognitive problems would both mediate the relationship between PTSD diagnosis and functioning. In a sample of 140 veterans of the recent wars and conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, we assessed PTSD symptoms, history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), depression, self-report measures of quality of life, social and occupational functioning, and reintegration to civilian life, as well as perception of cognitive problems...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030589/aberrant-ocular-architecture-and-function-in-patients-with-klinefelter-syndrome
#8
Cristin Brand, Michael Zitzmann, Nicole Eter, Sabine Kliesch, Joachim Wistuba, Maged Alnawaiseh, Peter Heiduschka
Klinefelter Syndrome (KS), the most common chromosomal disorder in men (47,XXY), is associated with numerous comorbidities. Based on a number of isolated case reports, we performed the first systematic and comprehensive evaluation of eye health in KS patients with a focus on ocular structure and vascularization. Twenty-one KS patients and 26 male and 38 female controls underwent a variety of non-invasive examinations investigating ocular morphology (examination of retinal thickness, optic nerve head, and cornea) and function (visual field testing and quantification of ocular vessel density by optical coherence tomography angiography)...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028880/semantic-memory-in-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-an-evaluation-of-the-cortical-versus-subcortical-hypothesis
#9
Savanna Tierney, Steven Paul Woods, Marizela Verduzco, Jessica Beltran, Paul J Massman, Rodrigo Hasbun
Objective: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have historically been characterized as a subcortical condition that does not affect semantic memory; however, recent evidence suggests that the cortical regions that support semantic memory may be affected in HIV. Method: The current study examined the effects of HAND on semantic memory in 85 HIV+ individuals with HAND, 193 HIV+ individuals without HAND, and 181 HIV- individuals who completed the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Famous Faces subtest of the Kauffman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT-FF)...
September 28, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027646/prevalence-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-among-obese-toddlers-and-preschool-children
#10
Saadoun Bin-Hasan, Sherri Katz, Zoe Nugent, Joy Nehme, Zihang Lu, Abdullah Khayat, Suhail Al-Saleh, Reshma Amin, Indra Narang
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder estimated at 1-5% in the school-aged children. With the obesity prevalence reaching staggering rates globally, OSA in obese adolescents is estimated to be 4-5-folds higher than their lean peers. There is a paucity of data regarding obesity-related OSA in children 6 years and less. This is particularly relevant as OSA is associated with neurocognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of OSA among obese toddlers and preschool children and further to determine what other factors may be associated with the presence of OSA...
October 13, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022558/klinefelter-syndrome-in-childhood-variability-in-clinical-and-molecular-findings
#11
Neşe Akcan, Şükran Poyrazoğlu, Firdevs Baş, Rüveyde Bundak, Feyza Darendeliler
OBJECTIVE: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common (1/500-1/1000) chromosomal disorder in males, but only 10% of cases are identified in childhood. This study aimed to review the data of the children with KS to assess the age and reason for diagnosis, clinical and laboratory findings, as well as the presence of comorbidities. METHODS: Twenty-three KS patients were analyzed retrospectively. Age at admission, presenting symptoms, comorbid problems, height, weight, pubertal status, biochemical findings, hormone profiles, bone mineral density, and karyotype were evaluated...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018511/neurocognitive-and-observational-markers-prediction-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-from-infancy-to-mid-childhood
#12
Rachael Bedford, Teodora Gliga, Elizabeth Shephard, Mayada Elsabbagh, Andrew Pickles, Tony Charman, Mark H Johnson
BACKGROUND: Prospective studies of infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have identified a number of putative early markers that are associated with ASD outcome at 3 years of age. However, some diagnostic changes occur between toddlerhood and mid-childhood, which raises the question of whether infant markers remain associated with diagnosis into mid-childhood. METHODS: First, we tested whether infant neurocognitive markers (7-month neural response to eye gaze shifts and 14-month visual disengagement latencies) as well as an observational marker of emerging ASD behaviours (the Autism Observation Scale for Infants; AOSI) predicted ASD outcome in high-risk (HR) 7-year-olds with and without an ASD diagnosis (HR-ASD and HR-No ASD) and low risk (LR) controls...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016979/attention-mediated-neurocognitive-profiles-in-survivors-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-comparison-to-children-with-neurodevelopmental-adhd
#13
Kristina K Hardy, Victoria W Willard, Anthony Gioia, Christina Sharkey, Karin S Walsh
Background: Attention and working memory symptoms are among the most common late effects in survivors of pediatric brain tumors, and are often associated with academic and psychosocial difficulties. Diagnostic and treatment approaches derived from the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) literature have frequently been applied to survivors, yet the extent of overlap in cognitive profiles between these groups is unclear. The objective of the present study is to compare neurocognition in survivors of brain tumors and children with neurodevelopmental ADHD...
September 8, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016379/oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-neuroprogression-in-chronic-ptsd
#14
Mark W Miller, Alex P Lin, Erika J Wolf, Danielle R Miller
Posttraumatic stress disorder is a serious and often disabling syndrome that develops in response to a traumatic event. Many individuals who initially develop the disorder go on to experience a chronic form of the condition that in some cases can last for many years. Among these patients, psychiatric and medical comorbidities are common, including early onset of age-related conditions such as chronic pain, cardiometabolic disease, neurocognitive disorders, and dementia. The hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress-recurrent sensory-memory reexperiencing of the trauma(s)-are associated with concomitant activations of threat- and stress-related neurobiological pathways that occur against a tonic backdrop of sleep disturbance and heightened physiological arousal...
October 9, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992398/impact-of-social-cognition-on-alcohol-dependence-treatment-outcome-poorer-facial-emotion-recognition-predicts-relapse-dropout
#15
Claudia I Rupp, Birgit Derntl, Friederike Osthaus, Georg Kemmler, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence for neurobehavioral deficits in social cognition in alcohol use disorder (AUD), the clinical relevance remains unclear, and little is known about its impact on treatment outcome. This study prospectively investigated the impact of neurocognitive social abilities at treatment onset and on treatment completion. METHODS: Fifty-nine alcohol-dependent patients were assessed with measures of social cognition including three core components of empathy via paradigms measuring: 1) emotion recognition (the ability to recognize emotions via facial expression), 2) emotional perspective taking, and 3) affective responsiveness at the beginning of inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988793/the-combined-roles-of-nonsomatic-depressive-symptomatology-neurocognitive-function-and-current-substance-use-in-medication-adherence-in-adults-living-with-hiv-infection
#16
Travis M Scott, Desiree Byrd, Miguel Arce Rentería, Kelly Coulehan, Caitlin Miranda, Armando Fuentes, Monica Rivera Mindt
Depression, global neurocognitive (GNC) function, and substance use disorders (SUDs) are each associated with medication adherence in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Because somatic symptoms can inflate depression scores in PLWH, the role of nonsomatic depressive symptomatology (NSDS) should be considered in adherence. However, the combined roles of NSDS, GNC function, and current SUDs in predicting combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence remain poorly understood. Forty PLWH (70% Latina/o; 30% non-Hispanic White) completed psychiatric/SUD, neurocognitive, and self-report cART adherence evaluations...
August 23, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988183/neurological-outcome-after-minimal-invasive-coronary-artery-surgery-nomics-protocol-for-an-observational-prospective-cohort-study
#17
Kristof Nijs, Jeroen Vandenbrande, Fidel Vaqueriza, Jean-Paul Ory, Alaaddin Yilmaz, Pascal Starinieri, Jasperina Dubois, Luc Jamaer, Ingrid Arijs, Björn Stessel
INTRODUCTION: Adverse neurocognitive outcomes are still an important cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. The most common neurocognitive disorders after conventional cardiac surgery are postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), stroke and delirium. Minimal invasive cardiac procedures have recently been introduced into practice. Endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (Endo-CABG) is a minimal invasive cardiac procedure based on the conventional CABG procedure. Neurocognitive outcome after minimal invasive cardiac surgery, including Endo-CABG, has never been studied...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987321/the-role-of-human-dopamine-transporter-in-neuroaids
#18
REVIEW
Jun Zhu, Subramaniam Ananthan, Chang-Guo Zhan
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains highly prevalent in HIV infected individuals and represents a special group of neuropathological disorders, which are associated with HIV-1 viral proteins, such as transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein. Cocaine abuse increases the incidence of HAND and exacerbates its severity by enhancing viral replication. Perturbation of dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk determinant of HAND. The presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is essential for DA homeostasis and dopaminergic modulation of the brain function including cognition...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985434/electrophysiological-correlates-of-oxytocin-induced-enhancement-of-social-performance-monitoring
#19
Ellen R A de Bruijn, Margit I Ruissen, Sina Radke
Altered performance monitoring has been demonstrated after administration of different pharmacological compounds and in various clinical populations, such as excessive neurophysiological responses to mistakes in anxiety disorders. Here, a novel social pharmacological approach was applied to investigate whether oxytocin administration (24 IU) enhances performance monitoring for errors that have negative consequences for another individual, so-called social mistakes. Healthy male volunteers (N = 24) participated in a placebo-controlled crossover design...
July 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984584/perception-and-reality-of-cognitive-function-information-processing-speed-perceived-memory-function-and-perceived-task-difficulty-in-older-adults
#20
Anna Torrens-Burton, Nasreen Basoudan, Antony J Bayer, Andrea Tales
This study examines the relationships between two measures of information processing speed associated with executive function (Trail Making Test and a computer-based visual search test), the perceived difficulty of the tasks, and perceived memory function (measured by the Memory Functioning Questionnaire) in older adults (aged 50+ y) with normal general health, cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 26+), and mood. The participants were recruited from the community rather than through clinical services, and none had ever sought or received help from a health professional for a memory complaint or mental health problem...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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