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Neurocognitive disorders

Lídia Teixidor López, Cindy Frías-Torres, José Moreno-España, Lluisa Ortega, Pablo Barrio, Antoni Gual
Many alcohol-dependent patients suffer from cognitive impairment of variable severity, manifested by alterations in retrograde and anterograde memory, visuospatial processing, cognitive abilities and attention, some of which are reversible. In this context, cognitive remediation therapies could significantly improve patients' performance; therefore, these are considered a valuable alternative. The aim of this study was to implement cognitive remediation therapy in patients with alcohol dependence and cognitive impairment and evaluate its viability and effectiveness...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Divine E Ediebah, Jaap C Reijneveld, Martin J B Taphoorn, Corneel Coens, Efstathios Zikos, Neil K Aaronson, Jan J Heimans, Andrew Bottomley, Martin Klein
PURPOSE: Clinical trials in glioma patients with neurocognitive deficits face challenges due to lacking or unreliable patient self-reports on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patient-proxy data could help solve this issue. We determined whether patient-proxy concordance levels were affected by patients' neurocognitive functioning. METHODS: Patient and patient-by-proxy HRQOL ratings were assessed via SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-BN20, respectively, in 246 patients...
October 15, 2016: Quality of Life Research
M-N Babinet, C Rigard, É Peyroux, A-R Dragomir, I Plotton, H Lejeune, C Demily
INTRODUCTION: The Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic condition characterized by an X supernumerary sex chromosome in males. The syndrome is frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Indeed, the different areas of the executive sphere can be affected such as inhibition, cognitive flexibility but also attentional and visual-spatial domain. Social cognition disorders, predominantly on emotional recognition processes, have also been documented. In addition, the syndrome may be associated with psychiatric symptoms...
October 12, 2016: L'Encéphale
Elizabeth B Owens, Stephen P Hinshaw
Using a sample of 228 females with and without childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder followed prospectively across 16 years, we measured childhood neurocognitive vulnerability via executive dysfunction using teacher-reported cognitive and learning problems. We then ascertained relations between dimensionally measured internalizing and externalizing psychopathology during adulthood and showed that childhood neurocognitive vulnerability reliably predicted such associated psychopathology. We identified six serial mediation pathways from childhood neurocognitive vulnerability to adult psychopathology through three early- and late-adolescent domains: individual (self-control and delay of gratification), peer (rejection/conflict and acceptance/friendship), and school (academic performance and school failure)...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Yaxia Yuan, Xiaoqin Huang, Jun Zhu, Chang-Guo Zhan
This is a brief review of computational modeling studies on the detailed structures and mechanism of human dopamine transporter (hDAT), as well as its interaction with HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat). Extensive molecular modeling, docking and dynamics simulations have resulted in reasonable structural models of hDAT in three typical conformational states, its dopamine uptake mechanism and its interaction with Tat. The obtained hDAT models in different conformational states and their complexes with dopamine and Tat have provided novel structural and mechanistic insights concerning how hDAT uptakes dopamine and how Tat affects the dopamine uptake by hDAT...
October 14, 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ryan M Gardner, Aaron Yengo-Kahn, Christopher M Bonfield, Gary S Solomon
OBJECTIVES: Baseline and post-concussion neurocognitive testing is useful in managing concussed athletes. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and stimulant medications are recognized as potential modifiers of performance on neurocognitive testing by the Concussion in Sport Group. Our goal was to assess whether individuals with ADHD perform differently on post-concussion testing and if this difference is related to the use of stimulants. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study in which 4373 athletes underwent baseline and post-concussion testing using the ImPACT battery...
October 13, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Kristin W Samuelson, Alisa Bartel, Racquel Valadez, Joshua T Jordan
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with mild neurocognitive deficits, yet clients often complain of cognitive problems that exceed what their objective performance demonstrates. In addition, PTSD is associated with negative appraisals about the self, traumatic event, and one's ability to cope. This study examined posttraumatic cognitions as a moderator, and trauma coping self-efficacy as a mediator, of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and self-report of cognitive problems. Method: A sample of 268 trauma-exposed adults completed the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5, the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, the Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, the Cognitive Self-Report Questionnaire, and the Quality of Life Scale...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Silvia Haag, Paula Haffner, Esther Quinlivan, Martin Brüne, Thomas Stamm
BACKGROUND: Research on theory of mind (ToM) abilities in patients with bipolar disorder has yielded conflicting results. Meta-analyses point to a stable moderate impairment in remitted patients, but factors such as subsyndromal symptoms, illness severity, and deficits in basic neurocognitive functions might act as confounders. Also, differences in deficits depending on task area (cognitive or affective) or task modality (visual or verbal) have been observed. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that euthymic bipolar patients would perform more poorly than healthy subjects on visual cognitive and visual affective ToM tasks...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Manmeet K Mamik, Eugene L Asahchop, Wing F Chan, Yu Zhu, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
: HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Priya S Verghese
Successful renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for chronic kidney failure, but this was not always so for children. Beginning with the first kidney transplants in the 1950s, children experienced poorer patient and graft survival rates than adult patients. But over the last 6 decades, an improved understanding of the immune system which has steered pediatric multi-center clinical / pharmacokinetic and mechanistic studies that have sculpted our immunosuppression with markedly better patient and graft survivals...
October 12, 2016: Pediatric Research
Morris D Bell, Holly B Laws, Ismene B Petrakis
Objective: Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is reported to improve neurocognitive and substance use disorder (SUD) outcomes in residential treatments. This National Institute of Drug Abuse funded pilot study reports on CRT as an augmentation to outpatient treatment for SUD. Method: Recovering outpatient veterans were randomized into CRT + Work Therapy (n = 24) or work therapy (n = 24) with treatment-as-usual. Blind assessments of neurocognition and substance use were performed at baseline, 3 months (end of treatment), and 6-month follow-up...
October 10, 2016: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Lindsey Edwards, Lynne Aitkenhead, Dawn Langdon
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to establish the relationship between short-term memory capacity and reading skills in adolescents with cochlear implants. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A between-groups design compared a group of young people with cochlear implants with a group of hearing peers on measures of reading, and auditory and visual short-term memory capacity. The groups were matched for non-verbal IQ and age. The adolescents with cochlear implants were recruited from the Cochlear Implant Programme at a specialist children's hospital...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
P H Lee, J T Baker, A J Holmes, N Jahanshad, T Ge, J-Y Jung, Y Cruz, D S Manoach, D P Hibar, J Faskowitz, K L McMahon, G I de Zubicaray, N H Martin, M J Wright, D Öngür, R Buckner, J Roffman, P M Thompson, J W Smoller
Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic etiology. Widespread cortical gray matter loss has been observed in patients and prodromal samples. However, it remains unresolved whether schizophrenia-associated cortical structure variations arise due to disease etiology or secondary to the illness. Here we address this question using a partitioning-based heritability analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and neuroimaging data from 1750 healthy individuals...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Kathryn D Baker, Amy C Reichelt
Anxiety disorders and obesity are both common in youth and young adults. Despite increasing evidence that over-consumption of palatable high-fat/high-sugar "junk" foods leads to adverse neurocognitive outcomes, little is known about the effects of palatable diets on emotional memories and fear regulation. In the present experiments we examined the effects of daily 2h consumption of a high-fat/high-sugar (HFHS) food across adolescence on fear inhibition and anxiety-like behaviour in young adult rats. Rats exposed to the HFHS diet exhibited impaired retention of fear extinction and increased anxiety-like behaviour in an emergence test compared to rats fed a standard diet...
October 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
K Kessler, R A Seymour, G Rippon
Although atypical social behaviour remains a key characterisation of ASD, the presence of sensory and perceptual abnormalities has been given a more central role in recent classification changes. An understanding of the origins of such aberrations could thus prove a fruitful focus for ASD research. Early neurocognitive models of ASD suggested that the study of high frequency activity in the brain as a measure of cortical connectivity might provide the key to understanding the neural correlates of sensory and perceptual deviations in ASD...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Raj K Kalapatapu, Maria I Ventura, Deborah E Barnes
BACKGROUND: Substance use is an important clinical issue in the older adult population. As older adults are susceptible to cognitive disorders, the intersection of the fields of substance use and cognitive neuroscience is an active area of research. Prior studies of alcohol use and cognitive performance are mixed, and inconsistencies may be due to under- or over-adjustment for confounders. AIM: This manuscript adds to this literature by conducting a secondary analysis of self-reported lifetime history of alcohol use and cognitive performance in older adults (n = 133)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Addictive Diseases
C S Hakkers, J E Arends, R E Barth, S Du Plessis, A I M Hoepelman, M Vink
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a frequently occurring comorbidity of HIV infection. Evidence suggests this condition starts subclinical before a progression to a symptomatic stage. Blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) fMRI has shown to be a sensitive tool to detect abnormal brain function in an early stage and might therefore be useful to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on brain function. An extensive literature search was performed in June 2015. Eligibility criteria for included studies were as follows: (1) conducting with HIV-positive patients, (2) using BOLD fMRI, and (3) including a HIV-negative control group...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Manli Huang, Yi Huang, Liang Yu, Jianbo Hu, Jinkai Chen, Pingbo Jin, Weijuan Xu, Ning Wei, Shaohua Hu, Hongli Qi, Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore differences in links between negative symptoms and neurocognitive deficits in adolescent and adult patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by positive and negative symptoms, reduced emotional expression, excitatory status, and poor cognitive ability. The severity of negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia was reported to be more related to poor quality of life, weak functional ability, and heavy burden from families than with the severity of positive symptoms...
October 6, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
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