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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454227/a-pilot-trial-of-l-carnitine-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-effects-on-biomarkers-of-injury
#1
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Ghaffar Shokouhi, Hadi Hamishehkar, Hassan Soleimanpour, Sarvin Sanaie, Jahan Porhomayon, Fatemeh Rasouli, Nader D Nader
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of l-Carnitine on neuron specific enolase (NSE) as a marker of inflammation in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Forty patients with severe TBI were randomized into 2 groups. The (LCA-) group received standard treatment with placebo while the (LCA+) group received l-Carnitine 2g/day for one week. NSE was measured on days 1, 3 and 7 after the initiation of the study. Neurocognitive and neurobehavioral disorders were recorded on the first and third months...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452810/interleukin-6-is-both-necessary-and-sufficient-to-produce-perioperative-neurocognitive-disorder-in-mice
#2
J Hu, X Feng, M Valdearcos, D Lutrin, Y Uchida, S K Koliwad, M Maze
BACKGROUND: Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) result in long-term morbidity and mortality with no effective interventions available. Because interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is consistently up-regulated by trauma, including after surgery, we determined whether IL-6 is a putative therapeutic target for PND in a mouse model. METHODS: Following institutional approval, adult (12-14 weeks) male C57/Bl6 mice were pretreated with the IL-6 receptor (IL6R) blocking antibody tocilizumab prior to open tibia fracture with internal fixation under isoflurane anaesthesia...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452780/gender-differences-in-the-association-of-cognitive-impairment-with-the-risk-of-hip-fracture-in-the-older-population
#3
Elena Lobo, Guillermo Marcos, Javier Santabárbara, Luis Lobo-Escolar, Helena Salvador-Rosés, Concepción De la Cámara, Raul Lopez-Anton, Patricia Gracia-García, Antonio Lobo-Escolar
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that differences by gender will be observed in the association of hip fracture risk with stages of cognitive impairment; and to explore the association between Petersen's "mild cognitive impairment" (MCI) and DSM-5 "mild neurocognitive disorder" (MND). STUDY DESIGN: A community sample of 4803 individuals aged 55+ years was assessed in a two-phase case-finding enquiry in Zaragoza, Spain, and was followed up for 16 years...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449278/7t-brain-mrs-in-hiv-infection-correlation-with-cognitive-impairment-and-performance-on-neuropsychological-tests
#4
M Mohamed, P B Barker, R L Skolasky, N Sacktor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Validated neuroimaging markers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in patients on antiretroviral therapy are urgently needed for clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive impairment and brain metabolism in older subjects with HIV infection. It was hypothesized that MR spectroscopy measurements related to neuronal health and function (particularly N -acetylaspartate and glutamate) would be lower in HIV-positive subjects with worse cognitive performance...
February 15, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447242/a-novel-ligand-on-astrocytes-interacts-with-natural-cytotoxicity-receptor-nkp44-regulating-immune-response-mediated-by-nk-cells
#5
Kelly E Bowen, Stephen O Mathew, Kathleen Borgmann, Anuja Ghorpade, Porunelloor A Mathew
NK cells play important role in immunity against pathogens and cancer. NK cell functions are regulated by inhibitory and activating receptors binding corresponding ligands on the surface of target cells. NK cells were shown to be recruited to the CNS following several pathological conditions. NK cells could impact CNS physiology by killing glial cells and by secreting IFN-γ. Astrocytes are intimately involved in immunological and inflammatory events occurring in the CNS and reactive astrogliosis is a key feature in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441001/early-life-stress-related-elevations-in-reaction-time-variability-are-associated-with-brain-volume-reductions-in-hiv-adults
#6
Uraina S Clark, Miguel Arce Rentería, Rachal R Hegde, Susan Morgello
There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV), which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439747/paediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-can-our-identification-of-surgical-candidates-be-evidence-based
#7
L Pabla, J Duffin, L Flood, K Blackmore
BACKGROUND: Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea is a common clinical condition managed by most ENT clinicians. However, despite the plethora of publications on the subject, there is wide variability, in the literature and in practice, on key aspects such as diagnostic criteria, the impact of co-morbidities and the indications for surgical correction. METHODS: A systematic review is presented, addressing four key questions from the available literature: (1) what is the evidence base for any definition of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea?; (2) does it cause serious systemic illness?; (3) what co-morbidities influence the severity of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea?; and (4) is there a medical answer? RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There is a considerable lack of evidence regarding most of these fundamental questions...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433607/developmental-coordination-disorder-psychopathology-and-iq-in-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#8
Adam C Cunningham, Sue Delport, Wendy Cumines, Monica Busse, David E J Linden, Jeremy Hall, Michael J Owen, Marianne B M van den Bree
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with high rates of neurodevelopmental disorder, however, the links between developmental coordination disorder (DCD), intellectual function and psychiatric disorder remain unexplored. Aims To establish the prevalence of indicative DCD in children with 22q11.2DS and examine associations with IQ, neurocognition and psychopathology. METHOD: Neurocognitive assessments and psychiatric interviews of 70 children with 22q11...
January 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432797/ethological-and-multi-behavioral-analysis-of-learning-and-memory-performance-in-laboratory-rodent-models
#9
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Arakawa, Yoshio Iguchi
Behavioral studies using animal models have widely contributed to advancing our understanding of the neuroregulatory mechanisms of human cognitive states and disorders. A variety of behavioral tests and theoretical models have been developed that provide a standardized toolbox of behavioral test paradigms available to researchers, and thus allow rapid progress in studies of the molecular-genetic bases of behavior relevant to neurocognitive diseases. However, a growing effort to utilize standardized paradigms has overlooked the diverse behavioral characteristics of test rodents expressed in standardized test situations...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432242/epileptic-encephalopathies
#10
Shaun A Hussain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the manifestations and treatment of the epileptic encephalopathies, which are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by both seizures and neurocognitive impairment. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation (exome- and genome-based) sequencing technologies are revolutionizing the identification of single-gene causes of epileptic encephalopathy but have only had a modest impact on patient-specific treatment decisions. The treatment of most forms of epileptic encephalopathy remains a particularly challenging endeavor, with therapeutic decisions chiefly driven by the electroclinical syndrome classification...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432037/applying-a-cognitive-neuroscience-perspective-to-disruptive-behavior-disorders-implications-for-schools
#11
Patrick M Tyler, Stuart F White, Ronald W Thompson, R J R Blair
A cognitive neuroscience perspective seeks to understand behavior, in this case disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), in terms of dysfunction in cognitive processes underpinned by neural processes. While this type of approach has clear implications for clinical mental health practice, it also has implications for school-based assessment and intervention with children and adolescents who have disruptive behavior and aggression. This review articulates a cognitive neuroscience account of DBD by discussing the neurocognitive dysfunction related to emotional empathy, threat sensitivity, reinforcement-based decision-making, and response inhibition...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430124/incidental-global-hypometabolism-in-the-brain-of-patient-with-aids-related-dementia-seen-on-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#12
Priyanka Verma, Ramesh V Asopa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related dementia is the most severe form of neurocognitive disorder in patients with AIDS. It is relatively uncommon in postantiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and is associated with a high cerebrospinal fluid CSF/plasma viral load. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has proven useful in malignancies, infections, and central nervous system lesions in HIV-infected patients and has been used to explore regional cerebral glucose metabolism patterns in HIV-positive patients with and without cognitive impairment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426395/research-opportunities-in-the-area-of-adults-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-neurocognitive-disorders
#13
(no author information available yet)
The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Evidence-Based Practice Project has developed a table summarizing the research opportunities for adults with Alzheimer's disease and related major neurocognitive disorders. The table provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice and is based on the systematic reviews from the AOTA Practice Guidelines Series. Researchers, clinicians, and students can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field...
March 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424560/validation-of-montreal-cognitive-assessment-basic-in-a-sample-of-elderly-egyptians-with-neurocognitive-disorders
#14
Alia Adel Saleh, Rasha Saad Abd El Hamid Ali Alkholy, Ola Osama Khalaf, Noha Ahmed Sabry, Hanan Amer, Shaimaa El-Jaafary, Mohamed Abd El Fatah Khalil
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Basic (MoCA-B) is a modified version of the MoCA that is especially suitable for use in elderly subjects with low education. The Authors translated the tool into Arabic and they aimed at validation of this tool in a sample of elderly Egyptians. METHODS: The study included 93 patients, 60 years and older, fulfilling the DSM-5 criteria of Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (NCD) (39 patients) and Major Neurocognitive Disorder (54 patients) that were compared to 112 community dwelling elder subjects...
February 9, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422299/a-randomized-controlled-trial-examining-a-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-intervention-enhanced-with-cognitive-remediation-to-improve-work-and-neurocognition-outcomes-among-persons-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#15
Marina Kukla, Morris D Bell, Paul H Lysaker
This single blind, three-armed randomized controlled trial compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) enhanced with cognitive remediation (CBT+CR) to CBT alone and an active control condition on work and neurocognition outcomes for persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Seventy-five adult outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized to three study conditions (N=25 per group). The CBT intervention was the Indianapolis Vocational Intervention program (IVIP), consisting of weekly group and individual sessions focused on work-related content...
February 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416845/ehmt1-mosaicism-in-apparently-unaffected-parents-is-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#16
Anneke de Boer, Karlijn Vermeulen, Jos I M Egger, Joost G E Janzing, Nicole de Leeuw, Hermine E Veenstra-Knol, Nicolette S den Hollander, Hans van Bokhoven, Wouter Staal, Tjitske Kleefstra
Background: Genetic mosaicism is only detected occasionally when there are no obvious health or developmental issues. Most cases concern healthy parents in whom mosaicism is identified upon targeted testing of a genetic defect that was initially detected in their children. A germline genetic defect affecting the euchromatin histone methyltransferase 1 (EHMT1) gene causes Kleefstra syndrome, which is associated with the typical triad of distinct facial appearance, (childhood) hypotonia, and intellectual disability...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415134/induction-of-a-senescence-like-phenotype-in-cultured-human-fetal-microglia-during-hiv-1-infection
#17
Natalie C Chen, Andrea T Partridge, Ferit Tuzer, Justin Cohen, Timothy Nacarelli, Sonia Navas-Martín, Christian Sell, Claudio Torres, Julio Martín-García
HIV-1 causes premature aging in chronically-infected patients. Despite effective anti-retroviral therapy, around 50% of patients suffer HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which likely potentiate aging-associated neurocognitive decline. Microglia support productive HIV-1 infection in the brain. Elevated markers of cellular senescence, including p53 and p21, have been detected in brain tissues from patients with HAND, but the potential for microglia senescence during HIV-1 infection has not been investigated...
February 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412981/apnea-in-older-adults
#18
REVIEW
Susmita Chowdhuri, Pragnesh Patel, M Safwan Badr
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a highly prevalent chronic disease in older adults. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that SDB in older adults is linked to many adverse cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and metabolic sequelae. However, several unanswered questions remain regarding the diagnosis, consequences, and treatment of SDB in older adults. This review presents the current evidence pertaining to the management of SDB in older adults and identifies crucial gaps in knowledge that need further investigation...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412845/hearing-loss-the-silent-risk-for-psychiatric-disorders-in-late-life
#19
REVIEW
Dan G Blazer
Hearing loss is among the most frequent problems experienced by older adults, yet psychiatrists and other clinicians often ignore the problem as an aggravation rather than recognizing that the problem might benefit from appropriate hearing health care. Many psychiatric disorders have been associated with hearing loss, including depression, schizophrenia and other psychoses, anxiety, and neurocognitive disorders. In this article, hearing loss among older adults is reviewed, with special attention directed toward the recognition and proper referral to a hearing health care provider...
March 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411628/neuropsychological-performance-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-hiv-1-infection
#20
Martha Martínez-Banfi, Jorge I Vélez, M Victoria Perea, Ricardo García, Pedro J Puentes-Rozo, Moises Mebarak Chams, Valentina Ladera
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) lead to neurocognitive disorders; however, there is still much knowledge to be gained regarding HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive performance, instrumental activities of daily living, depression, and anxiety in patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infections compared with seronegative participants without neurocognitive impairment. We studied a sample consisted of 60 patients with asymptomatic HIV-1 infections and 60 seronegative participants without neurocognitive impairment from the city of Barranquilla, Colombia, with a mean age of 36...
February 7, 2018: AIDS Care
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