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Cognition, brain, psychopharmacology

Stephan Schleim, Boris B Quednow
Since two decades, neuroenhancement is a major topic in neuroethics and still receives much attention in the scholarly literature as well as in public media. In contrast to high hopes at the beginning of the "Decade of the Brain" in the United States and Europe that we subsume under the "pharmacological optimism hypothesis," recent evidence from clinical neuroscience suggests that developing drugs that make healthy people smarter is even more difficult than finding new treatments for patients with mental disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Malek Bajbouj, Sabine Aust, Jan Spies, Ana-Lucia Herrera-Melendez, Sarah V Mayer, Maike Peters, Christian Plewnia, Andreas J Fallgatter, Lukas Frase, Claus Normann, Nora Behler, Linda Wulf, Eva-Lotta Brakemeier, Frank Padberg
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide. About 20-30% of patients do not respond to the standard psychopharmacological and/or psychotherapeutic interventions. Mounting evidence from neuroimaging studies in MDD patients reveal altered activation patterns in lateral prefrontal brain areas. Successful cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is associated with a recovery of these neural alterations. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is capable of influencing prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive functions such as working memory and emotion regulation...
December 6, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Dongsoo Kim, Chang Yul Kim, Hyojin Koo, Yong Heo, Kicheol Cheon
OBJECTIVE: Predator stress, social defeat stress, and fear conditioning animal models have been applied to investigate combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no animal model psychopharmacological studies have investigated prevention of somatization of increased mental stress and fatigue at the beginning of combat exposure. This study utilized a novel animal model simulating the beginning of combat exposure that aided specification of a set of biomarkers. METHODS: Psychological stress was induced by both inescapable electric foot shock and noise stimuli...
November 22, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
C Dorner-Ciossek, K S Kroker, H Rosenbrock
Inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) has been demonstrated to enhance performance of animals in various cognition tasks and accordingly PDE inhibitors have been proposed as new approach for treatment of cognitive dysfunction (Reneerkens et al. Psychopharmacology 202:419-443, 2009; Schmidt Curr Top Med Chem 10(2):222-230, 2010). One of the eleven PDE isoforms, showing expression in cognition relevant brain regions across species, is PDE9, which hydrolyzes cGMP only. Furthermore, it is well established that the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP pathway and NMDA receptor signaling has a crucial function in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
Farah Deena Abdul Samad, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Nurul Hazwani Hatta
Human being is not spared from a broad-ranged emotional state, including being jealous. Jealousy has both affective-cognitive and behavioural-evaluative dimension where the person perceives, or experiences a real threat on a valued relationship. As this complex emotion becomes irrational and not amenable to reason, it later transforms into a dangerously 'green-eyed monster'. This perilous situation which is viewed as pathological jealousy is a form of delusion, which is maintained by a fixed and false reasoning in an originally entrusted intimate relationship...
July 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jeongjae Bak, Sang Mi Lee, Young-Joon Kwon, Se-Hoon Shim, Joong Il Kim
Major depressive disorder, especially in later life, has heterogeneous clinical characteristics and treatment responses. Symptomatically, psychomotor retardation, lack of energy, and apathy tends to be more common in people with late-onset depression (LOD). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacologic treatments, 20% to 30% of patients with mood disorders experience inadequate responses to medication, often resulting in a trial of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the therapeutic mechanism of ECT is still unclear...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
T W Robbins
The significance of investigating effects of deprivation of social experience in rodents is reviewed in the context of the review by Robbins et al. (1996) in the Journal of Psychopharmacology (10: 39-47). The early development of the paradigm by which rats were reared post-weaning in social isolation is described and compared with other early experience manipulations. The specification of the neural and behavioural phenotype of the isolate is brought up-to-date, focusing on changes in motivation and cognitive function, as well as on contrasting changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems, and in cortical (including hippocampal) structure and function...
November 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Bernadet L Klaassens, Serge A R B Rombouts, Anderson M Winkler, Helene C van Gorsel, Jeroen van der Grond, Joop M A van Gerven
Psychopharmacological research, if properly designed, may offer insight into both timing and area of effect, increasing our understanding of the brain's neurotransmitter systems. For that purpose, the acute influence of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (30 mg) and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (8 mg) was repeatedly measured in 12 healthy young volunteers with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Eighteen RS-fMRI scans were acquired per subject during this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Charles Laidi, Josselin Houenou
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have contributed to the understanding of bipolar disorder. However the effect of medication on brain activation remains poorly understood. We conducted an extensive literature review on PubMed and ScienceDirect to investigate the influence of medication in fMRI studies, including both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, which aimed at assessing this influence. Although we reported all reviewed studies, we gave greater emphasis to studies with the most robust methodology...
November 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Angie A Kehagia
Cognitive enhancement is signified by adaptive behavioural change following an intervention that targets the brain. Although much of the discussion and research into cognitive enhancement focuses on the effects of neural interventions in healthy individuals, it is useful to consider evidence from clinical populations. Diseases of the central nervous system represent the primary and richest source of evidence on the effects of brain manipulations, which are in the first instance therapeutic. Parkinson's disease (PD) is used as a model for understanding the effects of pharmacological agents that target systems with a central role in cognition...
October 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Annette Schaub, Peter Falkai
This Special Supplement presents reports from working groups meeting at the Fourth Kraepelin Symposium in Munich, Germany, in September 2014. It covers the origins and therapy of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits are core symptoms of schizophrenia being decisive for the long-term prognosis only improved moderately by antipsychotic treatment, however, showing more evidence for cognitive remediation. The authors refer to neurobiological and psychological underpinnings of cognitive deficits and to innovative treatment interventions aimed at improving cognitive dysfunction in order to improve outcome and to support coping with the illness...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Alexandra Philipsen
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Thomas Fovet, Natasza Orlov, Miriam Dyck, Paul Allen, Klaus Mathiak, Renaud Jardri
Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Joseph R Phillips, Abeer M Eissa, Doaa H Hewedi, Marjan Jahanshahi, Mohamed El-Gamal, Szabolcs Keri, Ahmed A Moustafa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder that involves the gradual loss of motor function. Symptoms are observed initially in the extremities, such as hands and arms, while advanced stages of the disease can effect blinking, swallowing, speaking, and breathing. PD is a neurodegenerative disease, with dopaminergic neuronal loss occurring in the substantia nigra pars compacta, thus disrupting basal ganglia functions. This leads to downstream effects on other neurotransmitter systems such as glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and serotonin...
October 1, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Stefanie M Beck, Hannes Ruge, Christoph Schindler, Martin Burkart, Robert Miller, Clemens Kirschbaum, Thomas Goschke
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive control as well as stress reactivity is assumed to depend on prefrontal dopamine and decline with age. Because Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 increases prefrontal dopamine in animals, we assessed its effects on cognitive functions related to prefrontal dopamine. METHODS: Effects of 240-mg EGb761 daily on task-set-switching, response-inhibition, delayed response, prospective-memory, task-related fMRI-BOLD-signals and the Trier Social Stress-Test were explored in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot-trial in 61 elderly volunteers with subjective memory impairment...
May 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Carlos Campos, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Renata Teles Vieira, Susana A Rocha, Diogo Telles-Correia, Flávia Paes, Tifei Yuan, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Sergio Machado, Leonardo Caixeta
The growing and aging population has contributed to the increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other types of dementia in the world. AD is a progressive and degenerative brain disease with an onset characterized by episodic memory impairments, although progressive deficits can be observed in several domains including language, executive functions, attention and working memory. The relationship between cognitive impairments and the topography and progression of brain neuropathology is well established...
March 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Murad Atmaca, Hanefi Yildirim, Seda Yilmaz, Neslihan Caglar, Osman Mermi, Sevda Korkmaz, Unsal Akaslan, M Gurkan Gurok, Yasemin Kekilli, Hakan Turkcapar
BACKGROUND: The effect of a variety of treatment modalities including psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy on the brain volumes and neurochemicals have not been investigated enough in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the volumes of the orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus regions which seem to be abnormal in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder...
January 5, 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
S Aust, U Palm, F Padberg, M Bajbouj
Major depressive disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide but approximately 20-30 % of patients do not respond to standard guideline conform treatment. Recent neuroimaging studies in depressive patients revealed altered activation patterns in prefrontal brain areas and that successful cognitive behavioral therapy and psychopharmacological interventions are associated with a reversal of these neural alterations. Therefore, a direct modulation of prefrontal brain activation by non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) seems to be a promising and innovative approach for the treatment of depressive disorders...
December 2015: Der Nervenarzt
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