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Cognition, brain, psychopharmacology

Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jeongjae Bak, Sang Mi Lee, Young-Joon Kwon, Se-Hoon Shim, Joong Il Kim
Major depressive disorder, especially in later life, has heterogeneous clinical characteristics and treatment responses. Symptomatically, psychomotor retardation, lack of energy, and apathy tends to be more common in people with late-onset depression (LOD). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacologic treatments, 20% to 30% of patients with mood disorders experience inadequate responses to medication, often resulting in a trial of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, the therapeutic mechanism of ECT is still unclear...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
John T O'Brien, Clive Holmes, Matthew Jones, Roy Jones, Gill Livingston, Ian McKeith, Peter Mittler, Peter Passmore, Craig Ritchie, Louise Robinson, Elizabeth L Sampson, John-Paul Taylor, Alan Thomas, Alistair Burns
The British Association for Psychopharmacology coordinated a meeting of experts to review and revise its previous 2011 guidelines for clinical practice with anti-dementia drugs. As before, levels of evidence were rated using accepted standards which were then translated into grades of recommendation A-D, with A having the strongest evidence base (from randomised controlled trials) and D the weakest (case studies or expert opinion). Current clinical diagnostic criteria for dementia have sufficient accuracy to be applied in clinical practice (B) and both structural (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and functional (positron emission tomography and single photon emission computerised tomography) brain imaging can improve diagnostic accuracy in particular situations (B)...
February 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
T W Robbins
The significance of investigating effects of deprivation of social experience in rodents is reviewed in the context of the review by Robbins et al. (1996) in the Journal of Psychopharmacology (10: 39-47). The early development of the paradigm by which rats were reared post-weaning in social isolation is described and compared with other early experience manipulations. The specification of the neural and behavioural phenotype of the isolate is brought up-to-date, focusing on changes in motivation and cognitive function, as well as on contrasting changes in the dopamine and serotonin systems, and in cortical (including hippocampal) structure and function...
November 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Bernadet L Klaassens, Serge A R B Rombouts, Anderson M Winkler, Helene C van Gorsel, Jeroen van der Grond, Joop M A van Gerven
Psychopharmacological research, if properly designed, may offer insight into both timing and area of effect, increasing our understanding of the brain's neurotransmitter systems. For that purpose, the acute influence of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (30 mg) and the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine (8 mg) was repeatedly measured in 12 healthy young volunteers with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Eighteen RS-fMRI scans were acquired per subject during this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study...
January 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Charles Laidi, Josselin Houenou
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have contributed to the understanding of bipolar disorder. However the effect of medication on brain activation remains poorly understood. We conducted an extensive literature review on PubMed and ScienceDirect to investigate the influence of medication in fMRI studies, including both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies, which aimed at assessing this influence. Although we reported all reviewed studies, we gave greater emphasis to studies with the most robust methodology...
November 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Angie A Kehagia
Cognitive enhancement is signified by adaptive behavioural change following an intervention that targets the brain. Although much of the discussion and research into cognitive enhancement focuses on the effects of neural interventions in healthy individuals, it is useful to consider evidence from clinical populations. Diseases of the central nervous system represent the primary and richest source of evidence on the effects of brain manipulations, which are in the first instance therapeutic. Parkinson's disease (PD) is used as a model for understanding the effects of pharmacological agents that target systems with a central role in cognition...
October 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Annette Schaub, Peter Falkai
This Special Supplement presents reports from working groups meeting at the Fourth Kraepelin Symposium in Munich, Germany, in September 2014. It covers the origins and therapy of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits are core symptoms of schizophrenia being decisive for the long-term prognosis only improved moderately by antipsychotic treatment, however, showing more evidence for cognitive remediation. The authors refer to neurobiological and psychological underpinnings of cognitive deficits and to innovative treatment interventions aimed at improving cognitive dysfunction in order to improve outcome and to support coping with the illness...
July 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Katharina Bachmann, Alexandra P Lam, Alexandra Philipsen
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a recognized serious mental disorder that often persists into adulthood. The symptoms and impairments associated with ADHD often cause significant mental suffering in affected individuals. ADHD has been associated with abnormal neuronal activity in various neuronal circuits, such as the dorsofrontostriatal, orbitofrontostriatal, and frontocerebellar circuits. Psychopharmacological treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended as the first-line treatment for ADHD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Thomas Fovet, Natasza Orlov, Miriam Dyck, Paul Allen, Klaus Mathiak, Renaud Jardri
Auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are frequent and disabling symptoms, which can be refractory to conventional psychopharmacological treatment in more than 25% of the cases. Recent advances in brain imaging allow for a better understanding of the neural underpinnings of AVHs. These findings strengthened transdiagnostic neurocognitive models that characterize these frequent and disabling experiences. At the same time, technical improvements in real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabled the development of innovative and non-invasive methods with the potential to relieve psychiatric symptoms, such as fMRI-based neurofeedback (fMRI-NF)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Joseph R Phillips, Abeer M Eissa, Doaa H Hewedi, Marjan Jahanshahi, Mohamed El-Gamal, Szabolcs Keri, Ahmed A Moustafa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder that involves the gradual loss of motor function. Symptoms are observed initially in the extremities, such as hands and arms, while advanced stages of the disease can effect blinking, swallowing, speaking, and breathing. PD is a neurodegenerative disease, with dopaminergic neuronal loss occurring in the substantia nigra pars compacta, thus disrupting basal ganglia functions. This leads to downstream effects on other neurotransmitter systems such as glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and serotonin...
June 30, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Stefanie M Beck, Hannes Ruge, Christoph Schindler, Martin Burkart, Robert Miller, Clemens Kirschbaum, Thomas Goschke
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive control as well as stress reactivity is assumed to depend on prefrontal dopamine and decline with age. Because Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 increases prefrontal dopamine in animals, we assessed its effects on cognitive functions related to prefrontal dopamine. METHODS: Effects of 240-mg EGb761 daily on task-set-switching, response-inhibition, delayed response, prospective-memory, task-related fMRI-BOLD-signals and the Trier Social Stress-Test were explored in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot-trial in 61 elderly volunteers with subjective memory impairment...
May 2016: Human Psychopharmacology
Carlos Campos, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Renata Teles Vieira, Susana A Rocha, Diogo Telles-Correia, Flávia Paes, Tifei Yuan, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Oscar Arias-Carrión, Sergio Machado, Leonardo Caixeta
The growing and aging population has contributed to the increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other types of dementia in the world. AD is a progressive and degenerative brain disease with an onset characterized by episodic memory impairments, although progressive deficits can be observed in several domains including language, executive functions, attention and working memory. The relationship between cognitive impairments and the topography and progression of brain neuropathology is well established...
March 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Murad Atmaca, Hanefi Yildirim, Seda Yilmaz, Neslihan Caglar, Osman Mermi, Sevda Korkmaz, Unsal Akaslan, M Gurkan Gurok, Yasemin Kekilli, Hakan Turkcapar
BACKGROUND: The effect of a variety of treatment modalities including psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy on the brain volumes and neurochemicals have not been investigated enough in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on the volumes of the orbito-frontal cortex and thalamus regions which seem to be abnormal in the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder...
January 5, 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
S Aust, U Palm, F Padberg, M Bajbouj
Major depressive disorders are one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide but approximately 20-30 % of patients do not respond to standard guideline conform treatment. Recent neuroimaging studies in depressive patients revealed altered activation patterns in prefrontal brain areas and that successful cognitive behavioral therapy and psychopharmacological interventions are associated with a reversal of these neural alterations. Therefore, a direct modulation of prefrontal brain activation by non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) seems to be a promising and innovative approach for the treatment of depressive disorders...
December 2015: Der Nervenarzt
Emmanuel Stip
In its current form, the Département de psychiatrie at the Université de Montréal (UdeM) was created in 1964. The first person to have headed was Dr. Gerard Beaudoin… Between 1948 and 1964, several others psychiatrists were heading the Département without necessary bearing a particular title.The directors of the Département from 1951 to now were: Drs. Fernand Côté, Camille Laurin, Gerard Beaudoin, Yvon Gauthier, Arthur Amyot, Francis Borgeat, Hugues Cormier, Sylvain Palardy, Jean Hébert, and Emmanuel Stip...
2015: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Sarah A Jablonski, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Intrauterine methamphetamine exposure adversely affects the neurofunctional profile of exposed children, leading to a variety of higher order cognitive deficits, such as decreased attention, reduced working-memory capability, behavioral dysregulation, and spatial memory impairments (Kiblawi et al. in J Dev Behav Pediatr 34:31-37, 2013; Piper et al. in Pharmacol Biochem Behav 98:432-439 2011; Roussotte et al. in Neuroimage 54:3067-3075, 2011; Twomey et al. in Am J Orthopsychiatry 83:64-72, 2013). In animal models of developmental methamphetamine, both neuroanatomical and behavioral outcomes critically depend on the timing of methamphetamine administration...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Stephan Köhler, Katharina Cierpinsky, Golo Kronenberg, Mazda Adli
The monoamine hypothesis of depression posits that an imbalance in monoaminergic neurotransmission is causally related to the clinical features of depression. Antidepressants influencing serotonin mainly aim at raising serotonin concentrations, thereby increasing serotonergic transmission at the level of the synapse, for example by inhibiting the serotonin transporter. However, the serotonin system is multifaceted. Different serotonin receptor subtypes turn the serotonergic system into a complex neurochemical arrangement that influences diverse neurotransmitters in various brain regions...
January 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Margo D Lauterbach, Paula L Notarangelo, Stephen J Nichols, Kristy S Lane, Vassilis E Koliatsos
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes a variety of neuropsychiatric problems that pose diagnostic and treatment challenges for providers. In this report, we share our experience as a referral neuropsychiatry program to assist the general psychiatrist when adult TBI patients with psychiatric symptoms present for evaluation and treatment. We completed a retrospective study of patients with moderate-to-severe TBI and severe neuropsychiatric impairments. We collected information on demographics, nature of injury, symptomatology, diagnoses, and treatments...
2015: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Daniel P Dickstein, Grace K Cushman, Kerri L Kim, Alexandra B Weissman, Ezra Wegbreit
Bipolar disorder (BD) is among the most impairing psychiatric disorders affecting children and adolescents, despite our best psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments. Cognitive remediation, defined as a behavioral intervention designed to improve cognitive functions so as to reduce psychiatric illness, is an emerging brain-based treatment approach that has thus far not been studied in pediatric BD. The present article reviews the basic principles of cognitive remediation, describes what is known about cognitive remediation in psychiatric disorders, and delineates potential brain/behavior alterations implicated in pediatric BD that might be targets for cognitive remediation...
August 2015: CNS Spectrums
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