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Gábor Murányi, Mónika Szabó, Ferenc Olasz, János Kiss
The integrative genomic island SGI1 and its variants confer multidrug resistance in numerous Salmonella enterica serovariants and several Proteus mirabilis and Acinetobacter strains. SGI1 is mobilized by the IncA/C family plasmids. The island exploits not only the conjugation apparatus of the plasmid, but also utilizes the plasmid-encoded master regulator AcaCD to induce the excision and formation of its transfer-competent form, which is a key step in the horizontal transfer of SGI1. Triggering of SGI1 excision occurs via the AcaCD-dependent activation of xis gene expression...
2016: PloS One
Jingna An, Ling Guo, Lin Zhou, Yanning Ma, Yanping Luo, Chuanmin Tao, Jiyong Yang
NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae (NPE) shows prevalence in China. Little is known about the mechanisms related to the spread of NPE. Recently, a total of 51 non-duplicated NPE isolates were collected from a tertiary-care hospital in China and analyzed for genetic relatedness by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), for antimicrobial susceptibility by E-test, and for sequence type (ST) by multilocus sequence typing. S1-PFGE and Southern blot analysis or PCR amplification were used for plasmid profiling. Between 2014 and 2015, 22 Escherichia coli, 10 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 9 Enterobacter cloacae, 2 E...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
J Marla Toyne, Warren B Church, Jose Luis Coronado Tello, Ricardo Morales Gamarra
OBJECTIVES: Inca imperial strategies of political and territorial expansion varied across conquered regions depending on local ecology and cultural resistance, and Chachapoya peoples in Peru's forested northeastern Andes were renowned for their rebellions against the invaders. The cliff tombs of Los Pinchudos (AD 1470-1535) present opportunities to use stable isotopes to: (1) explore dietary and mobility patterns from a mortuary community interred at a site attributed to the poorly-known Chachapoya culture during the period of Inca domination, and (2) explore the origins of the individuals as either local or foreign (Inca)...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Christopher J Harmer, Mohammad Hamidian, Stephanie J Ambrose, Ruth M Hall
Both the Salmonella genomic islands (SGI) and the conjugative IncC plasmids are known to contribute substantially to the acquisition of resistance to multiple antibiotics, and plasmids in the A/C group are known to mobilize the Salmonella genomic island SGI1, which also carries multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmid pRMH760 (IncC; A/C2) was shown to mobilize SGI1 variants SGI1-I, SGI1-F, SGI1-K and SGI2 from Salmonella enterica to Escherichia coli where it was integrated at the preferred location, at the end of the trmE (thdF) gene...
September 9, 2016: Plasmid
Meghan Zuck, Ashley Sherrid, Robert Suchland, Tisha Ellis, Kevin Hybiske
Chlamydiae exit via membrane-encased extrusion or through lysis of the host cell. Extrusions are novel, pathogen-containing structures that confer infectious advantages to Chlamydia, and are hypothesized to promote cell-to-cell spread, dissemination to distant tissues and facilitate immune evasion. The extrusion phenomenon has been characterized for several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, but a thorough investigation of extrusion for additional clinically relevant C. trachomatis strains and Chlamydia species has yet to be performed...
October 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Mónika Szabó, Tibor Nagy, Tímea Wilk, Tibor Farkas, Anna Hegyi, Ferenc Olasz, János Kiss
Two IncA/C family plasmids from the 1960s have been sequenced and classified into A/C2 Type 1 group. R16a and IP40a contain novel antibiotic resistance islands and a complete GIsul2 island not previously found in the family. In the 173.1 kb R16a the 29.9 kb ARI is located in a unique backbone position not utilized by ARIs. ARIR16a consists of Tn1, Tn6020, Tn6333 harboring the resistance genes blaTEM-1D, aphA1b and a mer module, respectively, a truncated Tn5393 copy and a gene cluster with unknown function. Plasmid IP40a is 170...
September 6, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kevin T Huguet, Mathieu Gonnet, Benoît Doublet, Axel Cloeckaert
The multidrug resistance Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) is an integrative mobilizable element identified in several enterobacterial pathogens. This chromosomal island requires a conjugative IncA/C plasmid to be excised as a circular extrachromosomal form and conjugally mobilized in trans. Preliminary observations suggest stable maintenance of SGI1 in the host chromosome but paradoxically also incompatibility between SGI1 and IncA/C plasmids. Here, using a Salmonella enterica serovar Agona clonal bacterial population as model, we demonstrate that a Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) system encoded by SGI1 plays a critical role in its stable host maintenance when an IncA/C plasmid is concomitantly present...
2016: Scientific Reports
Yuan-Chih Mao, Chin-Lu Chang, Yhu-Chering Huang, Lin-Hui Su, Chao-Tai Lee
BACKGROUND: Providencia stuartii survives well in natural environment and often causes opportunistic infection in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Clinical isolates of P. stuartii are usually resistant to multiple antibiotics. The bacterium is also naturally resistant to colistin and tigecycline. Treatment of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant P. stuartii is challenging. METHODS: During a 15-month period in 2013-2014, four isolates (P1, P2, and P3B/P3U) of P...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Nicolas Kieffer, Patrice Nordmann, Marta Aires-de-Sousa, Laurent Poirel
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Luanda, Angola. A total of 157 rectal samples were collected from children visiting a pediatric hospital in Luanda in March 2015. Fifty-seven imipenem-nonsusceptible enterobacterial isolates were recovered, most of which were non-clonally related. The blaOXA-181 (50/57) and blaNDM-1 (7/57) carbapenemase genes were identified. Notably, OXA-181-producing Escherichia coli isolates rarely coproduced extended-spectrum β-lactamases and consequently remained susceptible to broad-spectrum cephalosporins...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Anette M Hammerum, Frank Hansen, Hans Linde Nielsen, Lotte Jakobsen, Marc Stegger, Paal S Andersen, Paw Jensen, Tue Kjærgaard Nielsen, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, Henrik Hasman, David Fuglsang-Damgaard
OBJECTIVES: An outbreak of NDM-1-producing Citrobacter freundii and possible secondary in vivo spread of blaNDM-1 to other Enterobacteriaceae were investigated. METHODS: From October 2012 to March 2015, meropenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were detected in 45 samples from seven patients at Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark. In silico resistance genes, Inc plasmid types and STs (MLST) were obtained from WGS data from 24 meropenem-resistant isolates (13 C...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ruibai Wang, Jie Li, Biao Kan
The ongoing seventh cholera pandemic is attributed to Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains. Although antibiotic therapy ameliorates symptoms in patients and reduces pathogen transfer to the environment, multidrug resistance remains a major clinical threat. An O1 El Tor strain isolated from a patient in 1998 was intermediate or resistant to 13 antibiotics and could potentially produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), which is very rare in O1 strains. Using genome sequencing, three relevant genetic elements were identified in this strain: a hybrid SXT element (ICEVchCHN1307); a new IncA/C plasmid (pVC1307); and a chromosomal integron...
September 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Lu Liu, Zhengjun Peng, Haoquan Huang, Zhezhen Xu, Xi Wei
Identifying small molecules to activate the Oct-4/Sox2-derived pluripotency network represents a hopeful and safe method to pluripotency without genetic manipulation. Luteolin and apigenin, two major bioactive flavonoids, enhance reprogramming efficiency and increase expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc, albeit the detailed mechanism regulating pluripotency in dental-derived cells remains unknown. In the present study, to elucidate the effect of luteolin/apigenin on pluripotency of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) through interaction with downstream signals, we examined cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc, and multilineage differentiation of PDLCs with luteolin/apigenin treatment...
October 2016: Cell Biology International
Rym Ouertani, Anne Limelette, Thomas Guillard, Lucien Brasme, Yahia Jridi, Farouk Barguellil, Allaaeddin El Salabi, Christophe de Champs, Chedly Chouchani
The aim of this study was to determine the origin of virulence and multiresistance of a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from an abdominal wound infection of a patient with a gunshot injury in the thoracoabdominal region. The isolate was identified using biochemical tests and Phoenix™ automated system and was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). MICs of each antibiotic were determined by Etest. Screening for carbapenemase production was performed by the modified Hodge test and was confirmed by PCR amplification...
March 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Nicolas Carraro, Nicolas Rivard, Daniela Ceccarelli, Rita R Colwell, Vincent Burrus
UNLABELLED: Mobile genetic elements play a pivotal role in the adaptation of bacterial populations, allowing them to rapidly cope with hostile conditions, including the presence of antimicrobial compounds. IncA/C conjugative plasmids (ACPs) are efficient vehicles for dissemination of multidrug resistance genes in a broad range of pathogenic species of Enterobacteriaceae ACPs have sporadically been reported in Vibrio cholerae, the infectious agent of the diarrheal disease cholera. The regulatory network that controls ACP mobility ultimately depends on the transcriptional activation of multiple ACP-borne operons by the master activator AcaCD...
2016: MBio
C Demoor-Goldschmidt, L Claude, C Carrie, S Bolle, S Helfre, C Alapetite, A Jouin, L Padovani, A Ducassou, C Vigneron, É Le Prisé, A Huchet, D Stefan, C Kerr, T-D Nguyen, G Truc, S Chapet, P-Y Bondiau, B Coche, X Muracciole, A Laprie, G Noël, J Leseur, J-L Habrand, H Potet, A Ruffier, S Supiot, M-A Mahé, V Bernier
PURPOSE: Radiotherapy is a rare indication in paediatric oncology, with 800 to 900 children in treatment per year in France. Child cancers represent approximately 1% of cancers in France and half occur before the age of 5 years. Paediatric radiation requires appropriate tools, local, time and specific training. In France, in 2015, 18 centres are accredited by the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) for this activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey conducted in February 2015 on the care of children (0 to 18 years) in radiotherapy departments in France...
July 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Damien Haye, Hend Dridi, Jonathan Levy, Véronique Lambert, Maurice Lambert, Mohamed Agha, Frédéric Adjimi, Jürgen Kohlhase, Dan Lipsker, Alain Verloes
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by atrophic skin, lipodystrophy, and skeletal features. It is caused by mutations in ZMPSTE24, a gene encoding a zinc metalloproteinase involved in the post-translational modification of lamin. Nine distinct pathogenic variants have been identified in 11 patients from nine unrelated families with this disorder. We report a 12-year-old boy with mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy and a novel homozygous c...
October 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Olga Oikonomou, Apostolos Liakopoulos, Lynette M Phee, Jonathan Betts, Dik Mevius, David W Wareham
Providencia stuartii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. We describe an outbreak due to a multidrug-resistant strain over a 4-month period in a critical care unit in Athens. Molecular typing revealed each of the isolates to be clonally related with coresistance to cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and quinolones. Each isolate contained a 220-kb multi-replicon (IncA/C and IncR) conjugative plasmid encoding TEM-1, SHV-5, VEB-1, and VIM-1 β-lactamases and the 16S rDNA methylase RmtB. Antimicrobial therapy was unsuccessful in 3 of 6 cases, and resistance was readily transmissible to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli by transformation and conjugation...
July 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Teresa Martinez, Idali Martinez, Guillermo J Vazquez, Edna E Aquino, Iraida E Robledo
Carbapenems are considered the last-resort antibiotics to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzyme hydrolyses β-lactam antibiotics including the carbapenems. KPC has been detected worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates associated with transposon Tn4401 commonly located in plasmids. Acinetobacter baumannii has become an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen. KPC-producing A. baumannii has been reported to date only in Puerto Rico...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Chung-Yu Chang, Heng-Jia Lin, Lin-Li Chang, Ling Ma, L Kristopher Siu, Yi-Ching Tung, Po-Liang Lu
We analyzed the replicon types, sizes, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing of plasmids carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Taiwan. Fifty-one Escherichia coli transconjugant strains with plasmids from ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance III Program in 2002 were included. All the 51 plasmids carried a blaCTX-M gene, the majority of which were blaCTX-M-3 (28/51 [54.9%]). Plasmids ranged in size from 126 to 241 kb by S1 nuclease digestion and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and the most common plasmid size (37...
May 5, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
S Jahanbakhsh, A Letellier, J M Fairbrother
AIMS: To investigate the mechanisms leading to an increase in the prevalence of blaCMY -2 conferring resistance to ceftiofur in pigs receiving a feed medicated with chlortetracycline and penicillin, and to examine the effect of supplementation with a clay mineral on this phenomenon. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 138 blaCMY -2 -positive Escherichia coli isolates from faeces of pigs receiving feed supplemented or not with 2% clinoptilolite, from day 2 to day 28 after weaning, isolates from the two groups differed significantly with respect to their phylogenetic group: phylotype A predominated in the supplemented group, whereas phylotypes B1 and D predominated in the control group, as determined by PCR...
July 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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