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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166565/hospital-based-physicians-intubation-decisions-and-associated-mental-models-when-managing-a-critically-and-terminally-ill-older-patient
#1
Shannon Haliko, Julie Downs, Deepika Mohan, Robert Arnold, Amber E Barnato
BACKGROUND: Variation in the intensity of acute care treatment at the end of life is influenced more strongly by hospital and provider characteristics than patient preferences. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe physicians' mental models (i.e., thought processes) when encountering a simulated critically and terminally ill older patient, and to compare those models based on whether their treatment plan was patient preference-concordant or preference-discordant. METHODS: Seventy-three hospital-based physicians from 3 academic medical centers engaged in a simulated patient encounter and completed a mental model interview while watching the video recording of their encounter...
November 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166486/-narratives-of-users-of-mental-health-services-in-an-experiment-with-autonomous-management-of-medication
#2
Laura Lamas Martins Gonçalves, Rosana Teresa Onocko Campos
Numerous studies have highlighted the tendency to chronicity of treatments centered on the use of medications. This study was conducted in a large Brazilian city with users of Centers for Psychosocial Care (CAPS), with the aim of evaluating the effects of experimenting with the personal Guide for Autonomous Management of Medication (GAM) and the users' relationship to their treatments and participation. The instrument, created in Canada and translated and adapted to Brazil, was tested in intervention groups with users of CAPS with severe mental disorders and a history of political participation in the field of health...
November 21, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163185/orthostatic-intolerance-in-older-persons-etiology-and-countermeasures
#3
REVIEW
Nandu Goswami, Andrew P Blaber, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay, Jean-Pierre Montani
Orthostatic challenge produced by upright posture may lead to syncope if the cardiovascular system is unable to maintain adequate brain perfusion. This review outlines orthostatic intolerance related to the aging process, long-term bedrest confinement, drugs, and disease. Aging-associated illness or injury due to falls often leads to hospitalization. Older patients spend up to 83% of hospital admission lying in bed and thus the consequences of bedrest confinement such as physiological deconditioning, functional decline, and orthostatic intolerance represent a central challenge in the care of the vulnerable older population...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162345/postacute-care-after-pediatric-hospitalizations-for-a-primary-mental-health-condition
#4
James C Gay, Bonnie T Zima, Tumaini R Coker, Stephanie K Doupnik, Matthew Hall, Jonathan Rodean, Margaret O'Neill, Rustin Morse, Kris P Rehm, Jay G Berry, Naomi S Bardach
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of US children hospitalized for a primary mental health condition who are discharged to postacute care (PAC); whether PAC discharge is associated with demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics; and whether PAC use varies by state. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of US acute care hospitalizations for children ages 2-20 years with a primary mental health diagnosis, using the 2009 and 2012 Kids' Inpatient Databases...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160843/public-and-healthcare-professionals-knowledge-and-attitudes-toward-binge-eating-disorder-a-narrative-review
#5
REVIEW
Deborah Lynn Reas
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research...
November 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157683/unique-characteristics-of-high-cost-users-of-medical-care-with-comorbid-mental-illness-or-addiction-in-a-population-based-cohort
#6
Jennifer M Hensel, Valerie H Taylor, Kinwah Fung, Claire de Oliveira, Simone N Vigod
OBJECTIVE: To understand whether high-cost users of medical care with and without comorbid mental illness or addiction differ in terms of their sociodemographic and health characteristics. Unique characteristics would warrant different considerations for interventions and service design aimed at reducing unnecessary health care utilization and associated costs. METHODS: From the top 10% of Ontarians ranked by total medical care costs during fiscal year 2011/2012 (N = 314,936), prior 2-year mental illness or addiction diagnoses were determined from administrative data...
October 16, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157498/the-medical-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-oriented-care-considerations-for-child-and-adolescent-psychiatrists
#7
REVIEW
Laura C Hart, Gary Maslow
More adolescents and young adults are surviving previously fatal childhood illness and need support to transition from pediatric care to adult-oriented care. There are many barriers, but guidelines and tools assist providers with emphasis on gradually addressing transition with patients and families. Child and adolescent psychiatrists should be particularly attuned to the needs of adolescents with previously identified mental illness who are at high risk of falling out of regular care during transition. Providers are also uniquely suited to address the needs of adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities...
January 2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155005/effects-of-genetic-and-environmental-risk-for-schizophrenia-on-hippocampal-activity-and-psychosis-like-behavior-in-mice
#8
Daniel Scott, Carol A Tamminga
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness most notably characterized by psychotic symptoms. In humans, psychotic disorders are associated with specific hippocampal pathology. However, animal model systems for psychosis often lack this pathology, and have been weak in providing a representation of psychosis. We utilized a double-risk model system combining genetic risk with environmental stress. We hypothesized these factors will induce hippocampal subfield pathology consistent with human findings, as well as behavioral phenotypes relevant to psychosis...
November 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153315/what-are-the-keys-to-a-longer-happier-life-answers-from-five-decades-of-health-psychology-research
#9
Blair T Johnson, Rebecca L Acabchuk
RATIONALE: It has long been known that factors of the mind and of interpersonal relationships influence health, but it is only in the last 50 years that an independent scientific field of health psychology appeared, dedicated to understanding psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: This article (a) reviews important research that answers the question of how human beings can have longer, happier lives; and (b) highlights trends in health psychology featuring articles in Social Science & Medicine as well as other related literature...
November 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152432/acute-changes-in-mentation-in-a-patient-with-hepatic-cirrhosis-treated-with-high-doses-of-dexamethasone
#10
Luis Dabul, Andrew Droney, Juan Oms, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez
Despite the anti-inflammatory benefits of steroids in the management of multiple medical conditions, they are associated with undesired metabolic and psychiatric side effects. We present a case of a 57-year-old Hispanic man with hepatic cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and no past medical history of psychiatric illnesses who became delirious after treatment with high doses of intravenous Dexamethasone. The patient presented to Larkin Community Hospital, USA with complaints of lower back pain requiring treatment with steroids for severe lumbar central canal stenosis...
September 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151788/attitudes-toward-mentally-ill-patients-a-comparison-between-romanian-and-international-medical-students
#11
Codruta Alina Popescu, Anca Dana Buzoianu, Soimita Mihaela Suciu, Sebastian Mihai Armean
Background: Stigmatizing attitudes to mental illness, and especially schizophrenia, are not limited to the general population but are also common among health professionals. Health professionals are in a position to model health related attitudes both in the general public and patients. Medical students are an interesting group to focus upon, since they are future health professionals and correcting stigmatizing attitudes is still possible during their educational curriculum. Methods: This study investigated the attitude toward mental illness in medical students at the Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy...
2017: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151234/excavating-the-psyche-a-social-history-of-soviet-psychiatry-in-bulgaria
#12
Julian Chehirian
This article investigates how an imported Soviet psychiatric model affected Bulgarians who experienced psychological crisis by examining therapeutic possibilities that were available and foreclosed in the People's Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgarians struggling with psychological disorders in the present day experience polar forms of marginalization: non-recognition on one extreme, and chronic medicalization on the other. Both tendencies can be traced to the Communist-period remodeling of mental healthcare, which outlawed private practice and individual-centered therapy, which reified empirically observable, physiological underpinnings of pathology while suppressing therapies that engaged with the existential context of mental illness...
November 18, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151095/violent-behavior
#13
Sophia Sopromadze, Alexander Tsiskaridze
Violence is a significant public health problem representing one of the leading causes of death worldwide for people aged 15-44 years. Although violence and aggression are more frequent in adolescence and early adult life and decline with advancing age, these conditions can still develop for the first time in old age especially in association with organic brain disorder. Rates of violent death vary according to country income levels and are twice as higher in low- to middle-income countries than in high-income countries...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151092/conversion-factitious-disorder-and-malingering-a-distinct-pattern-or-a-continuum
#14
Silvio Galli, Laurent Tatu, Julien Bogousslavsky, Selma Aybek
This chapter is aimed at highlighting the recent findings concerning physiopathology, diagnosis, and management of conversion, factitious disorder, and malingering. Conversion disorder is the unintentional production of neurological symptom, whereas malingering and factitious disorder represent the voluntary production of symptoms with internal or external incentives. They have a close history and this has been frequently confounded. Practitioners are often confronted to medically unexplained symptoms; they represent almost 30% of neurologist's consultation...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146122/health-and-wellbeing-of-indigenous-adolescents-in-australia-a-systematic-synthesis-of-population-data
#15
Peter S Azzopardi, Susan M Sawyer, John B Carlin, Louisa Degenhardt, Ngiare Brown, Alex D Brown, George C Patton
BACKGROUND: Indigenous populations have high rates of disease and premature mortality. Most Indigenous communities are young, and adolescence (age 10-24 years) provides great opportunities for population health gain. However, the absence of a comprehensive account of Indigenous adolescents' health has been a barrier to effective policy. We aimed to report a national health profile for Indigenous adolescents in Australia. METHODS: We undertook a systematic synthesis of population data to report the health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia...
November 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145792/evaluating-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-local-psycho-educational-intervention-for-pregnant-women-with-common-mental-problems-affected-by-armed-conflict-in-swat-pakistan-a-parallel-randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial
#16
Muhammad Naseem Khan, Mukesh Dherani, Anna Chiumento, Najia Atif, Katie Bristow, Siham Sikander, Atif Rahman
BACKGROUND: The current research was conducted in the Swat valley, where widespread conflict and militancy had been experienced prior to the field activities. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a locally developed psycho-educational intervention. METHODS: This mixed-methods study incorporated a quantitative and qualitative component. For the quantitative component, trial participants were identified from a cross-sectional study conducted in the earlier phase of the research, with Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score of ≥9...
December 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142105/the-nde1-genomic-locus-can-affect-treatment-of-psychiatric-illness-through-gene-expression-changes-related-to-microrna-484
#17
Nicholas J Bradshaw, Liisa Ukkola-Vuoti, Maiju Pankakoski, Amanda B Zheutlin, Alfredo Ortega-Alonso, Minna Torniainen-Holm, Vishal Sinha, Sebastian Therman, Tiina Paunio, Jaana Suvisaari, Jouko Lönnqvist, Tyrone D Cannon, Jari Haukka, William Hennah
Genetic studies of familial schizophrenia in Finland have observed significant associations with a group of biologically related genes, DISC1, NDE1, NDEL1, PDE4B and PDE4D, the 'DISC1 network'. Here, we use gene expression and psychoactive medication use data to study their biological consequences and potential treatment implications. Gene expression levels were determined in 64 individuals from 18 families, while prescription medication information has been collected over a 10-year period for 931 affected individuals...
November 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140521/prevalence-of-catatonia-and-its-moderators-in-clinical-samples-results-from-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analysis
#18
Marco Solmi, G Giorgio Pigato, Beatrice Roiter, Argentina Guaglianone, Luca Martini, Michele Fornaro, Francesco Monaco, Andrè F Carvalho, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Christoph U Correll
Catatonia is an independent syndrome that co-occurs with several mental and medical conditions. We performed a systematic literature review in PubMed/Scopus until February 2017 and meta-analyzed studies reporting catatonia prevalence. Across 74 studies (cross-sectional = 32, longitudinal = 26, retrospective = 16) providing data collected from 1935 to 2017 across all continents, mean catatonia prevalence was 9.0% (k = 80, n = 110764; 95% CI = 6.9-11.7, I2 = 98%, publication bias P < .01), decreasing to 7...
November 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138206/monitor-ic-study-a-mixed-methods-prospective-multicentre-controlled-cohort-study-assessing-5-year-outcomes-of-icu-survivors-and-related-healthcare-costs-a-study-protocol
#19
Wytske Geense, Marieke Zegers, Hester Vermeulen, Mark van den Boogaard, Johannes van der Hoeven
INTRODUCTION: Due to advances in critical care medicine, more patients survive their critical illness. However, intensive care unit (ICU) survivors often experience long-term physical, cognitive and mental problems, summarised as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), impacting their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In what frequency PICS occurs, and to what extent this influences ICU survivors' HRQoL, is mostly unknown. The aims of this study are therefore to study the: (1) 5-year patient outcomes, (2) predictors for PICS, (3) ratio between HRQoL of ICU survivors and healthcare-related costs, and (4) care and support needs...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137666/utilization-of-the-behavior-change-wheel-framework-to-develop-a-model-to-improve-cardiometabolic-screening-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#20
Christina Mangurian, Grace C Niu, Dean Schillinger, John W Newcomer, James Dilley, Margaret A Handley
BACKGROUND: Individuals with severe mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) die 10-25 years earlier than the general population, primarily from premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Contributing factors are complex, but include systemic-related factors of poorly integrated primary care and mental health services. Although evidence-based models exist for integrating mental health care into primary care settings, the evidence base for integrating medical care into specialty mental health settings is limited...
November 14, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
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