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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814027/challenges-in-using-compliant-ligaments-for-position-estimation-within-robotic-joints
#1
Felix Russell, Lei Gao, Peter Ellison, Ravi Vaidyanathan
The mechanical advantages of bio-inspired condylar robotic knee joints for use in prosthetics or rehabilitation has been argued extensively in literature. A common limitation of these designs is the difficulty of estimating joint angle and therefore accurately controlling the joint. Furthermore, the potential role of ligament-like structures in robotic knees is not very well established. In this work, we investigate the role of compliant stretch sensing ligaments and their integration into a condylar robotic knee...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813758/the-new-genetic-frontier-crispr-cas9
#2
EDITORIAL
Keith Hansen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813755/genetics-of-alcoholism
#3
Ena C Zhu, Timothy J Soundy, Yueshan Hu
Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk...
May 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813716/no-correlation-of-the-disease-severity-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-with-the-rs12252-polymorphism-of-the-interferon-induced-transmembrane-protein-3-gene
#4
Yong-Chan Kim, Byung-Hoon Jeong
The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, which involved a more pathogenic virus than seasonal influenza viruses, rapidly spread around the world and caused many deaths in humans. The members of the interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM) protein family prevent viral replication and are crucial for defending the host cell against influenza A virus (IAV). Several studies suggest that the CC genotype at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12252 of IFITM3 confers a genetic predisposition to pandemic influenza A in Europeans and Han Chinese, although one study in a British cohort failed to show an association...
August 17, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813711/subjects-at-risk-for-genetic-late-onset-neurological-diseases-objective-knowledge
#5
Ângela Leite, Fernanda Leite, Maria Alzira P Dinis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study addresses the objective knowledge about the disease of subjects at risk for 3 genetic late-onset neurological diseases (LOND): familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) TTR V30M, Huntington disease (HD), and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD). METHODS: Subjects at risk for FAP, HD, and MJD submitted to genetic counseling to know their status (carrier or non-carrier) and subjects at risk for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), the control group, completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and answered the open-ended question: "What do you know about this disease?...
August 17, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813691/effects-of-superabsorbent-polymers-on-the-abundances-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-mobile-genetic-elements-and-the-bacterial-community-during-swine-manure-composting
#6
Aiyun Guo, Jie Gu, Xiaojuan Wang, Ranran Zhang, Yanan Yin, Wei Sun, Xiaxia Tuo, Li Zhang
Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are considered suitable amendments for reducing the selection pressure due to heavy metals and the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting. In this study, three SAP (sodium polyacrylate) levels (0, 5, and 15mgkg(-1) of compost) were applied and their effects on the abundances of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and the bacterial community were investigated. After composting, the abundances of ARGs and MGEs decreased to different extent, where the removal efficiencies for tetW, dfrA7, ermX, aac(6')-ib-cr and MGEs exceeded 90%...
August 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813686/genetic-and-functional-characterization-of-a-novel-gh10-endo-%C3%AE-1-4-xylanase-with-a-ricin-type-%C3%AE-trefoil-domain-like-domain-from-luteimicrobium-xylanilyticum-hy-24
#7
Do Young Kim, Sun Hwa Lee, Min Ji Lee, Han-Young Cho, Jong Suk Lee, Young Ha Rhee, Dong-Ha Shin, Kwang-Hee Son, Ho-Yong Park
The gene (1488-bp) encoding a novel GH10 endo-β-1,4-xylanase (XylM) consisting of an N-terminal catalytic GH10 domain and a C-terminal ricin-type β-trefoil lectin domain-like (RICIN) domain was identified from Luteimicrobium xylanilyticum HY-24. The GH10 domain of XylM was 72% identical to that of Micromonospora lupini endo-β-1,4-xylanase and the RICIN domain was 67% identical to that of Actinospica robiniae hypothetical protein. The recombinant enzyme (rXylM: 49kDa) exhibited maximum activity toward beechwood xylan at 65°C and pH 6...
August 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813680/antibiotics-disrupt-coordination-between-transcriptional-and-phenotypic-stress-responses-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#8
Paul A Jensen, Zeyu Zhu, Tim van Opijnen
Bacterial genes that change in expression upon environmental disturbance have commonly been seen as those that must also phenotypically matter. However, several studies suggest that differentially expressed genes are rarely phenotypically important. We demonstrate, for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, that these seemingly uncoordinated gene sets are involved in responses that can be linked through topological network analysis. However, the level of coordination is stress dependent. While a well-coordinated response is triggered in response to nutrient stress, antibiotics trigger an uncoordinated response in which transcriptionally and phenotypically important genes are neither linked spatially nor in their magnitude...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813676/pharmacologic-or-genetic-targeting-of-glutamine-synthetase-skews-macrophages-toward-an-m1-like-phenotype-and-inhibits-tumor-metastasis
#9
Erika M Palmieri, Alessio Menga, Rosa Martín-Pérez, Annamaria Quinto, Carla Riera-Domingo, Giacoma De Tullio, Douglas C Hooper, Wouter H Lamers, Bart Ghesquière, Daniel W McVicar, Attilio Guarini, Massimiliano Mazzone, Alessandra Castegna
Glutamine-synthetase (GS), the glutamine-synthesizing enzyme from glutamate, controls important events, including the release of inflammatory mediators, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, and autophagy. However, its role in macrophages remains elusive. We report that pharmacologic inhibition of GS skews M2-polarized macrophages toward the M1-like phenotype, characterized by reduced intracellular glutamine and increased succinate with enhanced glucose flux through glycolysis, which could be partly related to HIF1α activation...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813674/an-integrated-systems-biology-approach-identifies-trim25-as-a-key-determinant-of-breast-cancer-metastasis
#10
Logan A Walsh, Mariano J Alvarez, Erich Y Sabio, Marsha Reyngold, Vladimir Makarov, Suranjit Mukherjee, Ken-Wing Lee, Alexis Desrichard, Şevin Turcan, Martin G Dalin, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Shuibing Chen, Linda T Vahdat, Andrea Califano, Timothy A Chan
At the root of most fatal malignancies are aberrantly activated transcriptional networks that drive metastatic dissemination. Although individual metastasis-associated genes have been described, the complex regulatory networks presiding over the initiation and maintenance of metastatic tumors are still poorly understood. There is untapped value in identifying therapeutic targets that broadly govern coordinated transcriptional modules dictating metastatic progression. Here, we reverse engineered and interrogated a breast cancer-specific transcriptional interaction network (interactome) to define transcriptional control structures causally responsible for regulating genetic programs underlying breast cancer metastasis in individual patients...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813670/nkx2-1-is-required-in-the-embryonic-septum-for-cholinergic-system-development-learning-and-memory
#11
Lorenza Magno, Caswell Barry, Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Polyvios Theodotou, Michael Häusser, Nicoletta Kessaris
The transcription factor NKX2-1 is best known for its role in the specification of subsets of cortical, striatal, and pallidal neurons. We demonstrate through genetic fate mapping and intersectional focal septal deletion that NKX2-1 is selectively required in the embryonic septal neuroepithelium for the development of cholinergic septohippocampal projection neurons and large subsets of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In the absence of NKX2-1, these neurons fail to develop, causing alterations in hippocampal theta rhythms and severe deficiencies in learning and memory...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813665/lineage-restricted-mammary-stem-cells-sustain-the-development-homeostasis-and-regeneration-of-the-estrogen-receptor-positive-lineage
#12
Alexandra Van Keymeulen, Marco Fioramonti, Alessia Centonze, Gaëlle Bouvencourt, Younes Achouri, Cédric Blanpain
The mammary gland (MG) is composed of different cell lineages, including the basal and the luminal cells (LCs) that are maintained by distinct stem cell (SC) populations. LCs can be subdivided into estrogen receptor (ER)(+) and ER(-) cells. LCs act as the cancer cell of origin in different types of mammary tumors. It remains unclear whether the heterogeneity found in luminal-derived mammary tumors arises from a pre-existing heterogeneity within LCs. To investigate LC heterogeneity, we used lineage tracing to assess whether the ER(+) lineage is maintained by multipotent SCs or by lineage-restricted SCs...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813660/neutralizing-antibody-responses-to-viral-infections-are-linked-to-the-non-classical-mhc-class-ii-gene-h2-ob
#13
Lisa K Denzin, Aly A Khan, Francesca Virdis, Jessica Wilks, Melissa Kane, Helen A Beilinson, Stanislav Dikiy, Laure K Case, Derry Roopenian, Michele Witkowski, Alexander V Chervonsky, Tatyana V Golovkina
Select humans and animals control persistent viral infections via adaptive immune responses that include production of neutralizing antibodies. The precise genetic basis for the control remains enigmatic. Here, we report positional cloning of the gene responsible for production of retrovirus-neutralizing antibodies in mice of the I/LnJ strain. It encodes the beta subunit of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-like molecule H2-O, a negative regulator of antigen presentation. The recessive and functionally null I/LnJ H2-Ob allele supported the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies independently of the classical MHC haplotype...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813639/exploitation-of-gene-expression-and-cancer-biomarkers-in-paving-the-path-to-era-of-personalized-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Hala Fawzy Mohamed Kamel, Hiba Saeed A Bagader Al-Amodi
Cancer therapy agents have been used extensively as cytotoxic drugs against tissue or organ of a specific type of cancer. With the better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis and cellular events during cancer progression and metastasis, it is now possible to use targeted therapy for these molecular events. Targeted therapy is able to identify cancer patients with dissimilar genetic defects at cellular level for the same cancer type and consequently requires individualized approach for treatment...
August 13, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813618/whole-exome-sequencing-identifies-novel-variants-for-tooth-agenesis
#15
N Dinckan, R Du, L E Petty, Z Coban-Akdemir, S N Jhangiani, I Paine, E H Baugh, A P Erdem, H Kayserili, H Doddapaneni, J Hu, D M Muzny, E Boerwinkle, R A Gibbs, J R Lupski, Z O Uyguner, J E Below, A Letra
Tooth agenesis is a common craniofacial abnormality in humans and represents failure to develop 1 or more permanent teeth. Tooth agenesis is complex, and variations in about a dozen genes have been reported as contributing to the etiology. Here, we combined whole-exome sequencing, array-based genotyping, and linkage analysis to identify putative pathogenic variants in candidate disease genes for tooth agenesis in 10 multiplex Turkish families. Novel homozygous and heterozygous variants in LRP6, DKK1, LAMA3, and COL17A1 genes, as well as known variants in WNT10A, were identified as likely pathogenic in isolated tooth agenesis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813580/genetic-association-of-the-parl-abcc5-htr3d-htr3c-locus-with-primary-angle-closure-glaucoma-in-chinese
#16
Fang Yao Tang, Li Ma, Pancy O S Tam, Chi Pui Pang, Clement C Y Tham, Li Jia Chen
Purpose: This study evaluates the associations of haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the PARL-ABCC5-HTR3D-HTR3C region with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), with a view to identify the responsible SNP in this region. Methods: Thirty SNPs from the PARL-ABCC5-HTR3D-HTR3C region were genotyped in a Hong Kong Chinese cohort of 422 PACG patients and 400 control subjects, using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Single marker and haplotype-based association analyses were performed...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813576/joint-analysis-of-nuclear-and-mitochondrial-variants-in-age-related-macular-degeneration-identifies-novel-loci-trpm1-and-abhd2-rlbp1
#17
Patrice J Persad, Iris M Heid, Daniel E Weeks, Paul N Baird, Eiko K de Jong, Jonathan L Haines, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, William K Scott
Purpose: Presently, 52 independent nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (nSNPs) have been associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but their effects do not explain all its variance. Genetic interactions between the nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) genome may unearth additional genetic loci previously unassociated with AMD risk. Methods: Joint effects of nSNPs and selected mtSNPs were analyzed by two degree of freedom (2df) joint tests of association in the International AMD Genomics Consortium (IAMDGC) dataset (17,832 controls and 16,144 advanced AMD cases of European ancestry)...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813562/polygenic-scores-for-major-depressive-disorder-and-risk-of-alcohol-dependence
#18
Allan M Andersen, Robert H Pietrzak, Henry R Kranzler, Li Ma, Hang Zhou, Xiaoming Liu, John Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Howard J Edenberg, John I Nurnberger, John P Rice, Jay A Tischfield, Alison Goate, Tatiana M Foroud, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Bernice Porjesz, Danielle M Dick, Victor Hesselbrock, Eric Boerwinkle, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Myrna M Weissman, Douglas F Levinson, James B Potash, Joel Gelernter, Shizhong Han
Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are heritable disorders with significant public health burdens, and they are frequently comorbid. Common genetic factors that influence the co-occurrence of MDD and AD have been sought in family, twin, and adoption studies, and results to date have been promising but inconclusive. Objective: To examine whether AD and MDD overlap genetically, using a polygenic score approach. Design, Settings, and Participants: Association analyses were conducted between MDD polygenic risk score (PRS) and AD case-control status in European ancestry samples from 4 independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets: the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA); the Study of Addiction, Genetics, and Environment (SAGE); the Yale-Penn genetic study of substance dependence; and the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS)...
August 16, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813538/genome-wide-association-analysis-reveals-genetic-loci-and-candidate-genes-for-feeding-behavior-and-eating-efficiency-in-duroc-boars
#19
Rongrong Ding, Jianping Quan, Ming Yang, Xingwang Wang, Enqin Zheng, Huaqiang Yang, Disheng Fu, Yang Yang, Linxue Yang, Zicong Li, Dewu Liu, Gengyuan Cai, Zhenfang Wu, Jie Yang
Efficient use of feed resources is a challenge in the pork industry because the largest variability in expenditure is attributed to the cost of fodder. Efficiency of feeding is directly related to feeding behavior. In order to identify genomic regions controlling feeding behavior and eating efficiency traits, 338 Duroc boars were used in this study. The Illumina Porcine SNP60K BeadChip was used for genotyping. Data pertaining to individual daily feed intake (DFI), total daily time spent in feeder (TPD), number of daily visits to feeder (NVD), average duration of each visit (TPV), mean feed intake per visit (FPV), mean feed intake rate (FR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were collected for these pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813526/mtor-has-a-developmental-stage-specific-role-in-mitochondrial-fitness-independent-of-conventional-mtorc1-and-mtorc2-and-the-kinase-activity
#20
Khalid W Kalim, Shuangmin Zhang, Xiaoyi Chen, Yuan Li, Jun-Qi Yang, Yi Zheng, Fukun Guo
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), present in mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, is a serine/threonine kinase that integrates nutrients, growth factors, and cellular energy status to control protein synthesis, cell growth, survival and metabolism. However, it remains elusive whether mTOR plays a developmental stage-specific role in tissue development and whether mTOR can function independent of its complexes and kinase activity. In this study, by inducible genetic manipulation approach, we investigated the role of mTOR and its dependence on mTOR complexes and kinase activity in mitochondrial fitness of early, progenitor stage (lineage-negative; Lin-) versus later, lineage-committed stage (lineage-positive; Lin+) of hematopoietic cells...
2017: PloS One
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