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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815876/a-treatment-development-study-of-a-cognitive-and-mindfulness-based-therapy-for-adolescents-with-co-occurring-post-traumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorder
#1
Lisa R Fortuna, Michelle V Porche, Auralyd Padilla
OBJECTIVE: Substance use is common among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to develop and study an integrated treatment for adolescents with co-occurring disorders. DESIGN: This is a therapy development and open pilot trial study of a manualized therapy for adolescents with post-traumatic stress, depression, and substance use that uses a combination of cognitive therapy (CT) and mindfulness. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and paired sample t-tests were calculated to assess for changes in PTSD symptoms, depression, and substance use frequency from baseline to end of treatment using standardized measures and validated by urine drug screens...
August 16, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815666/dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-eating-disorders-an-open-label-case-series
#2
D Blake Woodside, Patricia Colton, Eileen Lam, Katharine Dunlop, Julia Rzeszutek, Jonathan Downar
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common comorbid condition in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), and may be associated with reduced response to treatment. We report on a case series employing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with a novel target, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC). Fourteen subjects with eating disorders and comorbid PTSD received 20-30 neuronavigated DMPFC-rTMS treatments on an open-label basis. PTSD symptoms were assessed pretreatment and posttreatment with the PTSD checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) and the Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale (DERS)...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815331/meta-analysis-of-the-long-term-treatment-effects-of-psychological-interventions-in-youth-with-ptsd-symptoms
#3
REVIEW
Jana Gutermann, Laura Schwartzkopff, Regina Steil
To date, the long-term effectiveness of psychological treatments in reducing post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in children and adolescents has not been investigated extensively. This meta-analysis quantifies the long-term effects of psychological interventions in children and adolescents with PTSD symptoms and examines the period-dependent follow-up (FU) effects based on 47 studies. The mean FU effect sizes (ESs) for PTSD symptoms ranged from medium (between treatment ESs for controlled studies) to large (within treatment ESs for uncontrolled studies; pooled analysis including all studies)...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813326/transdiagnostic-mechanisms-of-change-and-cognitive-behavioral-treatments-for-ptsd
#4
REVIEW
Matthew W Gallagher
This paper reviews the current status of transdiagnostic mechanisms of change targeted in cognitive-behavioral interventions, with a focus on mechanisms that are also relevant to emotional disorders that frequently co-occur with PTSD. First, an overview of the rationale for and key features of identifying mechanisms of change is presented, with a discussion of why it is crucial to examine mechanisms that are relevant across diagnostic boundaries. A review of the current evidence for five promising transdiagnostic mechanisms (hope, neuroticism, emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal, and anxiety sensitivity) is then provided...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813325/sleep-in-ptsd-conceptual-model-and-novel-directions-in-brain-based-research-and-interventions
#5
REVIEW
Anne Germain, Ashlee B McKeon, Rebecca L Campbell
Peri-traumatic sleep disturbances are growingly recognized as biologically-relevant and modifiable predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The exponential growth of the literature on sleep in PTSD over the last two decades has stimulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of the relationship between sleep and PTSD. A conceptual framework that captures this paradigm shift is offered. New research on existing and promising sleep-focused treatments for augmenting PTSD treatment outcomes is then summarized...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813324/cannabinoids-as-therapeutic-for-ptsd
#6
REVIEW
Mallory Je Loflin, Kimberly A Babson, Marcel O Bonn-Miller
Limited efficacy for current pharmacotherapy for PTSD indicates that improved pharmacological treatments are needed. Neurobiological research points to cannabinoids as possible therapeutic agents of interest. Moreover, observational reports indicate that there is growing popular interest in therapeutic use of cannabinoids for the alleviation of trauma symptoms. The aim of this review was to present an up-to-date look at current research on the possible therapeutic value of cannabinoids for PTSD. Experimental, preclinical, and clinical findings are discussed...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813323/emotions-and-emotion-regulation-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#7
REVIEW
Carmen P McLean, Edna B Foa
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with negative emotions such as shame, guilt, anger, and disgust, as well as impairments in the ability to effectively regulate these emotional states. There is evidence showing that each of these negative emotions and emotion regulation difficulties are related to the severity of PTSD stemming from various trauma types. In contrast, much less is known about the temporal relationship between these features and PTSD. Studies have found that treatments for PTSD often lead to improvements in these negative emotions and in emotion regulation difficulties, but how these features impact the efficacy of various PTSD treatments is less clear...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813322/anger-and-aggression-in-ptsd
#8
REVIEW
Casey T Taft, Suzannah K Creech, Christopher M Murphy
Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder have massive negative consequences; associated anger and aggression are particularly damaging. This overview focuses on these relationships and their potential mechanisms, and offers treatment considerations. Research and theory suggests that trauma impacts anger and aggression through social information processing mechanisms, and an aggression model incorporating impelling, instigating, and disinhibiting factors helps us understand who is at risk under specific circumstances...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813319/reward-functioning-in-posttraumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Anka A Vujanovic, Margaret C Wardle, Lia J Smith, Erin C Berenz
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are complex psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur. Research on PTSD-SUD comorbidity has increasingly focused upon better understanding biopsychosocial factors that may contribute to their co-occurring etiology, maintenance, and treatment. Anhedonia, defined as a lack of pleasure from or interest in rewards, stems from deficits in reward functioning and is associated with specific neurocircuitries. Few studies have investigated the role of reward functioning in PTSD-SUD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813317/mindfulness-in-ptsd-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Ariel J Lang
In recent years, the field has witnessed considerable enthusiasm for the ancient practice of mindfulness. The skills derived from this experience, including focused attention, nonjudgmental acceptance of internal experiences and reduced autonomic reactivity, may be helpful in counteracting pathological responses to trauma. Several types of interventions that incorporate principles of mindfulness have been examined for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This nascent literature is inconsistent and methodologically limited but does suggest that mindfulness is a potentially important tool for creating psychological change...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813316/perspectives-on-the-conceptualization-of-the-dissociative-subtype-of-ptsd-and-implications-for-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Sunny J Dutra, Erika J Wolf
A dissociative subtype of PTSD was added to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to denote a distinct presentation of PTSD marked by symptoms of derealization and depersonalization. The subtype has brought renewed interest in the conceptualization of dissociation in PTSD, and raised questions about its treatment. We review the evidence for two models of PTSD-related dissociative symptoms and the treatment approaches that align with each. We find support for the contributions of biologically-based trait-level factors to dissociation, and suggest that empirically supported treatments for PTSD demonstrate efficacy for patients with the subtype...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813315/using-experimental-methodologies-to-assess-posttraumatic-stress
#12
REVIEW
Tanja Jovanovic, Sheila Am Rauch, Alex O Rothbaum, Barbara O Rothbaum
The assessment of PTSD is hindered by the absence of an objective biological measure. There is no blood test or stress test or similar objective measurement that reliably indicates the presence or absence of PTSD. In this article we focus on experimental assessments of PTSD. The focus will be on psychobiological indices that have been shown to be dysregulated in PTSD sufferers and that are responsive to treatment for PTSD. This includes psychophysiological startle, cortisol, and related assessments that will be covered succinctly below...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813314/cognitive-factors-in-the-development-maintenance-and-treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Stefanie T LoSavio, Kirsten H Dillon, Patricia A Resick
Cognitive content and processes are central to theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper, we highlight recent findings on cognitive factors in PTSD. Evidence for the role of negative post-traumatic cognitions in PTSD has continued to mount, with cognitions mediating PTSD symptoms and predicting PTSD over and above other key variables. Researchers have also continued to implicate cognitive processes like rumination in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Finally, we review how cognitive-behavioral therapies interrupt dysfunctional cognitive processes in PTSD and highlight research supporting the theory that changes in cognitions are the mechanism of these treatments...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813312/neuroendocrine-and-neuroimmune-markers-in-ptsd-pre-peri-and-post-trauma-glucocorticoid-and-inflammatory-dysregulation
#14
REVIEW
Miranda Olff, Mirjam van Zuiden
We review current knowledge on how posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with dysregulation of the most commonly studied markers of the endocrine and immune systems pre-, peri- and post-trauma. Lower basal cortisol output, enhanced glucocorticoid receptor function, and a proinflammatory state have been most consistently found in PTSD, with considerable variability among studies and participants. Longitudinal research is scarce, but there is converging evidence that biological dysregulation is present before PTSD onset...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813311/acute-stress-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Richard A Bryant
Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced in DSM-IV to describe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms that (a) occur in the initial month after trauma and (b) predict subsequent PTSD. Longitudinal studies have shown that most people who develop PTSD do not initially meet ASD criteria, which led to the decision in DSM-5 to limit the ASD diagnosis to describing acute stress reactions without any predictive function. Controlled trials have shown that trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice for ASD, and is superior to pharmacological interventions...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813308/pharmacological-management-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Nancy C Bernardy, Matthew J Friedman
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been conceptualized as an inability to cope with overwhelming stress that is followed by a distinctive pattern of symptoms. This concept has made it possible to develop therapeutic approaches for PTSD that include medication and psychotherapy options. In this article we summarize research studies on pharmacotherapies for PTSD and review new findings in the neurobiology of PTSD that are promoting the development of targeted treatment options. Research findings that have improved our understanding of psychobiological abnormalities associated with PTSD offer clinicians improved treatment strategies...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813305/trauma-and-ptsd-in-older-adults-prevalence-course-concomitants-and-clinical-considerations
#17
REVIEW
Joan M Cook, Vanessa Simiola
This review presents recent empirical developments on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in older adults, highlighting some of the most interesting lines of investigation that have taken place over the past few years. The majority of the extant literature has focused on male veterans or former prisoners of war, Caucasians, and those from the United States. Major advances have taken place in terms longitudinal investigations of representative samples of veterans and their health and functioning in relation to traumatic exposure...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810979/women-veterans-a-population-at-risk-for-fibromyalgia-the-associations-between-fibromyalgia-symptoms-and-quality-of-life
#18
Rita F D'Aoust, Alicia Gill Rossiter, Amanda Elliott, Ming Ji, Cecile Lengacher, Maureen Groer
BACKGROUND: The Institute of Federal Health Care recently published an executive summary from a round table discussion indicating that active duty and retired female military personnel are at high risk for adverse health outcomes unique to military service including complications related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), unreported sexual trauma, and musculoskeletal problems. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine began to review, evaluate, and summarize the literature on health outcomes in Gulf War-deployed and found sufficient evidence of a causal relationship with PTSD and suggestive evidence of an association with fibromyalgia (FM)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807139/recognition-of-anxiety-depression-and-ptsd-in-patients-with-copd-and-chf-who-gets-missed
#19
Chelsea G Ratcliff, Terri L Barrera, Nancy J Petersen, Shubhada Sansgiry, Michael R Kauth, Mark E Kunik, Melinda A Stanley, Jeffrey A Cully
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify patient factors associated with mental health (MH) recognition and treatment in medically ill Veterans. METHOD: Retrospective data from patient electronic medical records (EMR) and self-report data were reviewed for 180 Veterans with cardiopulmonary conditions who met diagnostic criteria for anxiety, depression, or posttraumatic stress disorder on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Multivariate logistic regression examined the association of medical record MH recognition and MH service use with patient factors, including anxiety and depression severity, self-efficacy, locus of control, coping, illness intrusiveness, and health-related quality of life (QOL)...
July 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806536/a-meta-analytic-investigation-of-the-impact-of-mindfulness-based-interventions-on-post-traumatic-stress
#20
REVIEW
Tanya L Hopwood, Nicola S Schutte
A number of studies have investigated the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTSD) compared to control conditions. The current meta-analysis consolidated findings from 18 studies reporting results for 21 samples of participants. Across studies, mindfulness-based treatments compared to control conditions were effective in ameliorating symptoms of PTSD, with Hedges' g=-0.44. Hedges' g was -0.59 for comparison of mindfulness-based interventions to waitlist control conditions...
August 4, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
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