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PTSD treatment

Tanya van de Water, Jaco Rossouw, Alberta S J van der Watt, Elna Yadin, Soraya Seedat
This qualitative investigation, nested within a randomized controlled trial (RCT), describes the experiences of adolescent participants accessing psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a school-based setting. Supervised nurses provided the psychotherapeutic interventions. Twelve participants who took part in the RCT were invited, and 10 agreed to share their experiences through recorded face-to-face, semistructured, in-depth interviews and treatment-specific focus groups. Basic thematic analysis was applied using Atlas...
March 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Quang A Le, Jason N Doctor, Lori A Zoellner, Norah C Feeny
PURPOSE: Health outcomes may depend on which treatment is received, whether choice of treatment is given, and whether a received treatment is the preferred therapy. We examined the effects of these key factors on the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D-3L) in patients with PTSD. METHODS: Two hundred patients aged 18-65 years with PTSD diagnosis enrolled in a doubly randomized preference trial (DRPT) examining treatment, choice of treatment, and treatment-preference effects of prolonged exposure therapy (PE) and pharmacotherapy with sertraline (SER) (clinicaltrials...
March 14, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Duy Vu Tran, Carol S North
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate potential association between psychopathology and subjective evaluation of the experience of debriefing in disaster-exposed rescue and recovery workers. METHODS: Structured diagnostic interviews for DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders were conducted with 166 firefighters who served as rescue and recovery workers for the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, who categorized their satisfaction with the debriefing on 4 levels...
March 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Naomi B Fine, Michal Achituv, Amit Etkin, Ofer Merin, Arieh Y Shalev
Background : The immediate aftermath of traumatic events is a period of enhanced neural plasticity, following which some survivors remain with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) whereas others recover. Evidence points to impairments in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and broader executive functions as critically contributing to PTSD. Emerging evidence further suggests that the neural mechanisms underlying these functions remain plastic in adulthood and that targeted retraining of these systems may enhance their efficiency and could reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Yuqing Zhang, Xinyu Zhou, Lining Yang, Sarah E Hetrick, John R Weisz, Pim Cuijpers, Jürgen Barth, Cinzia Del Giovane, Shuai Yuan, David Cohen, Donna Gillies, Xiaofeng Jiang, Teng Teng, Peng Xie
INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among children and adolescents who are exposed to trauma, and it is often associated with significant negative impacts on their psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Many types of psychotherapies have been found to be effective for PTSD in children and adolescents. However, due to the lack of direct comparisons between different psychotherapies, the hierarchy of treatment efficacy is still unclear. Therefore, we plan to conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of various types of psychotherapies for PTSD in children and adolescents...
March 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Shannon M Blakey, H Ryan Wagner, Jennifer Naylor, Mira Brancu, Ilana Lane, Meghann Sallee, Nathan A Kimbrel, Eric B Elbogen
The polytrauma clinical triad refers to the co-occurrence of chronic pain, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite research implicating dyadic relationships between these conditions and adverse outcomes, scant research has examined the polytrauma clinical triad's relation to suicide or violence. The present cross-sectional study was designed to examine whether this complex clinical presentation increases risk of suicidal ideation and violent impulses after accounting for other established risk factors...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Rebecca M Saracino, Devika R Jutagir, Amy Cunningham, Kelly A Foran-Tuller, Mary A Driscoll, William H Sledge, Sukru H Emre, Dwain C Fehon
CONTEXT: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and mental health service utilization among patients with End Stage Liver Disease (ESLD) awaiting transplant remains understudied. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence of psychological disorders and symptoms with the use of a structured diagnostic interview and self-report measures, and examined patient-reported mental health service utilization and barriers to care. METHOD: Waitlisted liver transplant candidates (N = 120) completed assessments during routine clinic appointments at a single time point...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Cassidy A Gutner, Eric R Pedersen, Sean P A Drummond
Inclusion of consumer preferences to disseminate evidence-based psychosocial treatment (EBPT) is crucial to effectively bridge the science-to-practice quality chasm. We examined this treatment gap for insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and comorbid symptoms in a sample of 622 young adult veterans through preference in symptom focus, treatment modality, and related gender differences among those screening positive for each problem. Data were collected from veteran drinkers recruited through targeted Facebook advertisements as part of a brief online alcohol intervention...
March 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Allison A Feduccia, Michael C Mithoefer
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD has recently progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials and received Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA. MDMA used as an adjunct during psychotherapy sessions has demonstrated effectiveness and acceptable safety in reducing PTSD symptoms in Phase 2 trials, with durable remission of PTSD diagnosis in 68% of participants. The underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms for the robust effects in mitigating PTSD are being investigated in animal models and in studies of healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
R J T Mocking, J Assies, H G Ruhé, A H Schene
Continuous research into the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and schizophrenia, suggests an important role for metabolism. This narrative review will provide an up-to-date summary of how metabolism is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of these psychiatric disorders. We will focus on (I) the important role of fatty acids in these metabolic alterations, (II) whether fatty acid alterations represent epiphenomena or risk factors, and (III) similarities and dissociations in fatty acid alterations between different psychiatric disorders...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Chao Wang, Paul Rapp, David Darmon, Amy Trongnetrpunya, Michelle E Costanzo, Dominic E Nathan, Christopher J Cellucci, Michael J Roy, David Keyser
Military service members (SMs) returning from combat are at high risk of developing neuropsychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression. Symptom dynamics following reintegration into civilian life may be magnified over time such that some SMs present with delayed onset and may not reach a diagnostic threshold for months to years. Monitoring the trajectory of mental health in the aftermath of combat trauma can therefore be particularly important in enhancing diagnosis...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Bombi Lee, Insop Shim, Hyejung Lee, Dae-Hyun Hahm
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-induced psychiatric disorder characterized by impaired fear extermination, hyperarousal, anxiety, depression, and amnesic symptoms that may involve the release of monoamines in the fear circuit. The present study measured several anxiety-related behavioral responses to examine the effects of berberine (BER) on symptoms of anxiety in rats after single prolonged stress (SPS) exposure, and to determine if BER reversed the dopamine (DA) dysfunction. Rats received BER (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, once daily) for 14 days after SPS exposure...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Jack Tsai, Jianxun Shen, Steven M Southwick, Spencer Greenberg, Aislinn Pluta, Robert H Pietrzak
There has been little study of public literacy regarding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Public knowledge and attitudes about PTSD are important for encouraging treatment, prevention, and informing policies. Using a national online survey of 541 adults across 47 U.S. states in November 2016, we assessed attitudes and knowledge about PTSD. Most notably with respect to attitudes, 76-94% of the sample endorsed more federal funding for research, training, and practice for PTSD; and 76% of the sample also believed people with PTSD should have restricted access to firearms...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Sharon Fidelman, Tomer Mizrachi Zer-Aviv, Rachel Lange, Cecilia J Hillard, Irit Akirav
Activating the endocannabinoid system has become a major focus in the search for novel therapeutics for anxiety and deficits in fear extinction, two defining features of PTSD. We examined whether chronic treatment with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 (0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) or the CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (0.25, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) injected for 3 weeks to rats exposed to the shock and reminders model of PTSD would attenuate post-stress symptoms and affect basolateral amygdala (BLA) and CA1 CB1 receptors...
March 5, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Joseph F Kulas, Robert A Rosenheck
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common military service-related conditions diagnosed both singly and together in veterans returning from recent military conflicts overseas. The impact of these disorders in real-world Veterans Health Administration practice has not been studied extensively, and few studies have examined the association of these disorders both by themselves and together with sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric and medical comorbidities, health service utilization, and psychotropic medication fills...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Pauline W Ng'ang'a, Muthoni Mathai, Anne Obondo, Teresia Mutavi, Manasi Kumar
Background: Psychiatric morbidity is commonly associated with HIV disease and may have adverse effects. This aspect may be overlooked at comprehensive HIV care centers in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undetected psychiatric morbidity among HIV/AIDS adult patients attending Comprehensive Care Centre in a semi-urban clinic, in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study of adult HIV patients not receiving any psychiatric treatment was conducted...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Gabrielle E Hodgins, Jared G Blommel, Boadie W Dunlop, Dan Iosifescu, Sanjay J Mathew, Thomas C Neylan, Helen S Mayberg, Philip D Harvey
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: For a drug to acquire Food and Drug Administration approval, it must significantly outperform placebo treatment. In recent years, the placebo effect seems to be increasing in neuropsychiatric conditions. Here, we examine placebo effects across self-reported, clinically rated, and performance-based data from a trial using a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) antagonist for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS/PROCEDURES: Women with chronic PTSD were randomized to treatment with either GSK561679, a CRHR1 antagonist, or placebo...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
A Nazarov, D Fikretoglu, A Liu, M Thompson, M A Zamorski
BACKGROUND: A link between moral injury (i.e., the psychological distress caused by perceived moral transgressions) and adverse mental health outcomes (AMHO) has been recently proposed. However, the prevalence of exposure to morally injurious events and the associated risk of experiencing AMHO remains understudied. METHOD: The impact of exposure to potentially morally injurious experiences (PMIEs) was explored in relation to past-year PTSD and MDD, using the 2013 Canadian Armed Forces Mental Health Survey dataset of Afghanistan mission deployed regular force and reserve personnel...
March 4, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Laura E Watkins, Holly B Laws
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been repeatedly linked to intimate partner aggression (IPA), and previous research has suggested that this association may be stronger among veterans and men. However, few studies have examined veteran status and gender as moderators of the association between PTSD and psychological IPA, taking both partners' perspectives into account (i.e., within a dyadic framework). The current study aimed to address this limitation by using dyadic multilevel modeling to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and psychological IPA perpetration among a sample of 159 Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom veterans and their partners ( N = 318 participants)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Ruwan M Jayatunge, Mieczyslaw Pokorski
This review is an attempt to provide a comprehensive view of post-traumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) and its therapy, focusing on the use of meditation interventions. PTSD is a multimodal psycho-physiological-behavioral disorder, which calls for the potential usefulness of spiritual therapy. Recent times witness a substantial scientific interest in an alternative mind-to-body psychobehavioral therapy; the exemplary of which is meditation. Meditation is a form of mental exercise that has an extensive, albeit still mostly empiric, therapeutic value...
March 4, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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