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Tet proteins

Yuan Shi, Yao Xiong, Yongkang Jiang, Zhiyong Zhang, Guangdong Zhou, Wenjie Zhang, Yilin Cao, Jing He, Wei Liu
Tenomodulin (TNMD) is a type II transmembrane protein that is widely expressed in a variety of avascular connective tissues and fat tissue. Its function remains largely unknown except for a marker for mature tenocytes. This study reports the generation of tetracycline (Tet)-on driven conditional TNMD overexpressing mice and thus to provide a tool for systemic investigation of its role in regulating functions of various tissues. The current study focuses on in vitro comparison of tenogenic differentiation potentials induced by doxycycline (Dox) treatment among bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs), adipose derived stem cells (ASCs), dermal fibroblasts (DFs) and tenocytes (TCs) of the same transgenic mice...
October 21, 2016: Gene
Gang Bao, Chuankun Li, Lei Qi, Ning Wang, Baixiang He
Tetrandrine (TET) is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, which is isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the effects of TET on oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/reoxygenation (OGSD/R)-induced injury in rat spinal cord astrocytes, which mimics hypoxic/ischemic conditions in vivo. MTT and LDH assays indicated that cell viability was distinctly reduced and LDH leakage was elevated after OGSD/R exposure, which were dose-dependently reversed by pretreatment with TET (0...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Joshua B Lewis, Dallin C Milner, Adam L Lewis, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Scott C Albright, Brigham J Merrell, Troy D Monson, Dallin S Broberg, Jason R Gassman, Daniel B Thomas, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Shuenn-Jyi Sheu, Chung-Hsin Wu
In this study, we have reported the herbal formula B401 that has neuroprotective effects via multifunction, multitarget characteristics. It is possible that the herbal formula B401 may also provide new insights for AD. Here, we studied protective effects in the Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cell model and the APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic mouse model by the herbal formula B401. In in vitro experiments, we showed that the herbal formula B401 treatment effectively reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and acetylcholinesterase activity in Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y cells...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ya-Jing Lin, Shu-Fen Peng, Meng-Liang Lin, Chao-Lin Kuo, Kung-Wen Lu, Ching-Lung Liao, Yi-Shih Ma, Fu-Shin Chueh, Kuo-Ching Liu, Fu-Shun Yu, Jing-Gung Chung
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy of the head and neck and the incidence is higher in Southeast Asia. Tetrandrine (TET) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, a natural product, and exhibits biological activities including action against many human cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanism of TET-induced cell apoptosis in human NPC cells is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated TET-induced apoptotic cell death and associated possible signal pathways on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC-TW 076 cells in vitro...
October 12, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Adrian Low, Charmaine Ng, Jianzhong He
Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim)...
September 20, 2016: Water Research
Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir, Man-Gi Cho
Antibiotics are routinely used in microalgae culture screening, stock culture maintenance, and genetic transformation. By studying the effect of antibiotics on microalgae growth, we can estimate the least value to inhibit growth of undesired pathogens in algal culture. We studied the effect of kanamycin and tetracycline on the growth and photosynthetic activity of two chlorophyte microalgae, Dictyosphaerium pulchellum and Micractinium pusillum. We measured CFU mL(-1) on agar plates, optical density, fluorescence yields, and photosynthetic inhibition...
2016: BioMed Research International
Claire-Anne Gutekunst, Jack K Tung, Margaret E McDougal, Robert E Gross
Regrowth inhibitory molecules prevent axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). RhoA, a small GTPase in the Rho family, is a key intracellular switch that mediates the effects of these extracellular regrowth inhibitors. The bacterial enzyme C3-ADP ribosyltransferase (C3) selectively and irreversibly inhibits the activation of RhoA and stimulates axon outgrowth and regeneration. However, effective intracellular delivery of the C3 protein in vivo is limited by poor cell permeability and a short duration of action...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Hideaki Nakajima
Epigenetic marks, such as histone modifications or DNA methylation, regulate tissue specific gene expression by affecting the structures and accessibility of chromatin or DNA. Epigenetics, the molecular mechanisms regulating the epigenome, would therefore be critically involved in development and cell differentiation versus proliferation. Histone modifications include methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination of specific lysine, arginine or serine residues on histone tails, and each modification has its own specific effect on gene expressions...
2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Seiichiro Kizaki, Tingting Zou, Yue Li, Yong-Woon Han, Yuki Suzuki, Yoshie Harada, Hiroshi Sugiyama
Tet (ten-eleven translocation) family proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine (mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), 5-formylcytosine (fC), and 5-carboxycytosine (caC), and are suggested to be involved in the active DNA demethylation pathway. In this study, we reconstituted positioned mononucleosomes using CpG-methylated 382 bp DNA containing the Widom 601 sequence and recombinant histone octamer, and subjected the nucleosome to treatment with Tet1 protein. The sites of oxidized methylcytosine were identified by bisulfite sequencing...
September 30, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Daisuke Taniyama, Mayu Sakurai, Tetsuya Sakai, Takahide Kikuchi, Takashi Takahashi
Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can be transferred from pigs to humans. The serotypes 2 and 14 are prevalent among patients with S. suis infections, while other serotypes (i.e., 1, 4, 5, 16, and 24) have been detected in rare human cases. To the best of our knowledge, the present patient handling with raw pork is the first human case of uncomplicated bacteremia due to S. suis serotype 5 in Japan. We confirmed the new sequence type 752 of this isolate. Virulence-associated gene profiling was performed; both sly (encoding the hemolysin suilysin) and mrp (encoding a muramidase-released protein) were detected without amplification of epf (encoding the extracellular factor)...
2016: IDCases
Liaqat Ali, Yan-Qiu Wang, Jie Zhang, Muhammad Ajmal, Zhengrun Xiao, Jiarong Wu, Ji-Long Chen, Daojin Yu
Nutrient deposition and extensive use of antibiotics are increasing worldwide, especially in freshwater ecosystems. Bacteria display resistance to certain antibiotics and thus survive for extended periods in eutrophic environments. In this study, model ecosystems were established to investigate the effect of nitrate and phosphate nutrient salts on antibiotic resistance in strains of Enterococcus faecalis. Mesocosms were replicated to evaluate the ecological effects of nutrient influx. The mesocosms were divided into four different nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) regimens...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Qiyuan Yang, Xingwei Liang, Xiaofei Sun, Lupei Zhang, Xing Fu, Carl J Rogers, Anna Berim, Shuming Zhang, Songbo Wang, Bo Wang, Marc Foretz, Benoit Viollet, David R Gang, Buel D Rodgers, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
Promoting brown adipose tissue (BAT) development is an attractive strategy for the treatment of obesity, as activated BAT dissipates energy through thermogenesis; however, the mechanisms controlling BAT formation are not fully understood. We hypothesized that as a master regulator of energy metabolism, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may play a direct role in the process and found that AMPKα1 (PRKAA1) ablation reduced Prdm16 expression and impaired BAT development. During early brown adipogenesis, the cellular levels of α-ketoglutarate (αKG), a key metabolite required for TET-mediated DNA demethylation, were profoundly increased and required for active DNA demethylation of the Prdm16 promoter...
October 11, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Yue Ma, Hualin Fu, Chunlei Zhang, Shangli Cheng, Jie Gao, Zhen Wang, Weilin Jin, João Conde, Daxiang Cui
Epigenetic modifications sit 'on top of' the genome and influence DNA transcription, which can force a significant impact on cellular behavior and phenotype and, consequently human development and disease. Conventional methods for evaluating epigenetic modifications have inherent limitations and, hence, new methods based on nanoscale devices are needed. Here, we found that antioxidant (glutathione) chiral gold nanoclusters induce a decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is an important epigenetic marker that associates with gene transcription regulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jie Zhao, Xin-Long Ma, Jian-Xiong Ma, Lei Sun, Bin Lu, Ying Wang, Guo-Sheng Xing, Yan Wang, Ben-Chao Dong, Li-Yan Xu, Ming-Jie Kuang, Lin Fu, Hao-Hao Bai, Yue Ma, Wei-Lin Jin
Steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) is one of the common complications of clinical glucocorticoid (GC) administration, with osteocyte apoptosis appearing as the primary histopathological lesion. However, the precise mechanism underlying SAON remains unknown. Epigenetic modification may be a major cause of SAON. Recently, cumulative research revealed that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins can catalyze the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and then alter the epigenetic state of DNA...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Takamasa Ishii, Yumi Takanashi, Koichi Sugita, Masaki Miyazawa, Rintaro Yanagihara, Kayo Yasuda, Hiromi Onouchi, Noboru Kawabe, Munehiro Nakata, Yorihiro Yamamoto, Phil S Hartman, Naoaki Ishii
The etiology of astrocyte dysfunction is not well understood even though neuronal defects have been extensively studied in a variety of neuronal degenerative diseases. Astrocyte defects could be triggered by the oxidative stress that occurs during physiological aging. Here, we provide evidence that intracellular or mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) at physiological levels can cause hippocampal (neuronal) dysfunctions. Specifically, we demonstrate that astrocyte defects occur in the hippocampal area of middle-aged Tet-mev-1 mice with the SDHC(V69E) mutation...
September 13, 2016: Aging Cell
Minmin Liu, Hitoshi Ohtani, Wanding Zhou, Andreas Due Ørskov, Jessica Charlet, Yang W Zhang, Hui Shen, Stephen B Baylin, Gangning Liang, Kirsten Grønbæk, Peter A Jones
Vitamin C deficiency is found in patients with cancer and might complicate various therapy paradigms. Here we show how this deficiency may influence the use of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTis) for treatment of hematological neoplasias. In vitro, when vitamin C is added at physiological levels to low doses of the DNMTi 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR), there is a synergistic inhibition of cancer-cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. These effects are associated with enhanced immune signals including increased expression of bidirectionally transcribed endogenous retrovirus (ERV) transcripts, increased cytosolic dsRNA, and activation of an IFN-inducing cellular response...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hao Lian, Wen-Bin Li, Wei-Lin Jin
The Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins have been recently identified as critical regulators in epigenetic modification, especially in the methylation of cytosine in DNA. TET-mediated DNA oxidation plays prominent roles in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, especially in tumor and neural development. TET proteins execute stepwise enzymatic conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). In addition to the more proverbial enzymatic role of TET proteins, TET proteins also possess non-enzymatic activity, through interacting with some epigenetic modifiers...
August 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Benjamin J Metcalf, Sopio Chochua, Robert E Gertz, Zhongya Li, Hollis Walker, Theresa Tran, Paulina A Hawkins, Anita Glennen, Ruth Lynfield, Yuan Li, Lesley McGee, Bernard Beall
OBJECTIVES: We assessed our whole genome sequence (WGS) pipeline for accurate prediction of current antimicrobial phenotypes. METHODS: For 2316 invasive pneumococcal isolates (IPD) recovered during 2015 we compared WGS pipeline data to broth dilution testing (BDT) for 18 antimicrobials. RESULTS: For 11 antimicrobials categorical discrepancies were assigned when WGS-predicted minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and BDT MICs resulted in different predictions for susceptibility, intermediate-resistance or resistance, ranging from 0...
August 16, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Shuai Li, Jian Zhang, Chao Deng, Fenghua Meng, Lin Yu, Zhiyuan Zhong
In spite of their high specificity and potency, few protein therapeutics are applied in clinical cancer therapy owing to a lack of safe and efficacious delivery systems. Here, we report that redox-sensitive and intrinsically fluorescent photoclick hyaluronic acid nanogels (HA-NGs) show highly efficient loading and breast tumor-targeted delivery of cytochrome c (CC). HA-NGs were obtained from hyaluronic acid-graft-oligo(ethylene glycol)-tetrazole (HA-OEG-Tet) via inverse nanoprecipitation and catalyst-free photoclick cross-linking with l-cystine dimethacrylamide (MA-Cys-MA)...
August 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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