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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230192/an-endoparasitoid-wasp-influences-host-dna-methylation
#1
Sunil Kumar, Yonggyun Kim
Parasitism by endoparasitoid wasps changes the expression of various host genes, and alters host immune and developmental processes. However, it is not clearly understood how parasitism changes host gene expression in a whole genome scale. This study focused on an epigenetic control of Cotesia plutellae, an endoparasitoid wasp, against its host, Plutella xylostella. Two DNA methyltransferases (DNMT-1 and DNMT-2) are encoded in the genome of P. xylostella. In addition, methyl-binding domain proteins (MBDs) and DNA demethylation factor, ten-eleven translation protein (TET) are encoded...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229992/increased-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-and-ten-eleven-translocation-protein-expression-in-ultraviolet-b-irradiated-hacat-cells
#2
Dan Wang, Jin-Hua Huang, Qing-Hai Zeng, Can Gu, Shu Ding, Jian-Yun Lu, Jing Chen, Sheng-Bo Yang
BACKGROUND: DNA hydroxymethylation refers to a chemical modification process in which 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is catalyzed to 5- hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family proteins. Recent studies have revealed that aberrant TETs expression or 5hmC level may play important roles in the occurrence and development of various pathological and physiological processes including cancer and aging. This study aimed to explore the relation between aberrant DNA hydroxymethylation with skin photoaging and to investigate the levels of TETs, 5mC, and 5hmC expression 24 h after 40 mJ/cm2 and 80 mJ/cm2 doses of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation to HaCaT cells...
2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229923/epigenetic-regulation-of-reln-and-gad1-in-the-frontal-cortex-fc-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-subjects
#3
Adrian Zhubi, Ying Chen, Alessandro Guidotti, Dennis R Grayson
Both Reelin (RELN) and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD1) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We have previously shown that both mRNAs are reduced in the cerebella (CB) of ASD subjects through a mechanism that involves increases in the amounts of MECP2 binding to the corresponding promoters. In the current study, we examined the expression of RELN, GAD1, GAD2, and several other mRNAs implicated in this disorder in the frontal cortices (FC) of ASD and CON subjects. We also focused on the role that epigenetic processes play in the regulation of these genes in ASD brain...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228863/medulloblastoma-and-ependymoma-cells-display-increased-levels-of-5-carboxylcytosine-and-elevated-tet1-expression
#4
Ashley Ramsawhook, Lara Lewis, Beth Coyle, Alexey Ruzov
BACKGROUND: Alteration of DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) patterns represents one of the causes of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Tet proteins can oxidise 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Although the roles of these oxidised forms of 5mC (oxi-mCs) in cancer pathogenesis are still largely unknown, there are indications that they may be involved in the mechanisms of malignant transformation. Thus, reduction of 5hmC content represents an epigenetic hallmark of human tumours, and according to our recent report, 5caC is enriched in a proportion of breast cancers and gliomas...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#5
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197642/tgf-%C3%AE-1-pten-pi3k-signaling-plays-a-critical-role-in-the-anti-proliferation-effect-of-tetrandrine-in-human-colon-cancer-cells
#6
Qian-Zhao Chen, Yang Li, Ying Shao, Yu-Hua Zeng, Wen-Yan Ren, Rong-Xing Liu, Lin-Yun Zhou, Xue-Lian Hu, Ming Huang, Fang He, Wen-Juan Sun, Ke Wu, Bai-Cheng He
The diagnosis and treatment for colon cancer have been greatly developed, but the prognosis remains unsatisfactory. There is still a great clinical need to explore new efficacious drugs for colon cancer treatment. Tetrandrine (Tet) is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid. It has been shown that Tet may be a potential candidate for cancer treatment, but the explicit mechanism underlying this activity remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of Tet in human colon cancer cells and dissected the possible mechanism...
March 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193047/accurate-direct-and-high-throughput-analyses-of-a-broad-spectrum-of-endogenously-generated-dna-base-modifications-with-isotope-dilution-two-dimensional-ultraperformance-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry-possible-clinical-implication
#7
Daniel Gackowski, Marta Starczak, Ewelina Zarakowska, Martyna Modrzejewska, Anna Szpila, Zbigniew Banaszkiewicz, Ryszard Olinski
Our hereby presented methodology is suitable for reliable assessment of the most common unavoidable DNA modifications which arise as a product of fundamental metabolic processes. 8-Oxoguanine, one of the oxidatively modified DNA bases, is a typical biomarker of oxidative stress. A noncanonical base, uracil, may be also present in small quantities in DNA. A set of ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are involved in oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine which can be further oxidized to 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192139/vitamin-c-down-regulate-apo-a-expression-via-tet2-dependent-dna-demethylation-in-hepg2-cells
#8
Kai Qu, Xiao-Feng Ma, Guo-Hua Li, Hai Zhang, Ya-Mi Liu, Kai Zhang, Jun-Fa Zeng, Jian-Jun Lei, Dang-Heng Wei, Zuo Wang
Lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)] is a risk factor for coronary heart diseases. However, the metabolism of this protein remains poorly understood. Efficient and specific drugs that can decrease high plasma levels of Lp(a) have not been developed yet. Vitamin C is responsible for maintaining the catalytic activity of a group of iron and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent dioxygenases and induces the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) via Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) dioxygenases. In addition, It has been reported vitamin C deficiency induces atherosclerosis and increases Lp(a) and apo(a) plasma levels in Lp(a)+ mice...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186991/c-terminal-truncated-hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-regulates-tumorigenicity-self-renewal-and-drug-resistance-via-stat3-nanog-signaling-pathway
#9
Rachel Hiu Ha Ching, Karen Man Fong Sze, Eunice Yuen Ting Lau, Yung-Tuen Chiu, Joyce Man Fong Lee, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Terence Kin Wah Lee
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Random integration of HBV DNA into the host genome is frequent in HCC leading to truncation of the HBV DNA, particularly at the C-terminal end of the HBV X protein (HBx). C-terminally truncated HBx (HBx-ΔC) has been implicated in playing a pro-oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the mechanism whereby HBx-ΔC1 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the functional role of HBx-ΔC1 in regulating liver cancer stem cell (CSC) properties...
February 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167661/distinct-roles-for-tet-family-proteins-in-regulating-human-erythropoiesis
#10
Hongxia Yan, Yaomei Wang, Xiaoli Qu, Jie Li, John Hale, Yumin Huang, Chao An, Julien Papoin, Xinhua Guo, Lixiang Chen, Qiaozhen Kang, Wei Li, Vincent P Schulz, Patrick G Gallagher, Christopher D Hillyer, Narla Mohandas, Xiuli An
The TET family of proteins plays important roles in a wide range of biological processes by oxidizing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxy-methylcytosine (5hmC). However, their function in erythropoiesis has remained unclear. We show here that TET2 and TET3, but not TET1 are expressed in human erythroid cells and we explore the role of these proteins in erythropoiesis. Knockdown experiments revealed that TET2 and TET3 have different functions. Suppression of TET3 expression in human CD34(+) cells markedly impaired terminal erythroid differentiation, as reflected by increased apoptosis, generation of bi/multinucleated polychromatic/orthochromatic erythroblasts and impaired enucleation, though without effect on erythroid progenitors...
February 6, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129696/carboxymethylcellulose-with-phenolic-hydroxyl-microcapsules-enclosinggene-modified-bmscs-for-controlled-bmp-2-release-in-vitro
#11
Xiufan Du, Fangli Huang, Shujiang Zhang, Yongchang Yao, Yi Chen, Yushu Chen, Hongxuan Huang, Bo Bai
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to develop microparticles of phenolic hydroxyl derivative of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Ph) via Co-flow microfluidics technology and encapsulated gene-modified rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for the detection of the growth factor release was controlled by Tet-on system. Meanwhile, we investigated the effect of the CMC-Ph microcapsules and Lentiviral transduction on osteogenesis of BMP2-BMSCs. METHODS: The middle size of CMC-Ph microcapsules was prepared by optimized co-flow microfluidics through ejecting fluid CMC-Ph suspension (mixed with HRP) into co-flowing liquid paraffin which blends H2O2 at priority...
January 27, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125731/correlated-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-5hmc-and-gene-expression-profiles-underpin-gene-and-organ-specific-epigenetic-regulation-in-adult-mouse-brain-and-liver
#12
I-Hsuan Lin, Yi-Fan Chen, Ming-Ta Hsu
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism essential for gene regulation and vital for mammalian development. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is the first oxidative product of the TET-mediated 5-methylcytosine (5mC) demethylation pathway. Aside from being a key intermediate in cytosine demethylation, 5hmC may have potential regulatory functions with emerging importance in mammalian biology. METHODS: Here, we investigate the global 5hmC enrichment in five brain structures, including cerebellum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and thalamus, as well as liver tissues from female and male adult mice by using chemical capture-based technique coupled with next-generation sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107650/acetylation-enhances-tet2-function-in-protecting-against-abnormal-dna-methylation-during-oxidative-stress
#13
Yang W Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Wenbing Xie, Yi Cai, Limin Xia, Hariharan Easwaran, Jianjun Luo, Ray-Whay Chiu Yen, Yana Li, Stephen B Baylin
TET proteins, by converting 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), are hypothesized, but not directly shown, to protect promoter CpG islands (CGIs) against abnormal DNA methylation (DNAm) in cancer. We define such a protective role linked to DNA damage from oxidative stress (OS) known to induce this abnormality. TET2 removes aberrant DNAm during OS through interacting with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in a "Yin-Yang" complex targeted to chromatin and enhanced by p300 mediated TET2 acetylation...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101211/receptor-fgfrl1-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-nude-mice-when-overexpressed-in-hek-293-tet-on-cells
#14
Lei Zhuang, Florian Steinberg, Beat Trueb
Fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1) is a transmembrane receptor that interacts with heparin and FGF ligands. In contrast to the classical FGF receptors, FGFR1 to FGFR4, it does not appear to affect cell growth and proliferation. In the present study, an inducible gene expression system was utilized in combination with a xenograft tumor model to investigate the effects of FGFRL1 on cell adhesion and tumor formation. It was determined that recombinant FGFRL1 promotes the adhesion of HEK 293 Tet-On(®) cells in vitro...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100914/tet-mediated-hydroxymethylcytosine-at-the-ppar%C3%AE-locus-is-required-for-initiation-of-adipogenic-differentiation
#15
Y Yoo, J H Park, C Weigel, D B Liesenfeld, D Weichenhan, C Plass, D-G Seo, A M Lindroth, Y J Park
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue is one of the main organs regulating energy homeostasis, via energy storage as well as endocrine function. The adipocyte cell number is largely determined by adipogenesis. While the molecular mechanism of adipogenesis has been extensively studied, its role in dynamic DNA methylation plasticity remains unclear. Recently, it has been shown that Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) are catalytically capable of oxidizing DNA 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) towards a complete removal of the methylated cytosine...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060929/a-single-vector-platform-for-high-level-gene-transduction-of-central-neurons-adeno-associated-virus-vector-equipped-with-the-tet-off-system
#16
Jaerin Sohn, Megumu Takahashi, Shinichiro Okamoto, Yoko Ishida, Takahiro Furuta, Hiroyuki Hioki
Visualization of neurons is indispensable for the investigation of neuronal circuits in the central nervous system. Virus vectors have been widely used for labeling particular subsets of neurons, and the adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector has gained popularity as a tool for gene transfer. Here, we developed a single AAV vector Tet-Off platform, AAV-SynTetOff, to improve the gene-transduction efficiency, specifically in neurons. The platform is composed of regulator and response elements in a single AAV genome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053961/iron-supplementation-reverses-the-reduction-of-hydroxymethylcytosine-in-hepatic-dna-associated-with-chronic-alcohol-consumption-in-rats
#17
Stephanie A Tammen, Jung Eun Park, Phil Kyung Shin, Simonetta Friso, Jayong Chung, Sang-Woon Choi
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is known to affect two epigenetic phenomena, DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation, and iron is a cofactor of ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes that catalyze the conversion from methylcytosine to hydroxymethylcytosine. In the present study we aimed to determine the effects of alcohol on DNA hydroxymethylation and further effects of iron on alcohol associated epigenetic changes. METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet (36% calories from ethanol) or Lieber-DeCarli control diet along with or without iron supplementation (0...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030787/dna-demethylation-mediated-by-down-regulated-tets-in-the-testes-of%C3%A2-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus-under-bisphenol-a-exposure
#18
Cong Yuan, Yingying Zhang, Yan Liu, Song Wang, Zaizhao Wang
Inevitable BPA exposure resulted in disturbance of DNA methylation status and our published study suspected that BPA has the potentiality to disturb DNA demethylation and GSH production in Gobiocypris rarus testes. To confirm this conjecture, several experiments were carried out in the present study. Adult male G. rarus was exposed to 1, 15 and 225 μg L(-1) (nominal concentration) BPA for two weeks. The levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), glutathione (GSH), and enzyme levels for DNA methylation and GSH synthesis in the testes were detected...
December 21, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024479/-construction-of-eukaryotic-expression-vector-of-sirna-specific-for-bcr-abl-fusion-gene-and-its-effects-on-k562-cells
#19
Ming Li, Bao-Lin Wang, Li-Na Wang, Ya-Ming Xi
OBJECTIVE: To construct eukaryotic expression vector of siRNA specific for BCR/ABL and to investigate the effect of recombinant plasmid on BCR/ABL and P210 protein expression in K562 cells. METHODS: siRNA(small interfering RNA)was designed according to the Tuschl's principle of Ai-based medicine, and was converted into cDNA coding expression of shRNA(small hairpin RNAs)of siRNA for BCR/ABL fusion gene. The cDNA was synthesized and inserted into plasmid pTER. The pTER117 and pTER363 of recombinant plasmid being eukaryotic expression vector was controlled by the H1 promoter of RNA polymerase III, and identified by the restriction map and the sequence analysis...
December 2016: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005347/new-orthogonal-transcriptional-switches-derived-from-tet-repressor-homologues-for-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-regulated-by-2-4-diacetylphloroglucinol-and-other-ligands
#20
Shigehito Ikushima, Jef D Boeke
Here we describe the development of tightly regulated expression switches in yeast, by engineering distant homologues of Escherichia coli TetR, including the transcriptional regulator PhlF from Pseudomonas and others. Previous studies demonstrated that the PhlF protein bound its operator sequence (phlO) in the absence of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) but dissociated from phlO in the presence of DAPG. Thus, we developed a DAPG-Off system in which expression of a gene preceded by the phlO-embedded promoter was activated by a fusion of PhlF to a multimerized viral activator protein (VP16) domain in a DAPG-free environment but repressed when DAPG was added to growth medium...
December 22, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
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