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Hiv neuropathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596112/vagal-dysfunction-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-novel-pathways-to-chronic-inflammation-in-hiv
#1
Jessica Robinson-Papp, Alexandra Nmashie-Osei, Elizabeth Pedowitz, Emma K T Benn, Mary C George, Sandeep Sharma, Jacinta Murray, Josef Machac, Sherif Heiba, Saurabh Mehandru, Seunghee Kim-Schulze, Allison Navis, Isabel Elicer, Susan Morgello
OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammation in HIV-infected individuals drives disease progression and the development of comorbidities, despite viral suppression with combined antiretroviral therapy. Here, we sought evidence that vagal dysfunction, which occurs commonly as part of HIV-associated autonomic neuropathy, could exacerbate inflammation through gastrointestinal dysmotility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and alterations in patterns of soluble immune mediators. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional observational study...
March 28, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571868/neuromuscular-diseases-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#2
REVIEW
Devin E Prior, Nancy Song, Jeffrey A Cohen
From the most common distal symmetric polyneuropathy (Bilgrami and O'Keefe, 2014) to the rare motor neuron diseases, HIV infection is associated with pathology at all levels of the peripheral nervous system. HIV infection can cause these conditions due to viral exposure itself, the resulting immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections found in untreated patients, and from the therapy used in treatment of the virus. Before the advent of antiretroviral therapy, 5 neuromuscular diseases associated with HIV often resulted from opportunistic infections...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547440/global-hiv-neurology-a-comprehensive-review
#3
Kiran T Thakur, Alexandra Boubour, Deanna Saylor, Mitashee Das, David R Bearden, Gretchen L Birbeck
: Neurological conditions associated with HIV remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality and are increasingly recognized in the aging population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, growing evidence shows that the CNS may serve as a reservoir for viral replication, which has major implications for HIV eradication strategies. Though there has been major progress in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenesis, burden, and impact of neurological conditions associated with HIV infection, significant scientific gaps remain...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530865/identification-of-structural-and-molecular-features-involved-in-the-transport-of-3-deoxy-nucleoside-analogs-by-human-equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-3
#4
Md Fazlur Rahman, Radhika Raj, Rajgopal Govindarajan
Combination antiretroviral drug treatments depend on 3'-deoxy-nucleoside analogs such as 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 2'3'-dideoxyinosine (DDI). Despite being effective in inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus replication, these drugs produce a range of toxicities, including myopathy, pancreatitis, neuropathy, and lactic acidosis, that are generally considered as sequelae to mitochondrial damage. Although cell surface-localized nucleoside transporters, such as human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (hENT2) and human concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hCNT1), are known to increase the carrier-mediated uptake of 3'-deoxy-nucleoside analogs into cells, another ubiquitously expressed intracellular nucleoside transporter (namely, hENT3) has been implicated in the mitochondrial transport of 3'-deoxy-nucleoside analogs...
May 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506535/nitrosative-damage-during-retrovirus-infection-induced-neuropathic-pain
#5
Priyanka Chauhan, Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is currently the most common neurological complication in HIV-infected individuals, occurring in 35-50% of patients undergoing combination anti-retroviral therapy. Data have shown that distal symmetric polyneuropathy develops in mice by 6 weeks following infection with the LP-BM5 retrovirus mixture. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that glial cells modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the programmed death (PD)-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481608/the-role-of-mitochondrial-dna-variation-in-age-related-decline-in-gait-speed-among-older-men-living-with-hiv
#6
Jing Sun, Todd T Brown, David C Samuels, Todd Hulgan, Gypsyamber D'Souza, Beth D Jamieson, Kristine M Erlandson, Jeremy Martinson, Frank J Palella, Joseph B Margolick, Gregory D Kirk, Jennifer A Schrack
Background: Age-related gait speed decline is accelerated in men with HIV. Mitochondrial genetic variation is associated with frailty and mortality in the general population, and may provide insight into mechanisms of functional decline in people aging with HIV. Material & Methods: Gait speed was assessed semi-annually in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups were extracted from genome-wide genotyping data, classifying men ≥ 50 years into 5 groups: mtDNA haplogroup H, J, T, Uk, and other...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467806/isolated-abducens-palsy-heralding-occult-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-lymphoma
#7
Brandon J Baartman, Chrysavgi Adamopoulou
A 40-year-old African American man with recently diagnosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) presented with isolated left abducens palsy. Initial neuro-imaging and laboratory evaluation, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, were unremarkable. Continued search for causative aetiology revealed systemic lymphoma diagnosed ultimately by bone marrow biopsy. Systemic lymphoma is commonly encountered in the HIV patient population, but presentation can be unusual and has been seen, albeit rarely, in the setting of isolated cranial neuropathy...
February 2018: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465625/spinal-bromodomain-containing-protein-4-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-hiv-glycoprotein-120-with-morphine-in-rats
#8
Keiya Takahashi, Hyun Yi, Ching-Hang Liu, Shue Liu, Yuta Kashiwagi, Dennis J Patin, Shuanglin Hao
The symptoms of HIV-sensory neuropathy are dominated by neuropathic pain. Recent data show that repeated use of opiates enhances the chronic pain states in HIV patients. Limited attention has so far been devoted to exploring the exact pathogenesis of HIV painful disorder and opiate abuse in vivo, for which there is no effective treatment. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (Brd4) is a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal domain protein (BET) family and functions as a chromatin 'reader' that binds acetylated lysines in histones in brain neurons to mediate the transcriptional regulation underlying learning and memory...
April 11, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456342/immune-mediated-neuropathies-our-experience-over-3-years
#9
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Venkata Raviteja Karru, M A Mukheem Mudabbir, Subashree Ramakrishnan, Anitha Mahadevan
Introduction: Immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy is the term applied to a spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders where immune dysregulation plays a role. Therefore, they are treatable. We analyzed the cases seen in the past 3 years by us and evaluated the clinical, laboratory, and outcome parameters in these patients. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients seen by the authors and diagnosed as immune-mediated neuropathy were analyzed for etiology, pathology, and outcome assessed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428485/polymorphisms-in-p2x4r-and-camkk2-may-affect-tnf%C3%AE-production-implications-for-a-role-in-hiv-associated-sensory-neuropathy
#10
Jessica Gaff, Samuel Halstrom, Suzanna E L Temple, Svetlana Baltic, Peter Kamerman, Patricia Price
Polymorphisms in P2X4R and CAMKK2 associate with susceptibility to HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) - a condition likely mediated by TNFα. As single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of CAMKK2, and a neighbouring gene P2X4R, mark susceptibility to HIV-SN in South Africans living with HIV, we examined the relationship between P2X4R and CAMKK2 genotypes and TNFα production. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 129 healthy donors were stimulated with killed Escherichia coli, and concentrations of soluble TNFα were assessed...
April 2018: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353489/racial-and-socioeconomic-disparities-in-the-symptom-reporting-of-persons-living-with-hiv
#11
Rebecca Schnall, Karolynn Siegel, Haomiao Jia, Susan Olender, Sabina Hirshfield
Persons living with HIV (PLWH) today can survive decades with the disease, making the symptom experience much more relevant to their lifestyle and health outcomes. The goal of the research reported here was to assess the symptom reporting of PLWH in the Unites States (US) in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) age of the epidemic. We conducted an anonymous online survey of symptomatic PLWH in the US and asked participants to report the frequency and intensity of 28 frequently occurring symptoms in the past 30 days...
June 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343679/ramsay-hunt-syndrome-with-multiple-cranial-neuropathy-in-an-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-patient
#12
Divya Arya, Tushar Bajaj, Jose Gonzalez, Rene Elkin
BACKGROUND Ramsay Hunt syndrome is a rare otologic complication resulting from varicella zoster virus reactivation that can present with a myriad of clinical presentations. Most common being triad of ear pain, vesicles at auricle, and ear canal with same side facial palsy. CASE REPORT We report a case of a 29-year-old male with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who presented with left facial palsy, vesicles, pain in the left ear, dysphagia, dizziness, and headache resulting from multiple cranial nerves involvement such as cranial nerve V, VII, VIII, IX, and X...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299790/mobile-health-technology-for-improving-symptom-management-in-low-income-persons-living-with-hiv
#13
Rebecca Schnall, Hwayoung Cho, Alexander Mangone, Adrienne Pichon, Haomiao Jia
Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are living longer but experiencing more adverse symptoms associated with the disease and its treatment. This study aimed to examine the impact of a mHealth application (app) comprised of evidence-based self-care strategies on the symptom experience of PLWH. We conducted a 12-week feasibility study with 80 PLWH who were randomized (1:1) to a mHealth app, mobile Video Information Provider (mVIP), with self-care strategies for improving 13 commonly experienced symptoms in PLWH or to a control app...
January 3, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280762/brentuximab-vedotin-with-avd-shows-safety-in-the-absence-of-strong-cyp3a4-inhibitors-in-newly-diagnosed-hiv-associated-hodgkin-lymphoma
#14
Paul G Rubinstein, Page C Moore, Michelle A Rudek, David H Henry, Juan C Ramos, Lee Ratner, Erin Reid, Elad Sharon, Ariela Noy
OBJECTIVE: Brentuximab vedotin is a Food and Drug Administration approved anti-CD30 antibody drug conjugate potently active in Hodgkin lymphoma. Trials of brentuximab vedotin with doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (AVD-BV) excluded patients with HIV. We studied the safety of AVD-BV in newly diagnosed HIV-associated classical Hodgkin lymphoma . DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with stage II-IV HIV-associated classical Hodgkin lymphoma received AVD-BV on days 1 and 15 every 28 days for six cycles...
March 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260044/isolated-presumed-optic-nerve-gumma-a-rare-presentation-of-neurosyphilis
#15
Nailyn Rasool, James A Stefater, Dean Eliott, Dean M Cestari
Purpose: The incidence of syphilitic infections continues to rise and represents a major public health concern, particularly in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The infection has a multitude of clinical presentations and is often referred to as the 'great imitator.' We present a rare case of an isolated presumed syphilitic optic nerve gumma and characterize it using newer imaging modalities. Observations: A 36-year-old HIV-positive man, compliant with treatment, presented with a five day history of decreased vision in the left eye...
June 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239897/ex-vivo-expression-of-chemokine-receptors-on-cells-surrounding-cutaneous-nerves-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-sensory-neuropathy
#16
Jenjira Mountford, Fitri Octaviana, Riwanti Estiasari, Denise Dewanto Setiawan, Ibnu Ariyanto, Silvia Lee, Jessica Gaff, Constance Chew, Connie Jackaman, Peter Kamerman, Catherine Cherry, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains common in HIV+ individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), even though neurotoxic antiretroviral drugs (e.g. stavudine) have been phased out of use. Accumulating evidence indicates that the neuropathy is immune-mediated. We hypothesize that chemokines produced locally in the skin promote migration of macrophages and T cells into the tissue, damaging cutaneous nerves causing HIV-SN. DESIGN: We assessed chemokine receptor expression on infiltrating CD14 and CD3 cells around cutaneous nerves in standardized skin biopsies from HIV-SN+ patients (n = 5), HIV-SN- patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 4)...
February 20, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#17
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196315/phosphorylated-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-%C3%AE-contributes-to-rat-hiv-related-neuropathic-pain-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#18
Hyun Yi, Shue Liu, Yuta Kashiwagi, Daigo Ikegami, Wan Huang, Hirotsugu Kanda, Takafumi Iida, Ching-Hang Liu, Keiya Takahashi, David A Lubarsky, Shuanglin Hao
Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity of HIV-infected patients, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV-related pain are still elusive. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are expressed in various tissues, including the CNS. C/EBPβ, one of the C/EBPs, is involved in the progression of HIV/AIDS, but the exact role of C/EBPβ and its upstream factors are not clear in HIV pain state. Here, we used a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 application onto the rat sciatic nerve to test the role of phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) and its upstream pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195504/blinded-by-zika-a-missed-hiv-diagnosis-that-resulted-in-optic-neuropathy-and-blindness-a-case-report
#19
Tiffany Hirschel, Heimo Steffen, Victor Pecoul, Alexandra Calmy
BACKGROUND: Typical symptoms of an acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections like fever and rash are not specific and can be caused by a multitude of other pathogens, such as Zika or rickettsiosis. Up to 30% of primary HIV infection do not present with the typical flu-like symptoms and thus represent a diagnostic challenge. In this report, we describe a rare case of optic neuropathy as the initial presentation of primary HIV infection, which resulted in irreversible blindness...
December 1, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189306/does-a-rehabilitation-program-of-aerobic-and-progressive-resisted-exercises-influence-hiv-induced-distal-neuropathic-pain
#20
Sonill S Maharaj, Abdulsalam M Yakasai
OBJECTIVE: Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy is a common neurological sequela after HIV, which leads to neuropathic pain and functional limitations. Rehabilitation programs with exercises are used to augment pharmacological therapy to relieve pain but appropriate and effective exercises are unknown. This study explored the safety and effect of moderate-intensity aerobic exercises and progressive resisted exercises for HIV-induced distal symmetrical polyneuropathy neuropathic pain. DESIGN: A randomized pretest, posttest of 12 wks of aerobic exercise or progressive resisted exercise compared with a control...
May 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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