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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094765/selective-antagonism-of-muscarinic-receptors-is-neuroprotective-in-peripheral-neuropathy
#1
Nigel A Calcutt, Darrell R Smith, Katie Frizzi, Mohammad Golam Sabbir, Subir K Roy Chowdhury, Teresa Mixcoatl-Zecuatl, Ali Saleh, Nabeel Muttalib, Randy Van der Ploeg, Joseline Ochoa, Allison Gopaul, Lori Tessler, Jürgen Wess, Corinne G Jolivalt, Paul Fernyhough
Sensory neurons have the capacity to produce, release, and respond to acetylcholine (ACh), but the functional role of cholinergic systems in adult mammalian peripheral sensory nerves has not been established. Here, we have reported that neurite outgrowth from adult sensory neurons that were maintained under subsaturating neurotrophic factor conditions operates under cholinergic constraint that is mediated by muscarinic receptor-dependent regulation of mitochondrial function via AMPK. Sensory neurons from mice lacking the muscarinic ACh type 1 receptor (M1R) exhibited enhanced neurite outgrowth, confirming the role of M1R in tonic suppression of axonal plasticity...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017149/htlv-1-associated-neurological-disorders
#2
Muhammad Yasir Khan, Ishaq Nasib Khan, Muhammad Farman, Saleh Al Karim, Ishtiaq Qadri, Muhammad Amjad Kamal, Khalid Al Ghamdi, Steve Harakeh
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus which is endemic to certain regions of the world and infects around 10-20 million people. HTLV-1 is the etiologic agent of Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1 associated neurological disorders including mainly HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis. The involvement of the central nervous diseases occurs among: HTLV-1 infected patients from endemic areas, HIV positive individuals and drug users. The ability of HTLV-1 to cause associated neuropathies starts with the virus crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB), then entering and infecting the cells of the central nervous system...
December 22, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941127/leprosy-in-a-patient-infected-with-hiv
#3
Clare M Galtrey, Hamid Modarres, Zane Jaunmuktane, Sebastian Brandner, Alexander M Rossor, Diana Nj Lockwood, Mary M Reilly, Hadi Manji, Fred Schon
A 60-year-old Nigerian man, who had lived in Europe for 30 years but had returned home frequently, presented with right frontalis muscle weakness and right ulnar nerve palsy, without skin lesions. Neurophysiology showed a generalised neuropathy with demyelinating features. Blood tests were positive for HIV, with a normal CD4 count. There was nerve thickening both clinically and on MRI. Nerve biopsy showed chronic endoneuritis and perineuritis (indicating leprosy) without visible mycobacteria. His neuropathy continued to deteriorate (lepra reaction) before starting treatment with WHO multidrug therapy, highly active antiretroviral therapy and corticosteroids...
December 9, 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928388/syphilitic-optic-neuropathy-re-emerging-cases-over-a-2-year-period
#4
Supanut Apinyawasisuk, Anuchit Poonyathalang, Pisit Preechawat, Kavin Vanikieti
We report 7 cases of syphilitic optic neuropathy during a 2-year period. All patients were newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six cases (86%) initially presented with swollen optic disc either unilaterally or bilaterally. Blind spot enlargement was the most common type of visual field defect. Final visual acuity of at least 20/25 was achieved together with visual field improvement and resolution of swollen optic disc. Optic nerve involvement can be the first manifestation of syphilis and HIV co-infection...
April 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872270/hiv-glycoprotein-gp120-impairs-fast-axonal-transport-by-activating-tak1-signaling-pathways
#5
Sarah H Berth, Nichole Mesnard-Hoaglin, Bin Wang, Hajwa Kim, Yuyu Song, Maria Sapar, Gerardo Morfini, Scott T Brady
Sensory neuropathies are the most common neurological complication of HIV. Of these, distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is directly caused by HIV infection and characterized by length-dependent axonal degeneration of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Mechanisms for axonal degeneration in DSP remain unclear, but recent experiments revealed that the HIV glycoprotein gp120 is internalized and localized within axons of DRG neurons. Based on these findings, we investigated whether intra-axonal gp120 might impair fast axonal transport (FAT), a cellular process critical for appropriate maintenance of the axonal compartment...
December 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800108/magnitude-of-adverse-drug-reaction-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiwot-fana-specialized-university-hospital-eastern-ethiopia
#6
Fitsum Weldegebreal, Habtamu Mitiku, Zelalem Teklemariam
INTRODUCTION: Human immunodefiecency virus infected patients did not adhere correctly to their Antiretroviral Therapy because of the drugs adverse effects. Thus, continuous evaluation of the adverse effect of Antiretroviral Therapy will help to make more effective treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Adverse Drug Reaction and associated factors on Antiretroviral Therapy among Human immunodefiecency virus infected Adults at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764177/development-validation-and-field-testing-of-an-instrument-for-clinical-assessment-of-hiv-associated-neuropathy-and-neuropathic-pain-in-resource-restricted-and-large-population-study-settings
#7
Yohannes W Woldeamanuel, Peter R Kamerman, Demetri G A Veliotes, Tudor J Phillips, David Asboe, Marta Boffito, Andrew S C Rice
HIV-associated sensory peripheral neuropathy (HIV-SN) afflicts approximately 50% of patients on antiretroviral therapy, and is associated with significant neuropathic pain. Simple accurate diagnostic instruments are required for clinical research and daily practice in both high- and low-resource setting. A 4-item clinical tool (CHANT: Clinical HIV-associated Neuropathy Tool) assessing symptoms (pain and numbness) and signs (ankle reflexes and vibration sense) was developed by selecting and combining the most accurate measurands from a deep phenotyping study of HIV positive people (Pain In Neuropathy Study-HIV-PINS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682209/a-rodent-model-of-hiv-protease-inhibitor-indinavir-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#8
Wenlong Huang, Margarita Calvo, Tim Pheby, David L H Bennett, Andrew S C Rice
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most frequent manifestation of HIV disease. It often presents with significant neuropathic pain and is associated with previous exposure to neurotoxic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. However, HIV-SN prevalence remains high even in resource-rich settings where these drugs are no longer used. Previous evidence suggests that exposure to indinavir, a protease inhibitor commonly used in antiretroviral therapy, may link to elevated HIV-SN risk. Here, we investigated whether indinavir treatment was associated with the development of a "dying back" axonal neuropathy and changes in pain-relevant limb withdrawal and thigmotactic behaviours...
January 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681148/adverse-drug-reactions-associated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#9
Sumeshni Birbal, Mukesh Dheda, Elizabeth Ojewole, Frasia Oosthuizen
South Africa has one of the highest prevalences of HIV and AIDS in the world. HIV/AIDS patients face countless challenges, one of which is the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study aimed to describe the ADRs reported in South Africa with reference to the type of ADRs, antiretrovirals (ARVs) implicated, seriousness of the ADRs and patient demographics associated with specific ADRs. A retrospective quantitative study was carried out using ADR reports submitted to the National Department of Health (NDoH) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014...
September 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676676/effectiveness-and-impact-of-capsaicin-8-patch-on-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-lumbosacral-pain-an-open-label-study
#10
Panagiotis Zis, Nikolitsa Bernali, Erifili Argira, Ioanna Siafaka, Athina Vadalouka
BACKGROUND: Capsaicin 8% patch (Qutenza™) is mainly used to treat postherpetic neuralgia and HIV-associated neuropathy. Evidence of the efficacy of Qutenza in other forms of neuropathic pain is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the analgesic effect and the impact on quality of life after a single application of the capsaicin 8% cutaneous patch in patients with lumbosacral pain. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective open-label study of capsaicin 8% patch in patients with lumbosacral pain...
September 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611434/linezolid-associated-optic-neuropathy-in-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-mumbai-india
#11
Salil Mehta, Mrinalini Das, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Sylvie Jonckheere, Sein Sein Thi, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Patients on linezolid-containing drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) regimen often develop adverse-events, particularly peripheral and optic neuropathy. Programmatic data and experiences of linezolid-associated optic neuropathy from high DR-TB burden settings are lacking. The study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk-factors associated with linezolid-associated optic neuropathy and document the experiences related to treatment/care of DR-TB patients on linezolid-containing regimens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510644/stroke-in-a-young-patient-with-neurosyphilis-and-hiv
#12
Riddhi Patira, Sarah Smith-Benjamin, Jijo J Wang
Syphilis has long been known as the great imitator. Its heterogeneity can manifest in the form of meningitis, space occupying gummas, vasculitis, strokes, cranial neuropathies, myelopathy, dementia, and seizures. The incidence has been rising with each year, mainly in men who have sex with men accounting for 83% of cases. With the coexistence of immunocompromised states, especially HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the usually chronic and insidious course of tertiary neurosyphilis can be accelerated. Stroke can occur as a result of neurosyphilis in its meningovascular form, and the likelihood of this increases with HIV co-infection, especially in high-risk groups such as intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men...
August 10, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497320/hiv-distal-neuropathic-pain-is-associated-with-smaller-ventral-posterior-cingulate-cortex
#13
John R Keltner, Colm G Connolly, Florin Vaida, Mark Jenkinson, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Sarah Archibald, Cherine Akkari, Alexandra Schlein, Jisu Lee, Dongzhe Wang, Sung Kim, Han Li, Austin Rennels, David J Miller, George Kesidis, Donald R Franklin, Chelsea Sanders, Stephanie Corkran, Igor Grant, Gregory G Brown, J Hampton Atkinson, Ronald J Ellis
OBJECTIVE: Despite modern antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neuropathy is one of the most prevalent, disabling and treatment-resistant complications of HIV disease. The presence and intensity of distal neuropathic pain is not fully explained by the degree of peripheral nerve damage. A better understanding of brain structure in HIV distal neuropathic pain may help explain why some patients with HIV neuropathy report pain while the majority does not. Previously, we reported that more intense distal neuropathic pain was associated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter volumes...
August 6, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447116/content-validity-of-symptom-based-measures-for-diabetic-chemotherapy-and-hiv-peripheral-neuropathy
#14
Jennifer S Gewandter, Laurie Burke, Guido Cavaletti, Robert H Dworkin, Christopher Gibbons, Tony D Gover, David N Herrmann, Justin C Mcarthur, Michael P McDermott, Bob A Rappaport, Bryce B Reeve, James W Russell, A Gordon Smith, Shannon M Smith, Dennis C Turk, Aaron I Vinik, Roy Freeman
INTRODUCTION: No treatments for axonal peripheral neuropathy are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although patient- and clinician-reported outcomes are central to evaluating neuropathy symptoms, they can be difficult to assess accurately. The inability to identify efficacious treatments for peripheral neuropathies could be due to invalid or inadequate outcome measures. METHODS: This systematic review examined the content validity of symptom-based measures of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, HIV neuropathy, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy...
July 22, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427794/falls-among-middle-aged-women-in-the-women-s-interagency-hiv-study
#15
Anjali Sharma, Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Susan Holman, Michael W Plankey, Amber L Wheeler, Kathleen Weber, Michelle Floris-Moore, Hector H Bolivar, David E Vance, Wendy J Mack, Elizabeth T Golub, Marcia McDonnell Holstad, Michael T Yin
BACKGROUND: To determine the frequency and risk factors for falls among middle-aged HIV+ and HIV- women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: We quantified self-report of any and multiple (≥2) falls in the prior 6 months among 1,412 HIV+ and 650 HIV- women with mean age 48 years. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations of demographics, behavioural factors, comorbid conditions and medications with odds of any fall (versus none) and multiple falls (versus ≤1 fall)...
2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350758/antinociceptive-effects-of-topical-mepivacaine-in-a-rat-model-of-hiv-associated-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#16
Jacqueline Sagen, Daniel A Castellanos, Aldric T Hama
BACKGROUND: A consequence of HIV infection is sensory neuropathy, a debilitating condition that degrades the quality of life of HIV patients. Furthermore, life-extending antiretroviral treatment may exacerbate HIV sensory neuropathy. Analgesics that relieve other neuropathic pains show little or no efficacy in ameliorating HIV sensory neuropathy. Thus, there is a need for analgesics for people with this particular pain. While lidocaine is used in the management of painful peripheral neuropathies, another local anesthetic mepivacaine, with a potentially improved bioavailability, could be utilized for the management of HIV neuropathic pain...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330020/treatment-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-peripheral-neuropathy-with-scrambler-therapy-a-case-report
#17
Thomas J Smith, Paul Auwaerter, Amy Knowlton, Deanna Saylor, Justin McArthur
Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common neurological complications of HIV infection with a 30-60% lifetime prevalence. Newer HIV drugs cause less peripheral neuropathy, but patients are now living long enough to develop concomitant diabetes-related, vascular-related, and chemotherapy-related neuropathy so it continues as a major debilitating issue. Recent national CDC guidelines have stressed the importance of non-opioid therapies, especially in this population that may have had drug abuse problems...
June 21, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328632/elvitegravir-cobicistat-associated-toxic-optical-neuropathy-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-a-call-for-caution
#18
Agostino Riva, Alessandro Invernizzi, Chiara Resnati, Valeria Micheli, Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni
Ocular toxicity may not only be caused by medication overdoses and drug-drug interactions, but also by the chronic administration of medications at recommended doses. We describe the case of an HIV-infected patient who experienced significant and sustained bilateral visual loss two months after starting treatment with elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine. Given the absence of any evidence of tenofovir- or emtricitabine-induced optical neuropathy after several years of clinical use, the antiretroviral therapy was promptly changed to tenofovir/emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, which led to a progressive improvement in visual acuity...
June 22, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311590/discovering-early-diabetic-neuropathy-from-epidermal-nerve-fiber-patterns
#19
Claes Andersson, Peter Guttorp, Aila Särkkä
Epidermal nerve fibre (ENF) density and morphology are used to study small fibre involvement in diabetic, HIV, chemotherapy induced and other neuropathies. ENF density and summed length of ENFs per epidermal surface area are reduced, and ENFs may appear more clustered within the epidermis in subjects with small fibre neuropathy than in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is important to understand the spatial structure of ENFs. In this paper, we compare the ENF patterns between healthy subjects and subjects suffering from mild diabetic neuropathy...
June 16, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293327/approach-to-a-case-of-myeloneuropathy
#20
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar
Myeloneuropathy is a frequently encountered condition and often poses a diagnostic challenge. A variety of nutritional, toxic, metabolic, infective, inflammatory, and paraneoplastic disorders can present with myeloneuropathy. Deficiencies of vitamin B12, folic acid, copper, and vitamin E may lead to myeloneuropathy with a clinical picture of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. Among infective causes, chikungunya virus has been shown to produce a syndrome similar to myeloneuropathy. Vacuolar myelopathy seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is clinically very similar to subacute combined degeneration...
April 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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