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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720851/role-of-bile-acids-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
REVIEW
Elisa Tiratterra, Placido Franco, Emanuele Porru, Konstantinos H Katsanos, Dimitrios K Christodoulou, Giulia Roda
Bile acids (BAs) are the end product of cholesterol catabolism. Their synthesis is regulated by the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor, also involved in the control of their enterohepatic circulation. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are multifactorial diseases characterized by diarrhea. The pathogenesis of diarrhea in IBD is still debated. The most important factor is the inflammatory process of the intestinal wall, causing alterations of solute and water absorption/secretion, deterioration of epithelial cell integrity, disruption of the intestinal microflora homeostasis, and impairment of specific transport mechanisms within the gut (including that of BAs)...
May 2018: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705262/characteristics-and-outcomes-reported-by-patients-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-through-an-online-registry
#2
Alexander Kuo, Rachel Gomel, Ricky Safer, Keith D Lindor, Gregory T Everson, Christopher L Bowlus
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a fibrostenosing disease of the bile ducts associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for which the only treatment is liver transplantation. PSC progression has been defined in cohorts from referral centers or single-nation population databases. However, observations made from these cohorts have limited applicability due to referral bias and demographic confounders. We analyzed data from the worldwide PSC Partners Patient Registry, an international online database established in 2014 to obtain information from individuals with PSC or their caretakers and compare symptoms, disease progression, and treatments of PSC in the Unites States (US) and other countries...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701656/enteral-nutrition-in-the-management-of-pediatric-and-adult-crohn-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Tawnya Hansen, Donald R Duerksen
Genetic and environmental factors are thought to profoundly influence the pathophysiology of Crohn’s disease (CD). Changes in dietary and hygiene patterns affect the interactions between the immune system and environment. The gut microbiome is responsible for mediating host immune response with significant dysbiosis observed in individuals with CD. Diet therapy using exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been studied as primary therapy for the management of CD. EEN may cultivate the presence of beneficial microbiota, improve bile acid metabolism, and decrease the number of dietary microparticles possibly influencing disease and immune activity...
April 26, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688473/detection-of-gut-dysbiosis-due-to-reduced-clostridium-subcluster-xiva-using-the-fecal-or-serum-bile-acid-profile
#4
Masashi Murakami, Junichi Iwamoto, Akira Honda, Takeshi Tsuji, Makoto Tamamushi, Hajime Ueda, Tadakuni Monma, Naoki Konishi, Shoichiro Yara, Takeshi Hirayama, Teruo Miyazaki, Yoshifumi Saito, Tadashi Ikegami, Yasushi Matsuzaki
Background: Dysbiosis, especially a reduced Clostridium subcluster XIVa (XIVa), has been reported in several gastrointestinal diseases. Since XIVa is thought to be the main bacterial cluster that metabolizes bile acids (BAs) in the human intestine, we hypothesized that the BA profile in feces, and possibly in serum, could be a convenient biomarker for intestinal XIVa activity. Methods: First, blood and feces were collected from 26 healthy controls and 20 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, and the relationships among fecal microbiomes and fecal and serum BA compositions were studied...
April 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588835/challenging-current-views-on-bile-acid-diarrhoea-and-malabsorption
#5
REVIEW
Matthew Kurien, Elizabeth Thurgar, Ashley Davies, Ron Akehurst, Jervoise Andreyev
Background: In 2012, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) assessed guidance (DG7) on the use of tauroselcholic (75 selenium) acid (also known as SeHCAT) for the investigation of diarrhoea due to bile acid malabsorption (BAM) in patients with IBS-D and in patients with Crohn's disease who have not had an ileal resection. NICE concluded that tauroselcholic (75 selenium) acid was recommended for use in research only. NICE will be reviewing the decision to update the guidance for tauroselcholic (75 selenium) acid, for these populations, in March 2017...
April 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494278/adaptation-of-adherent-invasive-e-coli-to-gut-environment-impact-on-flagellum-expression-and-bacterial-colonization-ability
#6
Gwladys Sevrin, Sébastien Massier, Benoit Chassaing, Allison Agus, Julien Delmas, Jérémy Denizot, Elisabeth Billard, Nicolas Barnich
The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) is multifactorial and involves genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers and intestinal microbiota. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) are flagellated bacteria more prevalent in CD patients than in healthy subjects and promote chronic intestinal inflammation. We aim at deciphering the role of flagella and flagellin modulation by intestinal conditions. AIEC flagellum expression is required for optimal adhesion to and invasion of intestinal epithelial cells...
March 1, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262351/the-xenobiotic-transporter-mdr1-enforces-t-cell-homeostasis-in-the-presence-of-intestinal-bile-acids
#7
Wei Cao, Hisako Kayama, Mei Lan Chen, Amber Delmas, Amy Sun, Sang Yong Kim, Erumbi S Rangarajan, Kelly McKevitt, Amanda P Beck, Cody B Jackson, Gogce Crynen, Angelos Oikonomopoulos, Precious N Lacey, Gustavo J Martinez, Tina Izard, Robin G Lorenz, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Fabio Cominelli, Maria T Abreu, Daniel W Hommes, Sergei B Koralov, Kiyoshi Takeda, Mark S Sundrud
CD4+ T cells are tightly regulated by microbiota in the intestine, but whether intestinal T cells interface with host-derived metabolites is less clear. Here, we show that CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells upregulated the xenobiotic transporter, Mdr1, in the ileum to maintain homeostasis in the presence of bile acids. Whereas wild-type Teff cells upregulated Mdr1 in the ileum, those lacking Mdr1 displayed mucosal dysfunction and induced Crohn's disease-like ileitis following transfer into Rag1-/- hosts. Mdr1 mitigated oxidative stress and enforced homeostasis in Teff cells exposed to conjugated bile acids (CBAs), a class of liver-derived emulsifying agents that actively circulate through the ileal mucosa...
December 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872123/ileectomy-induced-bile-overaccumulation-in-mouse-intestine
#8
Rongli Zhang, Jonathan W Ray, Mukesh K Jain, Shuxin Han
Intestinal resection is a common therapeutic approach for human diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer that often results in severe short bowel syndrome-like adverse effects including bile acid diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and nutrient malabsorption. Here we introduce a murine ileal resection model, termed ileectomy, to evaluate tissue communication and the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. After ileal resection, circulating blood is permanently devoid of the ileum-specific endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), which releases its endocrinal inhibition of bile acid synthesis in the liver...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651460/-gut-liver-axis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-retrospective-study
#9
Anna Egresi, Ágota Kovács, Ágnes Szilvás, Anna Blázovics
INTRODUCTION: Examination of the gut-liver axis came into the spotlight worldwide. Liver enzyme elevations are commonly seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is a diagnostic challenge in everyday clinical practice. Liver and biliary diseases are common extra-intestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The assessment of routine liver function tests could be an inaccurate reflection of liver damage, so its prevalence could be underestimated...
July 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276822/incidence-and-predictive-factors-for-positive-75-sehcat-test-improving-the-diagnosis-of-bile-acid-diarrhoea
#10
Iain Alexander Murray, Linzi Karen Murray, Kathy Louise Woolson, Hisham Sherfi, Ivor Dixon, Joanne Palmer, Tom Sulkin
AIMS: To determine the value of (75)SeHCAT retention in determining bile acid diarrhoea (BAD), treatment response and predictors of a positive result. METHODS: Retrospective casenote review of consecutive patients undergoing (75)SeHCAT from 2008 to 2014, including gender, age, history, clinical, and laboratory parameters. This included diseases associated with Type 1 BAD (ileal resection, Crohn's disease) and Type 3 BAD. Chi-squared test and logistic regression determined factors predictive of BAD...
June 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174747/a-disease-associated-microbial-and-metabolomics-state-in-relatives-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#11
Jonathan P Jacobs, Maryam Goudarzi, Namita Singh, Maomeng Tong, Ian H McHardy, Paul Ruegger, Miro Asadourian, Bo-Hyun Moon, Allyson Ayson, James Borneman, Dermot P B McGovern, Albert J Fornace, Jonathan Braun, Marla Dubinsky
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microbes may increase susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by producing bioactive metabolites that affect immune activity and epithelial function. We undertook a family based study to identify microbial and metabolic features of IBD that may represent a predisease risk state when found in healthy first-degree relatives. METHODS: Twenty-one families with pediatric IBD were recruited, comprising 26 Crohn's disease patients in clinical remission, 10 ulcerative colitis patients in clinical remission, and 54 healthy siblings/parents...
November 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165466/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-protects-bile-acid-homeostasis-under-inflammatory-conditions-and-dampens-crohn-s-disease-like-ileitis
#12
Lien Van den Bossche, Daniel Borsboom, Sarah Devriese, Sophie Van Welden, Tom Holvoet, Lindsey Devisscher, Pieter Hindryckx, Martine De Vos, Debby Laukens
Bile acids regulate the expression of intestinal bile acid transporters and are natural ligands for nuclear receptors controlling inflammation. Accumulating evidence suggests that signaling through these receptors is impaired in inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated whether tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a secondary bile acid with cytoprotective properties, regulates ileal nuclear receptor and bile acid transporter expression and assessed its therapeutic potential in an experimental model of Crohn's disease (CD)...
May 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531998/mucosal-interactions-between-genetics-diet-and-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
REVIEW
Abigail Basson, Ashley Trotter, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Fabio Cominelli
Numerous reviews have discussed gut microbiota composition changes during inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD). However, most studies address the observed effects by focusing on studying the univariate connection between disease and dietary-induced alterations to gut microbiota composition. The possibility that these effects may reflect a number of other interconnected (i.e., pantropic) mechanisms, activated in parallel, particularly concerning various bacterial metabolites, is in the process of being elucidated...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207975/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-is-characterised-by-intestinal-dysbiosis-independent-from-ibd
#14
João Sabino, Sara Vieira-Silva, Kathleen Machiels, Marie Joossens, Gwen Falony, Vera Ballet, Marc Ferrante, Gert Van Assche, Schalk Van der Merwe, Severine Vermeire, Jeroen Raes
OBJECTIVE: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease often leading to end-stage liver disease. Its pathogenesis remains largely unknown, although frequent concomitant IBD hints towards common factors underlying gut and bile duct inflammation. Considering the mounting evidence on the involvement of the intestinal microbiota in initiating and determining IBD phenotype, we investigated intestinal microbiota composition in patients with PSC. DESIGN: Stool samples were collected from 147 individuals (52 patients with PSC, 52 age, gender and body mass index-matched healthy volunteers, 13 UC and 30 patients with Crohn's disease)...
October 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891261/how-to-diagnose-and-treat-ibd-mimics-in-the-refractory-ibd-patient-who-does-not-have-ibd
#15
REVIEW
Karen A Chachu, Mark T Osterman
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract and includes both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Patients with IBD often present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding but may also have a wide variety of other symptoms such as weight loss, fever, nausea, vomiting, and possibly obstruction. Given that the presentation of IBD is not specific, the differential diagnosis is broad and encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases, many of which can mimic and/or even coexist with IBD...
May 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26832436/a-multicenter-prospective-study-to-investigate-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-sehcat-test-in-measuring-bile-acid-malabsorption-research-protocol
#16
Fiona Reid, Janet Peacock, Bola Coker, Viktoria McMillan, Cornelius Lewis, Stephen Keevil, Roy Sherwood, Gill Vivian, Robert Logan, Jennifer Summers
BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is one possible explanation for chronic diarrhea. BAM may be idiopathic, or result from ileal resection or inflammation including Crohn's disease, or may be secondary to other conditions, including cholecystectomy, peptic ulcer surgery, and chronic pancreatitis. No "gold standard" exists for clinical diagnosis of BAM, but response to treatment with a bile acid sequestrant (BAS) is often accepted as confirmation. The SeHCAT (tauroselcholic [selenium-75] acid) test uses a radiolabeled synthetic bile acid and provides a diagnostic test for BAM, but its performance against "trial of treatment" is unknown...
February 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512715/gipa-factor-supports-colonization-of-peyer-s-patches-by-crohn-s-disease-associated-escherichia-coli
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Emilie Vazeille, Benoit Chassaing, Anthony Buisson, Anaëlle Dubois, Amélie de Vallée, Elisabeth Billard, Christel Neut, Gilles Bommelaer, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Nicolas Barnich, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Marie-Agnès Bringer
BACKGROUND: Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) associated with Crohn's disease target M cells lining Peyer's patches (PPs) through the expression of long polar fimbriae (LPF) and survive macrophage killing. Invasion of PPs constitutes a way to colonize the mucosa for bacteria able to escape or resist killing of underlying immune cells. We aimed to identify new virulence factors involved in PPs colonization by AIEC. METHODS: The presence of gipA (Growth in PPs) gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction...
January 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26223936/systematic-review-bile-acids-and-intestinal-inflammation-luminal-aggressors-or-regulators-of-mucosal-defence
#18
REVIEW
P Pavlidis, N Powell, R P Vincent, D Ehrlich, I Bjarnason, B Hayee
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic conditions attributed to an aberrant immune response to luminal triggers. Recently, published work suggests a pathogenic role for bile acids in this context. AIM: To perform a systematic review of studies investigating the role of bile acids in intestinal inflammation and present potentially relevant clinical implications. METHODS: Pubmed search for English language articles published up to May 2015...
October 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25981516/primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-a-clinical-update
#19
REVIEW
Kate D Williamson, Roger W Chapman
INTRODUCTION: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive cholestatic disorder that ultimately can lead to cirrhosis, liver failure, malignancy and death. It is strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and though a rare disease, its incidence is increasing. There are no proven medical therapies for PSC. SOURCES OF DATA: Ovid Medline was utilised to search for articles with keywords 'sclerosing cholangitis' and 'cholangiocarcinoma' and containing titles 'primary sclerosing cholangitis', and references of these papers were cross-referenced for further relevant manuscripts...
June 2015: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25918262/bile-acid-diarrhea-prevalence-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#20
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri
Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is usually seen in patients with ileal Crohn's disease or ileal resection. However, 25% to 50% of patients with functional diarrhea or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) also have evidence of BAD. It is estimated that 1% of the population may have BAD. The causes of BAD include a deficiency in fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a hormone produced in enterocytes that regulates hepatic bile acid (BA) synthesis. Other potential causes include genetic variations that affect the proteins involved in BA enterohepatic circulation and synthesis or in the TGR5 receptor that mediates the actions of BA in colonic secretion and motility...
May 23, 2015: Gut and Liver
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