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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109118/a-mandible-from-the-middle-pleistocene-hexian-site-and-its-significance-in-relation-to-the-variability-of-asian-homo-erectus
#1
Wu Liu, María Martinón-Torres, Yousuke Kaifu, Xiujie Wu, Reiko T Kono, Chun-Hsiang Chang, Pianpian Wei, Song Xing, Wanbo Huang, José María Bermúdez de Castro
OBJECTIVES: This study presents the first detailed morphological description and comparison of a Middle Pleistocene hominin mandibular fragment (PA 831) and associated teeth from the Hexian site in Eastern China. We aim to investigate where the Hexian mandible fits within the genus Homo variability in the light of an increased and better characterized Asian fossils record. METHODS: Comparative samples include Pleistocene Homo mandibles and teeth from Africa, Asia, and Europe, as well as earlier African hominins (Australopithecus and early Homo) and Holocene recent humans...
January 21, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109068/the-impact-of-dermoscopy-on-melanoma-detection-in-the-practice-of-dermatologists-in-europe-results-of-a-pan-european-survey
#2
A M Forsea, P Tschandl, I Zalaudek, V Del Marmol, H P Soyer, G Argenziano, A C Geller
BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a widely used technique that can increase the sensitivity and specificity of melanoma detection. Information is lacking on the impact of dermoscopy use on the detection of melanoma in the real-life practice of European dermatologists. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that influence the benefit of using dermoscopy for increasing melanoma detection and lowering the number of unnecessary biopsies in the practice of European dermatologists. METHODS: We conducted a survey of dermatologists registered in 32 European countries regarding: the demographic and practice characteristics, dermoscopy training and use, opinions on dermoscopy and the self-estimated impact of dermoscopy use on the number of melanomas detected and the number of unnecessary biopsies performed in practice...
January 21, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109021/affordable-orphan-drugs-a-role-for-not-for-profit-organisations
#3
E H Davies, E Fulton, D Brook, D A Hughes
The success of the Regulation on Orphan Medicinal Products in the European Union is evidenced by the 127 orphan drugs that have had market authorisation since 2000. However the incentives aimed to stimulate research and development have had the unintended consequence of increasing drug cost, resulting in many orphan drugs not being cost-effective. Orphan drugs command an increasing share of the pharmaceutical market and account for a disproportionate amount of healthcare expenditure. Orphan drug ownership by socially motivated, not-for-profit organisations may facilitate access to more affordable orphan drugs, for the benefit of patients and healthcare systems alike...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108714/brexit-potential-opportunities-potential-risks
#4
(no author information available yet)
▪ Identifying opportunities and risks that might arise from the UK's exit from the European Union▪ Managing mental health issues and building resilient teams▪ Supporting efforts to eliminate rabiesThese were among matters discussed by the BVA Council at its meeting on December 7, 2016. The BVA President, Gudrun Ravetz, chaired the meeting, which was held at the BVA's headquarters in Mansfield Street, London.
January 21, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108686/use-of-mechanical-insufflation-exsufflation-devices-for-airway-clearance-in-subjects-with-neuromuscular-disease
#5
REVIEW
Catherine Auger, Vanessa Hernando, Hubert Galmiche
The aim of this systematic review is to examine the benefit/risk ratio of the use of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) devices for airway clearance in patients with neuromuscular diseases. A search was conducted for relevant studies in MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and the Health Technology Assessment Database using the main key words: cough, airway clearance, in-exsufflation. The search limits were studies published in English and French between 1970 and 2014 (literature watch until December 2015)...
February 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108637/tomm40-523-variant-and-cognitive-decline-in-older-persons-with-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B53-3-genotype
#6
Lei Yu, Michael W Lutz, Robert S Wilson, Daniel K Burns, Allen D Roses, Ann M Saunders, Chris Gaiteri, Philip L De Jager, Lisa L Barnes, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: To interrogate a poly-T variant (rs10524523, '523) in TOMM40, a gene adjacent to the APOE gene on chromosome 19, in older persons with APOE ε3/3 homozygosity for association with cognitive decline, the clinical hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Data came from participants in 2 cohort studies of aging and dementia who underwent annual clinical evaluations for up to 21 years. APOE and TOMM40'523 genotypes were determined from DNA from blood or brain samples...
January 20, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108588/inferring-recent-demography-from-isolation-by-distance-of-long-shared-sequence-blocks
#7
Harald Ringbauer, Graham Coop, Nicholas H Barton
Recently it has become feasible to detect long blocks of nearly identical sequence shared between pairs of genomes. These IBD blocks are direct traces of recent coalescence events and, as such, contain ample signal to infer recent demography. Here, we examine sharing of such blocks in two-dimensional populations with local migration. Using a diffusion approximation to trace genetic ancestry, we derive analytical formulae for patterns of isolation by distance of IBD blocks, which can also incorporate recent population density changes...
January 20, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108556/confirmation-of-five-novel-susceptibility-loci-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-and-integrated-network-analysis-of-82-sle-susceptibility-loci
#8
Julio E Molineros, Wanling Yang, Xu-Jie Zhou, Celi Sun, Yukinori Okada, Huoru Zhang, Kek Heng Chua, Yu-Lung Lau, Yuta Kochi, Akari Suzuki, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Jianyang Ma, So-Young Bang, Hye-Soon Lee, Kwangwoo Kim, Sang-Cheol Bae, Hong Zhang, Nan Shen, Loren L Looger, Swapan K Nath
We recently identified ten novel SLE susceptibility loci in Asians and uncovered several additional suggestive loci requiring further validation. This study aimed to replicate five of these suggestive loci in a Han Chinese cohort from Hong Kong, followed by meta-analysis (11,656 cases and 23,968 controls) on previously reported Asian and European populations, and perform bioinformatic analyses on all 82 reported SLE loci to identify shared regulatory signatures. We performed a battery of analyses for these five loci, as well as joint analyses on all 82 SLE loci...
January 20, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108435/utilization-of-health-care-services-by-migrants-in-europe-a-systematic-literature-review
#9
REVIEW
V Graetz, B Rechel, W Groot, M Norredam, M Pavlova
INTRODUCTION: Our study reviewed the empirical evidence on the utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe, and on differences in health service utilization between migrants and non-migrants across European countries. SOURCES OF DATA: A systematic literature review was performed, searching the databases Medline, Cinahl and Embase and covering the period from January 2009 to April 2016. The final number of articles included was 39. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Utilization of accident and emergency services and hospitalizations were higher among migrants compared with non-migrants in most countries for which evidence was available...
January 20, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108267/fitness-and-fatness-in-relation-with-attention-capacity-in-european-adolescents-the-helena-study
#10
Cristina Cadenas-Sanchez, Jeremy Vanhelst, Jonatan R Ruiz, Ruth Castillo-Gualda, Lars Libuda, Idoia Labayen, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Ascensión Marcos, Eszter Molnár, Andrés Catena, Luis A Moreno, Michael Sjöström, Frederic Gottrand, Kurt Widhalm, Francisco B Ortega
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of health-related physical fitness components and accurate measures of fatness with attention in European adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A sub-sample of 444 adolescents from the HELENA study (14.5±1.2years) from 6 different countries participated in this study. Adolescents underwent evaluations of fitness (20m shuttle run, handgrip strength, standing long jump and 4×10m shuttle run tests), fatness (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance, Bod Pod and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and attention (d2-test)...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107831/high-throughput-untargeted-screening-of-veterinary-drug-residues-and-metabolites-in-tilapia-using-high-resolution-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#11
Wei Jia, Xiaogang Chu, James Chang, Perry G Wang, Ying Chen, Feng Zhang
An analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of one hundred and thirty-seven veterinary drug residues and metabolites from sixteen different classes in tilapia utilizing an improved fully non-targeted way of data acquisition with fragmentation. The automated on-line extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes...
March 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107778/parabolic-variation-in-sexual-selection-intensity-across-the-range-of-a%C3%A2-cold-water-pipefish-implications-for-susceptibility-to-climate-change
#12
Nuno Monteiro, Mário Cunha, Lídia Ferreira, Natividade Vieira, Agostinho Antunes, David Lyons, Adam G Jones
While an understanding of evolutionary processes in shifting environments is vital in the context of rapid ecological change, one of the most potent selective forces, sexual selection, remains curiously unexplored. Variation in sexual selection across a species range, especially across a gradient of temperature regimes, has the potential to provide a window into the possible impacts of climate change on the evolution of mating patterns. Here, we investigated some of the links between temperature and indicators of sexual selection, using a cold-water pipefish as model...
January 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107740/ambient-air-pollution-and-primary-liver-cancer-incidence-in-four-european-cohorts-within-the-escape-project
#13
Marie Pedersen, Zorana J Andersen, Massimo Stafoggia, Gudrun Weinmayr, Claudia Galassi, Mette Sørensen, Kirsten T Eriksen, Anne Tjønneland, Steffen Loft, Andrea Jaensch, Gabriele Nagel, Hans Concin, Ming-Yi Tsai, Sara Grioni, Alessandro Marcon, Vittorio Krogh, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote, Andrea Ranzi, Ranjeet Sokhi, Roel Vermeulen, Kees de Hoogh, Meng Wang, Rob Beelen, Paolo Vineis, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence. METHODS: We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985-2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10µm (PM10), less than 2...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107555/participation-in-sports-body-composition-and-fitness-characteristics-in-children-according-to-ethnic-background
#14
Stefania Toselli, Maria Giovanna Belcastro
Participation in sports has important implications, being associated with health and social features. The objectives of this study were to verify whether there were any differences in sport participation between immigrant and Italian children, and if there was any relation with their body composition and fitness characteristics. A survey was conducted on 1432 children attending primary school in the Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy). Anthropometric measurements, fitness characteristics and data about participation in sports were considered...
January 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107476/origin-and-dispersal-history-of-two-colonial-ascidian-clades-in-the-botryllus-schlosseri-species-complex
#15
Marie L Nydam, Kirsten B Giesbrecht, Emily E Stephenson
Human-induced global warming and species introductions are rapidly altering the composition and functioning of Earth's marine ecosystems. Ascidians (Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Tunicata, Class Ascidiacea) are likely to play an increasingly greater role in marine communities. The colonial ascidian B. schlosseri is a cryptic species complex comprising five genetically divergent clades (A-E). Clade A is a global species, and Clade E has so far been identified in European waters only. Using the largest mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I datasets yet assembled, we determine the origin and dispersal history of these species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107447/a-software-tool-for-estimation-of-burden-of-infectious-diseases-in-europe-using-incidence-based-disability-adjusted-life-years
#16
Edoardo Colzani, Alessandro Cassini, Daniel Lewandowski, Marie-Josee J Mangen, Dietrich Plass, Scott A McDonald, Alies van Lier, Juanita A Haagsma, Guido Maringhini, Alessandro Pini, Piotr Kramarz, Mirjam E Kretzschmar
The burden of disease framework facilitates the assessment of the health impact of diseases through the use of summary measures of population health such as Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). However, calculating, interpreting and communicating the results of studies using this methodology poses a challenge. The aim of the Burden of Communicable Disease in Europe (BCoDE) project is to summarize the impact of communicable disease in the European Union and European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107396/mixfit-methodology-for-computing-ancestry-related-genetic-scores-at-the-individual-level-and-its-application-to-the-estonian-and-finnish-population-studies
#17
Toomas Haller, Liis Leitsalu, Krista Fischer, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Tõnu Esko, Dorothea Irene Boomsma, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Tim D Spector, Markus Perola, Andres Metspalu
Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data. Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by MixFit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107258/what-to-eat-and-drink-in-the-festive-season-a-pan-european-observational-cross-sectional-study
#18
Helen L Parker, Jelena Curcic, Henriette Heinrich, Matthias Sauter, Michael Hollenstein, Werner Schwizer, Edoardo Savarino, Mark Fox
BACKGROUND: Digestive discomfort after meals is common in the community, especially during the festive season. It is uncertain whether this is related to intake of either high-calorie or high-fat foods or, alternatively, intake of specific foods. This prospective, cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that the risk of reflux or dyspepsia is associated with the fat content of the meal independent of caloric load in a 'real-life' setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four festive meals were served to delegates attending a conference on four consecutive days...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106529/a-joint-cross-border-investigation-of-a-cluster-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-austria-romania-and-germany-in-2014-using-classic-genotyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-methods-lessons-learnt
#19
Lena Fiebig, Thomas A Kohl, Odette Popovici, Margarita Mühlenfeld, Alexander Indra, Daniela Homorodean, Domnica Chiotan, Elvira Richter, Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes, Beatrix Schmidgruber, Patrick Beckert, Barbara Hauer, Stefan Niemann, Franz Allerberger, Walter Haas
Molecular surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) using 24-loci MIRU-VNTR in the European Union suggests the occurrence of international transmission. In early 2014, Austria detected a molecular MDR-TB cluster of five isolates. Links to Romania and Germany prompted the three countries to investigate possible cross-border MDR-TB transmission jointly. We searched genotyping databases, genotyped additional isolates from Romania, used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to infer putative transmission links, and investigated pairwise epidemiological links and patient mobility...
January 12, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106272/health-claims-and-methodological-controversy-in-nutrition-science
#20
Oliver Todt, José Luis Luján
This article analyzes the debate about data acquisition and assessment in health claims regulation by identifying the underlying controversies on methodological choice. Regulation in the European Union imposes the need for a scientific substantiation of all health claims (claims about a relationship between consumption of certain food ingredients and positive health effects). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the method that generally is considered to provide the highest quality data for decision making in claims regulation because they allow for establishing cause-effect relationships...
January 20, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
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