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Nash microbes

Tao Xu, Yan Du, Xiu-Bin Fang, Hao Chen, Dan-Dan Zhou, Yang Wang, Lei Zhang
Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways is of central importance in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular innate immune sensors of microbes and danger signals that control multiple aspects of inflammatory responses. Recent studies demonstrated that NLRs are expressed and activated in innate immune cells as well as in parenchymal cells in the liver. For example, NLRP3 signaling is involved in liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and silencing of NLRP3 can protect the liver from I/R injury...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Anna M Duraj-Thatte, Pichet Praveschotinunt, Trevor R Nash, Frederick R Ward, Neel S Joshi
Extracellular appendages play a significant role in mediating communication between bacteria and their host. Curli fibers are a class of bacterial fimbria that is highly amenable to engineering. We demonstrate the use of engineered curli fibers to rationally program interactions between bacteria and components of the mucosal epithelium. Commensal E. coli strains were engineered to produce recombinant curli fibers fused to the trefoil family of human cytokines. Biofilms formed from these strains bound more mucins than those producing wild-type curli fibers, and modulated mucin rheology as well...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tobias Verdorfer, Rafael C Bernardi, Aylin Meinhold, Wolfgang Ott, Zaida Luthey-Schulten, Michael A Nash, Hermann E Gaub
Cellulosomes are polyprotein machineries that efficiently degrade cellulosic material. Crucial to their function are scaffolds consisting of highly homologous cohesin domains, which serve a dual role by coordinating a multiplicity of enzymes as well as anchoring the microbe to its substrate. Here we combined two approaches to elucidate the mechanical properties of the main scaffold ScaA of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus. A newly developed parallelized one-pot in vitro transcription-translation and protein pull-down protocol enabled high-throughput atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) measurements of all cohesins from ScaA with a single cantilever, thus promising improved relative force comparability...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Giovanni Brandi, Stefania De Lorenzo, Marco Candela, Maria Abbondanza Pantaleo, Stefano Bellentani, Francesco Tovoli, Gioconda Saccoccio, Guido Biasco
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the majority of primary liver cancers. Clearly identifiable risk factors are lacking in up to 30% of HCC patients and most of these cases are attributed to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Beyond the known risk factors for NAFLD, the intestinal microbiota, in particular dysbiosis (defined as any change in the composition of the microbiota commonly found in healthy conditions) is emerging as a new factor promoting the development of chronic liver diseases and HCC...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
Roger C Prince, Gordon W Nash, Stephen J Hill
Oil biodegradation at a simulated depth of 1500m was studied in a high-pressure apparatus at 5°C, using natural seawater with its indigenous microbes, and 3ppm of an oil with dispersant added at a dispersant:oil ratio of 1:15. Biodegradation of the detectable hydrocarbons was prompt and extensive (>70% in 35days), although slower by about a third than under otherwise identical conditions equivalent to the surface. The apparent half-life of biodegradation of the total detectable hydrocarbons at 15MPa was 16days (compared to 13days at atmospheric pressure), although some compounds, such as the four-ring aromatic chrysene, were degraded rather more slowly...
October 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Bernd Schnabl, David A Brenner
The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes...
May 2014: Gastroenterology
Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Chi-Hang Tse, Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Angel Mei-Ling Chim, Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu, David Ka-Wai Yeung, Patrick Tik-Wan Law, Hoi-Shan Kwan, Jun Yu, Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
BACKGROUND: The human gut microbiota has profound influence on host metabolism and immunity. This study characterized the fecal microbiota in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The relationship between microbiota changes and changes in hepatic steatosis was also studied. METHODS: Fecal microbiota of histology-proven NASH patients and healthy controls was analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing. NASH patients were from a previously reported randomized trial on probiotic treatment...
2013: PloS One
Hermógenes Fernández-Marín, Gaspar Bruner, Ernesto B Gomez, David R Nash, Jacobus J Boomsma, William T Wcislo
Multipartner mutualisms have potentially complex dynamics, with compensatory responses when one partner is lost or relegated to a minor role. Fungus-growing ants (Attini) are mutualistic associates of basidiomycete fungi and antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria; the former are attacked by specialized fungi (Escovopsis) and diverse generalist microbes. Ants deploy biochemical defenses from bacteria and metapleural glands (MGs) and express different behaviors to control contaminants. We studied four Trachymyrmex species that differed in relative abundance of actinomycetes to understand interactions among antimicrobial tactics that are contingent on the nature of infection...
April 2013: American Naturalist
Yaron Ilan
Gut flora and bacterial translocation (BT) play important roles in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen predispose patients to bacterial infections, major complications and also play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disorders. Levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a component of gram-negative bacteria, are increased in the portal and/or systemic circulation in several types of chronic liver disease...
June 7, 2012: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Patcharee Pripdeevech, Sugunya Wongpornchai, Ampan Promsiri
Roots of Vetiveria zizanioides Nash (Mae Hae; Thai ecotype) planted in three different cultivation systems (normal soil, normal soil with added microbes and semi- hydroponically) were extracted using a simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) apparatus. Yields of the essential oils obtained were 0.27, 0.18 and 0.06%, respectively. The separation profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) and solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GCxGC analyses of the crude essential oils showed a total of 156 and 48 well-resolved components, respectively...
2006: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Martin J Blaser, Denise Kirschner
We propose that microbes that have developed persistent relationships with human hosts have evolved cross-signalling mechanisms that permit homeostasis that conforms to Nash equilibria and, more specifically, to evolutionarily stable strategies. This implies that a group of highly diverse organisms has evolved within the changing contexts of variation in effective human population size and lifespan, shaping the equilibria achieved, and creating relationships resembling climax communities. We propose that such ecosystems contain nested communities in which equilibrium at one level contributes to homeostasis at another...
October 18, 2007: Nature
J Russell Hayman, Timothy R Southern, Theodore E Nash
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular opportunistic protists that infect a wide variety of animals, including humans, via environmentally resistant spores. Infection requires that spores be in close proximity to host cells so that the hollow polar tube can pierce the cell membrane and inject the spore contents into the cell cytoplasm. Like other eukaryotic microbes, microsporidia may use specific mechanisms for adherence in order to achieve target cell proximity and increase the likelihood of successful infection...
February 2005: Infection and Immunity
J M Nash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2001: Time
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