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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467306/gait-analysis-in-psp-and-nph-dual-task-conditions-make-the-difference
#1
Charlotte Selge, Florian Schoeberl, Andreas Zwergal, Georg Nuebling, Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich, Roman Schniepp, Klaus Jahn
OBJECTIVE: To test whether quantitative gait analysis of gait under single- and dual-task conditions can be used for a differential diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed in 38 patients with PSP (Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Society for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy diagnostic criteria), 27 patients with iNPH (international iNPH guidelines), and 38 healthy controls...
February 21, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467244/precise-spatial-restriction-of-bmp-signaling-in-developing-joints-is-perturbed-upon-loss-of-embryo-movement
#2
Pratik Narendra Pratap Singh, Claire Shea, Shashank Kumar Sonker, Rebecca Rolfe, Ayan Ray, Sandeep Kumar, Pankaj Gupta, Paula Murphy, Amitabha Bandyopadhyay
Dynamic mechanical loading of synovial joints is necessary for normal joint development, as evidenced in certain clinical conditions, congenital disorders and animal models where dynamic muscle contractions are reduced or absent. Although the importance of mechanical forces on joint development is unequivocal, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved. Here, using chick and mouse embryos, we observed that molecular changes in expression of multiple genes analyzed in the absence of mechanical stimulation are consistent across species...
February 21, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465562/subacute-onset-leukodystrophy-and-visual-spatial-disorders-revealing-phenylketonuria-combined-with-homocysteinmia-in-adulthood-a-case-report
#3
Chunchen Wang, Jieying Li
RATIONALE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disorder, which manifests a progressive irreversible neurological impairment during infancy and childhood. Hyperhomocysteinemia also showed that it might be involved in pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. The late-onset clinical manifestations of these 2 diseases have not been reported elsewhere. We speculated that the late-onset PKU is caused by 2 kinds of metabolic dysfunction synergistically, especially a short period of irregular diet directly caused clinical symptoms...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462724/maturation-trajectories-of-cortical-resting-state-networks-depend-on-the-mediating-frequency-band
#4
S Khan, J A Hashmi, F Mamashli, K Michmizos, M G Kitzbichler, H Bharadwaj, Y Bekhti, S Ganesan, K A Garel, S Whitfield-Gabrieli, R L Gollub, J Kong, L M Vaina, K D Rana, S S Stufflebeam, M S Hämäläinen, T Kenet
The functional significance of resting state networks and their abnormal manifestations in psychiatric disorders are firmly established, as is the importance of the cortical rhythms in mediating these networks. Resting state networks are known to undergo substantial reorganization from childhood to adulthood, but whether distinct cortical rhythms, which are generated by separable neural mechanisms and are often manifested abnormally in psychiatric conditions, mediate maturation differentially, remains unknown...
February 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460073/progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-are-associated-with-local-reduction-of-in-vivo-brain-viscoelasticity
#5
Axel Lipp, Cornelia Skowronek, Andreas Fehlner, Kaspar-Josche Streitberger, Jürgen Braun, Ingolf Sack
OBJECTIVES: To apply three-dimensional multifrequency MR-elastography (3DMRE) for the measurement of local cerebral viscoelasticity changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). METHODS: T1-weighted anatomical imaging and 3DMRE were performed in 17 PD and 20 PSP patients as well as 12 controls. Two independent viscoelasticity parameters, |G*| and φ, were reconstructed combining seven harmonic vibration frequencies (30-60 Hz)...
February 19, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457537/effects-of-binaural-spatialization-in-wireless-microphone-systems-for-hearing-aids-on-normal-hearing-and-hearing-impaired-listeners
#6
Gilles Courtois, Hervé Lissek, Philippe Estoppey, Yves Oesch, Xavier Gigandet
Little is known about the perception of artificial spatial hearing by hearing-impaired subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate how listeners with hearing disorders perceived the effect of a spatialization feature designed for wireless microphone systems. Forty listeners took part in the experiments. They were arranged in four groups: normal-hearing, moderate, severe, and profound hearing loss. Their performance in terms of speech understanding and speaker localization was assessed with diotic and binaural stimuli...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453707/brief-report-when-large-becomes-slow-zooming-out-visual-attention-is-associated-to-orienting-deficits-in-autism
#7
Luca Ronconi, Maria Devita, Massimo Molteni, Simone Gori, Andrea Facoetti
Previous studies independently demonstrated impairments in rapid orienting/disengagement and zooming-out of spatial attention in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These attentional mechanisms, however, are not completely independent. Aiming at a more complete picture of spatial attention deficits in ASD, we examined the relationship between orienting and zooming in participants with ASD and typically developing peers. We modified a classical spatial cuing task, presenting two small or large cues in the two visual hemifields and subsequently cueing attention to one of them...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453244/white-matter-change-with-apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#8
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453081/sluggish-dorsally-driven-inhibition-of-return-during-orthographic-processing-in-adults-with-dyslexia
#9
S Franceschini, S Mascheretti, S Bertoni, V Trezzi, C Andreola, S Gori, A Facoetti
Dyslexia (D) is a neurodevelopmental reading disorder characterized by phonological and orthographic deficits. Before phonological decoding, reading requires a specialized orthographic system for parallel letter processing that assigns letter identities to different spatial locations. The magnocellular-dorsal (MD) stream rapidly process the spatial location of visual stimuli controlling visuo-spatial attention. To investigate the visuo-spatial attention efficiency during orthographic processing, inhibition of return (IOR) was measured in adults with and without D in a lexical decision task...
February 13, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452160/orchiectomy-and-letrozole-differentially-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-and-spatial-memory-in-a-manner-that-is-mediated-by-src-1-in-the-hippocampus-of-male-mice
#10
Jikai Zhao, Chen Bian, Mengying Liu, Yangang Zhao, Tao Sun, Fangzhou Xing, Jiqiang Zhang
Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is the basis of spatial memory and cognition and is strongly regulated by both testicular androgens (testosterone, T) and hippocampal estrogens (17β-estradiol, E2) converted from T by aromatase, which is inhibited by letrozole (LET), but the contribution of each pathway to spatial memory and the associated mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we first used orchiectomy (ORX) and LET injection to investigate the effects of T and hippocampal E2 on spatial memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449568/binge-alcohol-exposure-causes-neurobehavioral-deficits-and-gsk3%C3%AE-activation-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-rats
#11
Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke
Heavy alcohol exposure causes profound damage to the adolescent brain, particularly the hippocampus, which underlie some behavioral deficits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain inconclusive. The current study sought to determine whether binge alcohol exposure affects the hippocampus-related behaviors and key signaling proteins that may mediate alcohol neurotoxicity in adolescent rats. Alcohol exposure reduced the number of both NeuN-positive and doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampus...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442997/spatial-structure-of-disordered-proteins-dictates-conductance-and-selectivity-in-nuclear-pore-complex-mimics
#12
Adithya N Ananth, Ankur Mishra, Steffen Frey, Arvind Dwarkasing, Roderick Versloot, Erik van der Giessen, Dirk Görlich, Patrick Onck, Cees Dekker
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) lined with intrinsically disordered FG-domains act as selective gatekeepers for molecular transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. The underlying physical mechanism of the intriguing selectivity is still under debate. Here, we probe the transport of ions and transport receptors through biomimetic NPCs consisting of Nsp1 domains attached to the inner surface of solid-state nanopores. We examine both wildtype FG-domains and hydrophilic SG-mutants. FG-nanopores showed a clear selectivity as transport receptors can translocate across the pore whereas other proteins cannot...
February 14, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436701/-the-dysregulated-brain-consequences-of-spatial-and-temporal-brain-complexity-for-bipolar-disorder-pathophysiology-and-diagnosis
#13
B C M Haarman, H Burger, H A Drexhage, W A Nolen, R F Riemersma-Van der Lek
BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of several pathophysiological theories about bipolar disorder, it has so far been difficult to find diagnostic biomarkers and to develop new pharmacologic treatments based on the more novel theories. AIM: To reflect on the causes and consequences of problems that beset pathophysiological research into psychiatric disorders in general and bipolar disorder in particular. METHOD: In this essay we address the problems facing professionals engaged in research into bipolar disorder and we interpret these problem in the light of brain complexity...
2018: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436486/randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study-of-single-dose-guanfacine-in-unilateral-neglect-following-stroke
#14
Edwin S Dalmaijer, Korina M S Li, Nikos Gorgoraptis, Alexander P Leff, David L Cohen, Andrew D Parton, Masud Husain, Paresh A Malhotra
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral neglect is a poststroke disorder that impacts negatively on functional outcome and lacks established, effective treatment. This multicomponent syndrome is characterised by a directional bias of attention away from contralesional space, together with impairments in several cognitive domains, including sustained attention and spatial working memory. This study aimed to test the effects of guanfacine, a noradrenergic alpha-2A agonist, on ameliorating aspects of neglect...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433615/a-haplotype-of-the-dopamine-transporter-gene-modulates-regional-homogeneity-gray-matter-volume-and-visual-memory-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
C Y Shang, H Y Lin, W Y Tseng, S S Gau
BACKGROUND: The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and visual memory deficits have been consistently reported to be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to examine whether a DAT1 haplotype affected functional and structural brain alterations in children with ADHD and whether those alterations were associated with visual memory. METHOD: We recruited a total of 37 drug-naïve children with ADHD (17 with the DAT1 rs27048 (C)/rs429699 (T) haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype) and 37 typically developing children (17 with the CT haplotype and 20 without the CT haplotype)...
February 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432034/cognitive-functioning-in-chronic-post-stroke-aphasia
#16
José Fonseca, Ana Raposo, Isabel Pavão Martins
There is a minimal amount of knowledge regarding the cognitive abilities of people with aphasia. We evaluated the performance of individuals with chronic aphasia (AP) and control participants without aphasia (CP) with left hemisphere stroke in a battery of nonverbal cognitive tests and its relationship with aphasia severity, comprehension abilities, and speech fluency in a prospective cross-sectional study. Cognitive evaluation comprised 10 nonverbal tests. Scores were converted to age and education adjusted standard scores...
February 12, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430793/medial-habenula-cholinergic-signaling-regulates-cocaine-associated-relapse-like-behavior
#17
Alberto J López, Yousheng Jia, André O White, Janine L Kwapis, Monica Espinoza, Philip Hwang, Rianne Campbell, Yasaman Alaghband, Om Chitnis, Dina P Matheos, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Propensity to relapse, even following long periods of abstinence, is a key feature in substance use disorders. Relapse and relapse-like behaviors are known to be induced, in part, by re-exposure to drug-associated cues. Yet, while many critical nodes in the neural circuitry contributing to relapse have been identified and studied, a full description of the networks driving reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviors is lacking. One area that may provide further insight to the mechanisms of relapse is the habenula complex, an epithalamic region composed of lateral and medial (MHb) substructures, each with unique cell and target populations...
February 12, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426327/porphyromonas-gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide-induces-cognitive-dysfunction-mediated-by-neuronal-inflammation-via-activation-of-the-tlr4-signaling-pathway-in-c57bl-6-mice
#18
Jing Zhang, Chunbo Yu, Xuan Zhang, Huiwen Chen, Jiachen Dong, Weili Lu, Zhongchen Song, Wei Zhou
BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis-LPS) is one of the major pathogenic factors of chronic periodontitis (CP). Few reports on the correlation between P. gingivalis-LPS and cognitive function exist. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of P. gingivalis-LPS on cognitive function and the associated underlying mechanism in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS: The C57BL/6 mice were injected with P. gingivalis-LPS (5 mg kg-1) either with or without Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor (TAK-242, 5 mg kg-1)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423331/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-in-stem-cells-and-tissue-homeostasis
#19
Xin Xu, Liwei Zheng, Quan Yuan, Gehua Zhen, Janet L Crane, Xuedong Zhou, Xu Cao
TGF-β 1-3 are unique multi-functional growth factors that are only expressed in mammals, and mainly secreted and stored as a latent complex in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The biological functions of TGF-β in adults can only be delivered after ligand activation, mostly in response to environmental perturbations. Although involved in multiple biological and pathological processes of the human body, the exact roles of TGF-β in maintaining stem cells and tissue homeostasis have not been well-documented until recent advances, which delineate their functions in a given context...
2018: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421245/effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogue-exendin-4-on-cognitive-functions-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-possible-modulation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-brain-visfatin
#20
O M Abdelwahed, O M Tork, M M Gamal El Din, L Rashed, M Zickri
BACKGROUND: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most essential neurotrophic factors in the brain. BDNF is involved in learning, memory and locomotion suggesting it as a target in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated cognitive changes. Visfatin; an adipokine discovered to be expressed in the brain; was found to have multiple effects including its participation in keeping energy supply to the cell and is consequentially involved in cell survival. Its role in cognitive functions in T2DM was not studied before...
February 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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