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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528185/simvastatin-ameliorate-memory-deficits-and-inflammation-in-clinical-and-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-modulating-the-expression-of-mir-106b
#1
Wenzhong Huang, Zhenyu Li, Liandong Zhao, Wei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a neurodegenerative brain disorder is a devastating pathology leading to disastrous cognitive impairments and dementia, and several studies have shown that AD is closely related to the inflammation, so anti-inflammatory treatment may provide therapeutic benefits. In this study, the effect of simvastatin on inflammation was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were explored. METHODS: First, we tested the effect of simvastatin on AD in clinical research...
May 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526825/target-decoupling-in-coupled-systems-resistant-to-random-perturbation
#2
Sunkyu Yu, Xianji Piao, Namkyoo Park
To suppress unwanted crosstalks between nearby optical elements, the decoupling technique for integrated systems has been desired for the target control of light flows. Although cloaking methods have enabled complete decoupling of optical elements by manipulating electromagnetic waves microscopically, it is difficult to be applied rigorously to control each unit element in coupled systems due to severe restrictions on material parameters for cloaking. Here we develop the macroscopic approach to design crosstalk-free regions in coupled optical systems...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525627/geographic-patterns-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-children-of-nurses-health-study-ii-women
#3
Kate Hoffman, Marc G Weisskopf, Andrea L Roberts, Raanan Raz, Jaime E Hart, Kristen Lyall, Elin M Hoffman, Francine Laden, Verónica M Vieira
Data indicate that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalence may be increasing and varies geographically. We investigated associations between residential location and ASD in the children of Nurses' Health Study II women in order to generate hypotheses about social and environmental factors related to etiology or diagnosis. Analyses included 13,507 children born from 1989-1999 (486 with ASD). We explored relationships between ASD and residential location at both birth and age 6 years (i.e. closer to average diagnosis age)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524123/-a-clinical-and-neuropsychological-study-of-patients-before-and-after-resection-of-third-ventricle-colloid-cysts
#4
S B Buklina, A N Konovalov, D I Pitskhelauri, M A Shkarubo, A A Poddubskaya, M V Kolycheva
The literature lacks studies of cognitive impairments in large groups of patients after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. AIM: To evaluate cognitive impairments in patients before and after resection of third ventricle colloid cysts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a clinical and neuropsychological study of 52 patients with third ventricle colloid cysts using the Luria method (1962). Forty three patients were examined before and after cyst resection in the early postoperative period (three patients in this group were also examined in a long-term period of 3-7 months after surgery)...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523558/epigenome-editing-in-the-brain
#5
Pavel Bashtrykov, Albert Jeltsch
Epigenome editing aims for an introduction or removal of chromatin marks at a defined genomic region using artificial EpiEffectors resulting in a modulation of the activity of the targeted functional DNA elements. Rationally designed EpiEffectors consist of a targeting DNA-binding module (such as a zinc finger protein, TAL effector, or CRISPR/Cas complex) and usually, but not exclusively, a catalytic domain of a chromatin-modifying enzyme. Epigenome editing opens a completely new strategy for basic research of the central nervous system and causal treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases, because rewriting of epigenetic information can lead to the direct and durable control of the expression of disease-associated genes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523234/the-effect-of-comt-val158met-and-drd2-c957t-polymorphisms-on-executive-function-and-the-impact-of-early-life-stress
#6
Kristel Klaus, Kevin Butler, Simon J Durrant, Manir Ali, Chris F Inglehearn, Timothy L Hodgson, Humberto Gutierrez, Kyla Pennington
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has indicated that variation in genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) may influence cognitive function and that this may confer vulnerability to the development of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. However, increasing evidence suggests environmental factors such as early life stress may interact with genetic variants in affecting these cognitive outcomes. This study investigated the effect of COMT Val158Met and DRD2 C957T polymorphisms on executive function and the impact of early life stress in healthy adults...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#7
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522799/paramagnetic-resonance-in-spin-polarized-disordered-bose-einstein-condensates
#8
V M Kovalev, I G Savenko
We study the pseudo-spin density response of a disordered two-dimensional spin-polarized Bose gas to weak alternating magnetic field, assuming that one of the spin states of the doublet is macroscopically occupied and Bose-condensed while the occupation of the other state remains much smaller. We calculate spatial and temporal dispersions of spin susceptibility of the gas taking into account spin-flip processes due to the transverse-longitudinal splitting, considering microcavity exciton polaritons as a testbed...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521253/differences-in-cognitive-deficits-in-individuals-with-subthreshold-syndromes-with-and-without-family-history-of-bipolar-disorder
#9
Kangguang Lin, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Ting Li, Weicong Lu, Jiehua Kong, Guiyun Xu
Little is known about the development of cognitive deficits prior to the official onset of bipolar disorder (BP). The aim of this study was to investigate neurocognitive performance in two early stages of BP. This high-risk design study recruited a group of offspring of parents with BP (n = 58), aged 8-28 years. Based on the subthreshold syndromes, the "unaffected" offspring were further divided into high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages. For comparison, a group of individuals with subthreshold symptoms but without family history of psychiatric disorder (n = 17) and 48 healthy controls (HCs) were included...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520434/the-nature-of-electron-mobility-in-hybrid-perovskite-ch3nh3pbi3
#10
Jie Ma, Lin-Wang Wang
CH3NH3PbI3 is one of the most promising candidates for cheap and high-efficiency solar cells. One of its unique features is the long carrier diffusion length (> 100 μm), but its carrier mobility is rather modest. The nature of the mobility is unclear. Here, using non-adiabatic wave function dynamics simulations, we show that the random rotations of the CH3NH3 cations play an important role in the carrier mobility. Our previous work showed that the electron and hole wave functions were localized and spatially separated due to the random orientations of the CH3NH3 cations in the tetragonal phase...
May 18, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518111/using-enzyme-based-biosensors-to-measure-tonic-and-phasic-glutamate-in-alzheimer-s-mouse-models
#11
Holly C Hunsberger, Sharay E Setti, Ryan T Heslin, Jorge E Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Miranda N Reed
Neurotransmitter disruption is often a key component of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a role in the pathology underlying Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety. Traditionally, microdialysis has been the most common (lauded) technique to examine neurotransmitter changes that occur in these disorders. But because microdialysis has the ability to measure slow 1-20 minute changes across large areas of tissue, it has the disadvantage of invasiveness, potentially destroying intrinsic connections within the brain and a slow sampling capability...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517947/intolerance-of-uncertainty-predicts-increased-striatal-volume
#12
M Justin Kim, Jin Shin, James M Taylor, Alison M Mattek, Samantha J Chavez, Paul J Whalen
Oversensitivity to uncertain future threat is usefully conceptualized as intolerance of uncertainty (IU). Neuroimaging studies of IU to date have largely focused on its relationship with brain function, but few studies have documented the association between IU and the quantitative properties of brain structure. Here, we examined potential gray and white-matter brain structural correlates of IU from 61 healthy participants. Voxel-based morphometric analysis highlighted a robust positive correlation between IU and striatal volume, particularly the putamen...
May 18, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516196/coupling-dynamics-in-speech-gestures-amplitude-and-rate-influences
#13
Pascal H H M van Lieshout
Speech is a complex oral motor function that involves multiple articulators that need to be coordinated in space and time at relatively high movement speeds. How this is accomplished remains an important and largely unresolved empirical question. From a coordination dynamics perspective, coordination involves the assembly of coordinative units that are characterized by inherently stable coupling patterns that act as attractor states for task-specific actions. In the motor control literature, one particular model formulated by Haken et al...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514890/spatial-recognition-test-a-novel-cognition-task-for-assessing-topographical-memory-in-mice
#14
Enes Havolli, Mark Dw Hill, Annie Godley, Pascal Jd Goetghebeur
Dysfunction in topographical memory is a core feature of several neurological disorders. There is a large unmet medical need to address learning and memory deficits as a whole in central nervous system disease. There are considerable efforts to identify pro-cognitive compounds but current methods are either lengthy or labour intensive. Our test used a two chamber apparatus and is based on the preference of rodents to explore novel environments. It was used firstly to assess topographical memory in mice at different retention intervals (RI) and secondly to investigate the effect of three drugs reported to be beneficial for cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease, namely: donepezil, memantine and levetiracetam...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513186/initially-intact-neural-responses-to-pain-in-autism-are-diminished-during-sustained-pain
#15
Michelle D Failla, Estephan J Moana-Filho, Greg K Essick, Grace T Baranek, Baxter P Rogers, Carissa J Cascio
Pain assessments typically depend on self-report of the pain experience. Yet, in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, this can be an unreliable due to communication difficulties. Importantly, observations of behavioral hypo- and hyperresponsivity to pain suggest altered pain sensitivity in autism spectrum disorder. Neuroimaging may provide insight into mechanisms underlying pain behaviors. The neural pain signature reliably responds to painful stimulation and is modulated by other outside regions, affecting the pain experience...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510708/aberrant-white-matter-microstructure-in-children-and-adolescents-with-the-subtype-of-prader-willi-syndrome-at-high-risk-for-psychosis
#16
Akvile Lukoshe, Gerbrich E van den Bosch, Aad van der Lugt, Steven A Kushner, Anita C Hokken-Koelega, Tonya White
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurogenetic disorder caused by loss of the paternal 15q11.2-q13 locus, due to deletion (DEL), maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD), or imprinting center defects. Individuals with mUPD have up to 60% risk of developing psychosis in early adulthood. Given the increasing evidence for white matter abnormalities in psychotic disorders, we investigated white matter microstructure in children and adolescents with PWS, with a particular emphasis on the DEL and mUPD subtypes. Magnetic resonance diffusion weighted images were acquired in 35 directions at 3T and analyzed using fractional anisotropy (FA), mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, RD) values obtained by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) in 28 children and adolescents with PWS and 61 controls...
May 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508297/adaptation-to-stochastic-temporal-variations-in-intratumoral-blood-flow-the-warburg-effect-as-a-bet-hedging-strategy
#17
Curtis A Gravenmier, Miriam Siddique, Robert A Gatenby
While most cancers promote ingrowth of host blood vessels, the resulting vascular network usually fails to develop a mature organization, resulting in abnormal vascular dynamics with stochastic variations that include slowing, cessation, and even reversal of flow. Thus, substantial spatial and temporal variations in oxygen concentration are commonly observed in most cancers. Cancer cells, like all living systems, are subject to Darwinian dynamics such that their survival and proliferation are dependent on developing optimal phenotypic adaptations to local environmental conditions...
May 15, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505813/devil-s-staircase-continuum-in-the-chiral-clock-spin-glass-with-competing-ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic-and-left-right-chiral-interactions
#18
Tolga Çağlar, A Nihat Berker
The chiral clock spin-glass model with q=5 states, with both competing ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic and left-right chiral frustrations, is studied in d=3 spatial dimensions by renormalization-group theory. The global phase diagram is calculated in temperature, antiferromagnetic bond concentration p, random chirality strength, and right-chirality concentration c. The system has a ferromagnetic phase, a multitude of different chiral phases, a chiral spin-glass phase, and a critical (algebraically) ordered phase...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504953/adaptive-seizure-onset-detection-framework-using-a-hybrid-pca-csp-approach
#19
Sina Khanmohammadi, Chun-An Chou
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in the world. Prompt detection of seizure onset from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can improve the treatment of epileptic patients. This paper presents a new adaptive patientspecific seizure onset detection framework that dynamically selects a feature from enhanced EEG signals to discriminate seizures from normal brain activity. The proposed framework employs principle component analysis (PCA) and common spatial patterns (CSP) to enhance the EEG signals and uses the extracted discriminative feature as an input for adaptive distance-based change point detector to identify the seizure onsets...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503904/white-matter-compromise-in-autism-differentiating-motion-confounds-from-true-differences-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#20
Seraphina K Solders, Ruth A Carper, Ralph-Axel Müller
Common findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced fractional anisotropy (FA), and increased mean and radial diffusivity (MD, RD) of white matter tracts. However, findings may be confounded by head motion. We examined how group-level motion matching affects DTI comparisons between ASD and typically developing (TD) groups. We included 57 ASD and 50 TD participants, comparing three subsets at increasing levels of motion-matching stringency: full sample (FS); quality-controlled (QC); and quantitatively-matched (QM)...
May 15, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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