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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346865/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-executive-function-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-clinical-trial-approach
#1
Stephanie H Ameis, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger, Pushpal Desarkar, Irene Drmic, Donald J Mabbott, Meng-Chuan Lai, Paul E Croarkin, Peter Szatmari
OBJECTIVE: Executive function (EF) deficits in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are ubiquitous and understudied. Further, there are no effective, neuroscience-based treatments to address this impairing feature of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has demonstrated promise in addressing EF deficits in adult neuropsychiatric disorders. This article will outline the design of a novel randomized-controlled trial of bilateral, 20 Hz, rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for treatment of EF deficits in ASD that is currently ongoing...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346616/unilateral-amblyopia-affects-two-eyes-fellow-eye-deficits-in-amblyopia
#2
Kimberly Meier, Deborah Giaschi
Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346588/association-between-childhood-onset-epilepsy-and-amyloid-burden-5-decades-later
#3
Juho Joutsa, Juha O Rinne, Bruce Hermann, Mira Karrasch, Anu Anttinen, Shlomo Shinnar, Matti Sillanpää
Importance: The effect of childhood epilepsy on later-life cognitive and brain health is an unclear and little-explored issue. Objective: To determine whether adults with a history of childhood-onset epilepsy exhibit increased brain amyloid accumulation, possibly predisposing to accelerated cognitive impairment or even frank cognitive disorders in later life. Design, Setting, and Participants: Forty-one adults from a population-based cohort of individuals with childhood-onset epilepsy in southwestern Finland, together with 46 matched population-based controls, underwent amyloid ligand carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography after long-term prospective follow-up...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346043/structural-abnormalities-in-the-primary-somatosensory-cortex-and-a-normal-behavioral-profile-in-contactin-5-deficient-mice
#4
Kristel T E Kleijer, Denise van Nieuwenhuize, Henk A Spierenburg, Sara Gregorio-Jordan, Martien J H Kas, J Peter H Burbach
Contactin-5 (Cntn5) is an immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule that is exclusively expressed in the central nervous system. In view of its association with neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study focused on Cntn5-positive areas in the forebrain and aimed to explore the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of the Cntn5 null mutant (Cntn5(-/-)) mouse in relation to these areas and ASD symptomatology. A newly generated antibody enabled us to elaborately describe the spatial expression pattern of Cntn5 in P7 wild type (Cntn5(+/+)) mice...
March 27, 2017: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345210/geographic-disparities-in-availability-of-opioid-use-disorder-treatment-for-medicaid-enrollees
#5
Amanda J Abraham, Christina M Andrews, Marissa E Yingling, Jerry Shannon
OBJECTIVE: To examine county-level geographic variation in treatment admissions among opioid treatment programs (OTPs) that accept Medicaid in the continental United States. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data come from the 2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services. STUDY DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION: We used local measures of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) analysis to identify (1) clusters of counties with higher and lower than average rates of opioid use disorders and (2) clusters of counties with higher and lower than average treatment admissions among OTPs that accept Medicaid, adjusting for county population size...
March 27, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342971/a-novel-dual-glp-1-gip-receptor-agonist-alleviates-cognitive-decline-by-re-sensitizing-insulin-signaling-in-the-alzheimer-icv-stz-rat-model
#6
Lijuan Shi, Zhihua Zhang, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, accompanied by memory loss and cognitive impairments, and there is no effective treatment for it at present. Since type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has been identified as a risk factor for AD, the incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), promising antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have been tested in models of neurodegenerative disease including AD and achieved good results...
March 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342214/real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-in-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#7
Analucia A Alegria, Melanie Wulff, Helen Brinson, Gareth J Barker, Luke J Norman, Daniel Brandeis, Daniel Stahl, Anthony S David, Eric Taylor, Vincent Giampietro, Katya Rubia
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor self-control, underpinned by inferior fronto-striatal deficits. Real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF) allows participants to gain self-control over dysregulated brain regions. Despite evidence for beneficial effects of electrophysiological-NF on ADHD symptoms, no study has applied the spatially superior rtfMRI-NF neurotherapy to ADHD. A randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of rtfMRI-NF of right inferior prefrontal cortex (rIFG), a key region that is compromised in ADHD and upregulated with psychostimulants, on improvement of ADHD symptoms, cognition, and inhibitory fMRI activation...
March 25, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342013/the-evaluation-of-folic-acid-deficient-or-folic-acid-supplemented-diet-in-the-gestational-phase-of-female-rats-and-in-their-adult-offspring-subjected-to-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia
#8
L Canever, C S V Alves, G Mastella, L Damázio, J V Polla, S Citadin, L A De Luca, A S Barcellos, M L Garcez, J Quevedo, J Budni, A I Zugno
Although folic acid (FA) supplementation is known to influence numerous physiological functions, especially during pregnancy, little is known about its direct effects on the mothers' health. However, this vitamin is essential for the health of the mother and for the normal growth and development of the fetus. Thus, the aim of this study was (1) to evaluate the cognitive effects and biochemical markers produced by the AIN-93 diet (control), the AIN-93 diet supplemented with different doses of FA (5, 10, and 50 mg/kg), and a FA-deficient diet during pregnancy and lactation in female mother rats (dams) and (2) to evaluate the effect of maternal diets on inflammatory parameters in the adult offspring which were subjected to an animal model of schizophrenia (SZ) induced by ketamine (Ket)...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339260/dynamic-chiral-magnetic-effect-and-faraday-rotation-in-macroscopically-disordered-helical-metals
#9
J Ma, D A Pesin
We develop an effective medium theory for electromagnetic wave propagation through gapless nonuniform systems with a dynamic chiral magnetic effect. The theory allows us to calculate macroscopic-disorder-induced corrections to the values of optical, as well as chiral magnetic conductivities. In particular, we show that spatial fluctuations of the optical conductivity induce corrections to the effective value of the chiral magnetic conductivity. The absolute value of the effect varies strongly depending on the system parameters, but yields the leading frequency dependence of the polarization rotation and circular dichroism signals...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339248/anderson-transition-of-cold-atoms-with-synthetic-spin-orbit-coupling-in-two-dimensional-speckle-potentials
#10
Giuliano Orso
We investigate the metal-insulator transition occurring in two-dimensional (2D) systems of noninteracting atoms in the presence of artificial spin-orbit interactions and a spatially correlated disorder generated by laser speckles. Based on a high order discretization scheme, we calculate the precise position of the mobility edge and verify that the transition belongs to the symplectic universality class. We show that the mobility edge depends strongly on the mixing angle between Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339229/first-principles-based-method-for-electron-localization-application-to-monolayer-hexagonal-boron-nitride
#11
C E Ekuma, V Dobrosavljević, D Gunlycke
We present a first-principles-based many-body typical medium dynamical cluster approximation and density function theory method for characterizing electron localization in disordered structures. This method applied to monolayer hexagonal boron nitride shows that the presence of boron vacancies could turn this wide-gap insulator into a correlated metal. Depending on the strength of the electron interactions, these calculations suggest that conduction could be obtained at a boron vacancy concentration as low as 1...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336494/minocycline-reduces-inflammatory-parameters-in-the-brain-structures-and-serum-and-reverses-memory-impairment-caused-by-the-administration-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-in-mice
#12
Michelle Lima Garcez, Francielle Mina, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Franciellen Gonçalves Carneiro, Aline Pereira da Luz, Gustavo Luis Schiavo, Matheus Scopel Andrighetti, Maylton Grégori Scheid, Renan Pereira Bolfe, Josiane Budni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of age-related dementia. Cognitive decline, beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation are the main pathophysiological characteristics of AD. Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative with anti-inflammatory properties that has a neuroprotective effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of minocycline on memory, neurotrophins and neuroinflammation in an animal model of AD induced by the administration of Aβ (1-42) oligomer...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335857/modeling-syndromic-congenital-heart-defects-in-zebrafish
#13
Meagan G Grant, Victoria L Patterson, Daniel T Grimes, Rebecca D Burdine
Cardiac development is a dynamic process regulated by spatial and temporal cues that are integrated to effect molecular, cellular, and tissue-level events that form the adult heart. Disruption of these highly orchestrated events can be devastating for cardiac form and function. Aberrations in heart development result in congenital heart defects (CHDs), which affect 1 in 100 infants in the United States each year. Zebrafish have proven informative as a model organism to understand both heart development and the mechanisms associated with CHDs due to the similarities in heart morphogenesis among vertebrates, as well as their genetic tractability and amenability to live imaging...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331946/-technique-of-proton-and-phosphorous-mr-spectroscopy
#14
M Backens
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an important non-invasive method that can reveal the concentration and spatial distribution of particular biochemically relevant tissue metabolites. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Proton MRS is routinely applicable in the clinical setting providing good quality results even with a moderate magnetic field strength of 1.5 T. Relative values of metabolite concentrations are mostly used for the assessment of metabolic disorders...
March 22, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329842/magnetic-resonance-imaging-reveals-progressive-brain-injury-in-rats-acutely-intoxicated-with-diisopropylfluorophosphate
#15
Brad A Hobson, Sílvia Sisó, Douglas J Rowland, Danielle J Harvey, Donald A Bruun, Joel R Garbow, Pamela J Lein
Acute intoxication with organophosphates (OPs) can trigger seizures that progress to status epilepticus, and survivors often exhibit chronic neuropathology, cognitive impairment, affective disorders and/or electroencephalographic abnormalities. Understanding how acute injury transitions to persistent neurological sequelae is critical to developing medical countermeasures for mitigating damage following OP-induced seizures. Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor the spatiotemporal patterns of neuropathology for one month after acute intoxication with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)...
March 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322616/how-individuals-with-body-dysmorphic-disorder-bdd-process-their-own-face-a-quantitative-and-qualitative-investigation-based-on-an-eye-tracking-paradigm
#16
Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell
INTRODUCTION: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts occurring in response to preoccupations with perceived flaws in physical appearance. Based on an eye-tracking paradigm, this study aimed to examine how individuals with BDD processed their own face. METHODS: Participants were 21 BDD patients, 19 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and 21 healthy controls (HC), who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched. Stimuli were photographs of participants' own faces as well as those from the Pictures of Facial Affect battery...
March 21, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321608/an-evaluation-of-z-transform-algorithms-for-identifying-subject-specific-abnormalities-in-neuroimaging-data
#17
Andrew R Mayer, Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Christopher J Wertz, Nicholas A Shaff, Edward J Bedrick, Carlo Viamonte
The need for algorithms that capture subject-specific abnormalities (SSA) in neuroimaging data is increasingly recognized across many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effects of initial distributional properties (e.g., normal versus non-normally distributed data), sample size, and typical preprocessing steps (spatial normalization, blurring kernel and minimal cluster requirements) on SSA remain poorly understood. The current study evaluated the performance of several commonly used z-transform algorithms [leave-one-out (LOO); independent sample (IDS); Enhanced Z-score Microstructural Assessment of Pathology (EZ-MAP); distribution-corrected z-scores (DisCo-Z); and robust z-scores (ROB-Z)] for identifying SSA using simulated and diffusion tensor imaging data from healthy controls (N = 50)...
March 20, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316753/a-resting-eeg-study-of-neocortical-hyperexcitability-and-altered-functional-connectivity-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#18
Jun Wang, Lauren E Ethridge, Matthew W Mosconi, Stormi P White, Devin K Binder, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Matthew J Byerly, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Cortical hyperexcitability due to abnormal fast-spiking inhibitory interneuron function has been documented in fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of the fragile X syndrome which is the most common single gene cause of autism and intellectual disability. METHODS: We collected resting state dense-array electroencephalography data from 21 fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and 21 age-matched healthy participants. RESULTS: FXS patients exhibited greater gamma frequency band power, which was correlated with social and sensory processing difficulties...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316271/visuospatial-declarative-learning-despite-profound-verbal-declarative-amnesia-in-korsakoff-s-syndrome
#19
Erik Oudman, Albert Postma, Tanja C W Nijboer, Jan W Wijnia, Stefan Van der Stigchel
Korsakoff's syndrome (KS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by severe amnesia. Although the presence of impairments in memory has long been acknowledged, there is a lack of knowledge about the precise characteristics of declarative memory capacities in order to implement memory rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the extent to which patients diagnosed with KS have preserved declarative memory capacities in working memory, long-term memory encoding or long-term memory recall operations, and whether these capacities are most preserved for verbal or visuospatial content...
March 20, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316123/the-msc-adhesion-cascade-insights-into-homing-and-transendothelial-migration
#20
Franziska Nitzsche, Claudia Müller, Barbara Lukomska, Jukka Jolkkonen, Alexander Deten, Johannes Boltze
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are promising candidates for adult cell therapies in regenerative medicine. To fully exert their potential, efficient homing and migration towards lesion sites plays an important role. Local transplantation deposits MSC in spatial proximity to the lesion, but often requires invasive procedures. Systemic administration routes are favored, but require the targeted extravasation of the circulating MSC at the site of injury. Transplanted MSC can indeed leave the blood flow and transmigrate through the endothelial barrier, and reach the lesion site...
March 18, 2017: Stem Cells
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