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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430858/mapping-genes-for-calcium-signaling-and-their-associated-human-genetic-disorders
#1
Matthias Hörtenhuber, Enrique M Toledo, Erik Smedler, Ernest Arenas, Seth Malmersjö, Lauri Louhivuori, Per Uhlén
Motivation: Signal transduction via calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) represents a fundamental signaling pathway in all eukaryotic cells. A large portion of the human genome encodes proteins used to assemble signaling systems that can transduce signals with diverse spatial and temporal dynamics. Results: Here, we provide a map of all of the genes involved in Ca 2+ signaling and link these genes to human genetic disorders. Using Gene Ontology terms and genome databases, 1,805 genes were identified as regulators or targets of intracellular Ca 2+ signals...
April 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429801/the-dizzy-patient-don-t-forget-disorders-of-the-central-vestibular-system
#2
REVIEW
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429448/white-matter-microstructure-variations-contribute-to-neurological-soft-signs-in-healthy-adults
#3
Dusan Hirjak, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf, Katharina M Kubera, Caspar Goch, Jan Hering, Klaus H Maier-Hein
OBJECTIVE: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are core features of psychiatric disorders with significant neurodevelopmental origin. However, it is unclear whether NSS correlates are associated with neuropathological processes underlying the disease or if they are confounded by medication. Given that NSS are also present in healthy persons (HP), investigating HP could reveal NSS correlates, which are not biased by disease-specific processes or drug treatment. Therefore, we used a combination of diffusion MRI analysis tools to provide a framework of specific white matter (WM) microstructure variations underlying NSS in HP...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428624/attentional-selection-predicts-rapid-automatized-naming-ability-in-chinese-speaking-children-with-adhd
#4
Encong Wang, Meirong Sun, Ye Tao, Xiaoyi Gao, Jialiang Guo, Chenguang Zhao, Hui Li, Qiujin Qian, Zhanliang Wu, Yufeng Wang, Li Sun, Yan Song
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reported to have a significantly higher risk of showing reading difficulties or disorders. Here, we aimed to identify the relationship between electroencephalographic (EEG) marker of spatial attention and reading ability in Chinese children with ADHD. First, we demonstrated that rapid automatized naming (RAN) is a strong predictor of reading ability in Chinese-speaking children. Then, EEG data of 9-to 15-year-old children with ADHD (n = 38) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 36) were collected while the children performed a classical visual search task...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424512/human-umbilical-cord-plasma-proteins-revitalize-hippocampal-function-in-aged-mice
#5
Joseph M Castellano, Kira I Mosher, Rachelle J Abbey, Alisha A McBride, Michelle L James, Daniela Berdnik, Jadon C Shen, Bende Zou, Xinmin S Xie, Martha Tingle, Izumi V Hinkson, Martin S Angst, Tony Wyss-Coray
Ageing drives changes in neuronal and cognitive function, the decline of which is a major feature of many neurological disorders. The hippocampus, a brain region subserving roles of spatial and episodic memory and learning, is sensitive to the detrimental effects of ageing at morphological and molecular levels. With advancing age, synapses in various hippocampal subfields exhibit impaired long-term potentiation, an electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory. At the molecular level, immediate early genes are among the synaptic plasticity genes that are both induced by long-term potentiation and downregulated in the aged brain...
April 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421673/endothelial-erbb4-deficit-induces-alterations-in-exploratory-behavior-and-brain-energy-metabolism-in-mice
#6
Gang Wu, Xiu-Xiu Liu, Nan-Nan Lu, Qi-Bing Liu, Yun Tian, Wei-Feng Ye, Guo-Jun Jiang, Rong-Rong Tao, Feng Han, Ying-Mei Lu
AIMS: The receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 is present throughout the primate brain and has a distinct functional profile. In this study, we investigate the potential role of endothelial ErbB4 receptor signaling in the brain. RESULTS: Here, we show that the endothelial cell-specific deletion of ErbB4 induces decreased exploratory behavior in adult mice. However, the water maze task for spatial memory and the memory reconsolidation test reveal no changes; additionally, we observe no impairment in CaMKII phosphorylation in Cdh5Cre;ErbB4(f/f) mice, which indicates that the endothelial ErbB4 deficit leads to decreased exploratory activity rather than direct memory deficits...
April 18, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420888/global-gene-expression-profiling-of-healthy-human-brain-and-its-application-in-studying-neurological-disorders
#7
Simarjeet K Negi, Chittibabu Guda
Brain function is governed by precise regulation of gene expression across its anatomically distinct structures; however, the expression patterns of genes across hundreds of brain structures are not clearly understood. Here, we describe a gene expression model, which is representative of the healthy human brain transcriptome by using data from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our in-depth gene expression profiling revealed that 84% of genes are expressed in at least one of the 190 brain structures studied. Hierarchical clustering based on gene expression profiles delineated brain regions into structurally tiered spatial groups and we observed striking enrichment for region-specific processes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419682/game-theoretical-mapping-of-causal-interactions-underlying-visuo-spatial-attention-in-the-human-brain-based-on-stroke-lesions
#8
Monica N Toba, Melissa Zavaglia, Federica Rastelli, Romain Valabrégue, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Claus C Hilgetag
Anatomical studies conducted in neurological conditions have developed our understanding of the causal relationships between brain lesions and their clinical consequences. The analysis of lesion patterns extended across brain networks has been particularly useful in offering new insights on brain-behavior relationships. Here we applied multiperturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), a multivariate method based on coalitional game theory inferring causal regional contributions to specific behavioral outcomes from the characteristic functional deficits after stroke lesions...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418197/body-mass-index-associates-with-white-matter-microstructure-in-bipolar-depression
#9
Elena Mazza, Sara Poletti, Irene Bollettini, Clara Locatelli, Andrea Falini, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
OBJECTIVES: Obesity has been reported in over 60% of bipolar disorder (BD) patients. It worsens the severity of illness, and influences cognition and functional outcomes. White matter (WM) abnormalities are one of the most consistently reported findings in neuroimaging studies of BD. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) could correlate with WM integrity in bipolar patients. METHODS: We evaluated BMI in a sample of 164 depressed patients affected by BD. We performed whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics with threshold-free cluster enhancement for the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of WM integrity: fractional anisotropy; axial, radial, and mean diffusivity...
April 18, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415336/arrays-of-two-state-stochastic-oscillators-roles-of-tail-and-range-of-interactions
#10
Alexandre Rosas, Daniel Escaff, Italo'Ivo Lima Dias Pinto, Katja Lindenberg
We study the role of the tail and the range of interaction in a spatially structured population of two-state on-off units governed by Markovian transition rates. The coupling among the oscillators is evidenced by the dependence of the transition rates of each unit on the states of the units to which it is coupled. Tuning the tail or range of the interactions, we observe a transition from an ordered global state (long-range interactions) to a disordered one (short-range interactions). Depending on the interaction kernel, the transition may be smooth (second order) or abrupt (first order)...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415333/melting-of-a-nonequilibrium-vortex-crystal-in-a-fluid-film-with-polymers-elastic-versus-fluid-turbulence
#11
Anupam Gupta, Rahul Pandit
We perform a direct numerical simulation of the forced, incompressible two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation coupled with the FENE-P equations for the polymer-conformation tensor. The forcing is such that, without polymers and at low Reynolds numbers Re, the film attains a steady state that is a square lattice of vortices and antivortices. We find that, as we increase the Weissenberg number Wi, a sequence of nonequilibrium phase transitions transforms this lattice, first to spatially distorted, but temporally steady, crystals and then to a sequence of crystals that oscillate in time, periodically, at low Wi, and quasiperiodically, for slightly larger Wi...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415273/theory-of-deflagration-in-disordered-media
#12
Mauro Schiulaz, Christopher R Laumann, Alexander V Balatsky, Boris Z Spivak
The conventional theory of burning works well in the case of uniform media where all system parameters are spatially independent. We develop a theory of burning in disordered media. In this case, rare regions (hot spots) where the burning process is more effective than on average may control the heat propagation in an explosive sample. We show that most predictions of the theory of burning are quite different from the conventional case. In particular, we show that a system of randomly distributed hot spots exhibits a dynamic phase transition, which is similar to the percolation transition...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415230/scale-invariant-puddles-in-graphene-geometric-properties-of-electron-hole-distribution-at-the-dirac-point
#13
M N Najafi, M Ghasemi Nezhadhaghighi
We characterize the carrier density profile of the ground state of graphene in the presence of particle-particle interaction and random charged impurity in zero gate voltage. We provide detailed analysis on the resulting spatially inhomogeneous electron gas, taking into account the particle-particle interaction and the remote Coulomb disorder on an equal footing within the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac theory. We present some general features of the carrier density probability measure of the graphene sheet. We also show that, when viewed as a random surface, the electron-hole puddles at zero chemical potential show peculiar self-similar statistical properties...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414249/psychological-distress-is-associated-with-altered-cognitive-functioning-in-family-caregivers-of-patients-with-disorders-of-consciousness
#14
P Moretta, O Masotta, E Crispino, G Castronovo, S Ruvolo, C Montalbano, V Loreto, L Trojano, A Estraneo
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the possible presence of reduced cognitive efficiency in family caregivers of patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOC). SUBJECTS: The participants were 27 caregivers of 25 patients with DOC admitted to the severe brain injury units of the ICS Maugeri, Institutes of Telese Terme and Sciacca, Italy. METHODS: We examined cognitive functions such as short- and long-term memory, executive functions and attention by means of standardized tests...
April 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413697/acute-ethanol-exposure-during-late-mouse-neurodevelopment-results-in-long-term-deficits-in-memory-retrieval-but-not-in-social-responsiveness
#15
Katherine Houlé, Myshake Abdi, Erin B D Clabough
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in neurological changes in affected individuals and may result in the emergence of a broad spectrum of neurobehavioral abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The effects of ethanol exposure during development are both time and dose dependent. Although many animal models of FASD use more chronic ethanol exposure, acute developmental alcohol exposure may also cause long-lasting neuronal changes. Our research employed behavioral measures to assess the effects of a single early postnatal ethanol intoxication event in mice...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411620/ordering-of-anisotropic-nanoparticles-in-diblock-copolymer-lamellae-simulations-with-dissipative-particle-dynamics-and-a-molecular-theory
#16
Anatoly V Berezkin, Yaroslav V Kudryavtsev, Maxim V Gorkunov, Mikhail A Osipov
Local distribution and orientation of anisotropic nanoparticles in microphase-separated symmetric diblock copolymers has been simulated using dissipative particle dynamics and analyzed with a molecular theory. It has been demonstrated that nanoparticles are characterized by a non-trivial orientational ordering in the lamellar phase due to their anisotropic interactions with isotropic monomer units. In the simulations, the maximum concentration and degree of ordering are attained for non-selective nanorods near the domain boundary...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411272/disconnection-of-the-perirhinal-and-postrhinal-cortices-impairs-recognition-of-objects-in-context-but-not-contextual-fear-conditioning
#17
Victoria R Heimer-McGinn, D L Poeta, K Aghi, M Udawatta, R D Burwell
The perirhinal cortex (PER) is known to process object information, whereas the rodent postrhinal cortex (POR), homolog to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) in primates, is thought to process spatial information. A number of studies, however, provide evidence that both areas are involved in processing contextual information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the rat POR relies on object information received from the PER to form complex representations of context. Using three fear conditioning paradigms (signaled, unsignaled, and renewal) and two context-guided object recognition tasks (with 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional objects), we examined the effects of crossed excitotoxic lesions to the POR and the contralateral PER...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409730/chronic-multisite-brain-recordings-from-a-totally-implantable-bidirectional-neural-interface-experience-in-5-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Nicole C Swann, Coralie de Hemptinne, Svjetlana Miocinovic, Salman Qasim, Jill L Ostrem, Nicholas B Galifianakis, Marta San Luciano, Sarah S Wang, Nathan Ziman, Robin Taylor, Philip A Starr
OBJECTIVE Dysfunction of distributed neural networks underlies many brain disorders. The development of neuromodulation therapies depends on a better understanding of these networks. Invasive human brain recordings have a favorable temporal and spatial resolution for the analysis of network phenomena but have generally been limited to acute intraoperative recording or short-term recording through temporarily externalized leads. Here, the authors describe their initial experience with an investigational, first-generation, totally implantable, bidirectional neural interface that allows both continuous therapeutic stimulation and recording of field potentials at multiple sites in a neural network...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406663/neuropsychological-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-deficits-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Simona Raimo, Luigi Trojano, Simona Pappacena, Raffaella Alaia, Daniele Spitaleri, Dario Grossi, Gabriella Santangelo
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand and interpret another person's beliefs, intentions (cognitive ToM) and emotions (affective ToM). OBJECTIVE: To explore affective and cognitive ToM and their neuropsychological correlates in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty MS patients and 40 matched control individuals underwent tasks assessing cognitive (the ToM Pictures Sequencing Task and the Advanced Test of ToM) and affective ToM (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task and the Emotion Attribution Task), in both verbal and nonverbal modality, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and questionnaires for behavioral disorders...
April 13, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405183/abnormal-size-dependent-modulation-of-motion-perception-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#20
Olga V Sysoeva, Ilia A Galuta, Maria S Davletshina, Elena V Orekhova, Tatiana A Stroganova
Excitation/Inhibition (E/I) imbalance in neural networks is now considered among the core neural underpinnings of autism psychopathology. In motion perception at least two phenomena critically depend on E/I balance in visual cortex: spatial suppression (SS), and spatial facilitation (SF) corresponding to impoverished or improved motion perception with increasing stimuli size, respectively. While SS is dominant at high contrast, SF is evident for low contrast stimuli, due to the prevalence of inhibitory contextual modulations in the former, and excitatory ones in the latter case...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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