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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823023/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-and-white-matter-abnormalities-among-combat-exposed-veterans
#1
Kirstin Aschbacher, Synthia H Mellon, Owen M Wolkowitz, Clare Henn-Haase, Rachel Yehuda, Janine D Flory, Linda M Bierer, Duna Abu-Amara, Charles R Marmar, Susanne G Mueller
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with abnormalities in functional connectivity of a specific cortico-limbic network; however, less is known about white matter abnormalities providing structural connections for this network. This study investigated whether the diagnosis and symptoms of PTSD are associated with alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA), an index reflecting white matter organization, across six, a priori-defined tracts. White matter FA was quantified by diffusion tensor imaging using 3 T-MRI among 57 male, combat-exposed veterans with no history of moderate to severe head injuries or current alcohol dependence: 31 met criteria for PTSD and 26 were demographically comparable, combat-exposed controls without PTSD...
August 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819795/leptin-regulation-of-synaptic-function-at-hippocampal-ta-ca1-and-sc-ca1-synapses-implications-for-health-and-disease
#2
Gemma McGregor, Jenni Harvey
Growing evidence indicates that the endocrine hormone leptin regulates hippocampal synaptic function in addition to its established role as a hypothalamic satiety signal. Indeed, numerous studies show that leptin facilitates the cellular events that underlie hippocampal learning and memory including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking, indicating that leptin may be a potential cognitive enhancer. Although there has been extensive investigation into the modulatory role of leptin at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses, recent evidence indicates that leptin also potently regulates excitatory synaptic transmission at the anatomically distinct temporoammonic (TA) input to hippocampal CA1 neurons...
August 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819243/temporal-profiling-of-depression-vulnerability-in-a-preclinical-model-of-sustained-depression
#3
D Riga, L J M Schmitz, W J G Hoogendijk, A B Smit, S Spijker
Major Depression is a prevalent mental disorder that is characterized by negative mood and reduced motivation, and frequently results in social withdrawal and memory-related deficits. Repeated stressors, such as adverse life events, increase the risk for development of the disorder. Consequently, individual variability in stress response greatly weighs on depression-vulnerability and -resilience. Here, we employed the social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS) paradigm to identify depression-prone individuals and to examine the temporal development of depression in the months following exposure to brief defeat stress...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819155/context-conditioning-in-humans-using-commercially-available-immersive-virtual-reality
#4
Marijn C W Kroes, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Wayne E Mackey, Mason McClay, Elizabeth A Phelps
Despite a wealth of knowledge on how humans and nonhuman animals learn to associate meaningful events with cues in the environment, far less is known about how humans learn to associate these events with the environment itself. Progress on understanding spatiotemporal contextual processes in humans has been slow in large measure by the methodological constraint of generating and manipulating immersive spatial environments in well-controlled laboratory settings. Fortunately, immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) technology has improved appreciably and affords a relatively straightforward methodology to investigate the role of context on learning, memory, and emotion while maintaining experimental control...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817804/structural-mechanism-for-modulation-of-synaptic-neuroligin-neurexin-signaling-by-mdga-proteins
#5
Jonathan Elegheert, Vedrana Cvetkovska, Amber J Clayton, Christina Heroven, Kristel M Vennekens, Samuel N Smukowski, Michael C Regan, Wanyi Jia, Alexandra C Smith, Hiro Furukawa, Jeffrey N Savas, Joris de Wit, Jo Begbie, Ann Marie Craig, A Radu Aricescu
Neuroligin-neurexin (NL-NRX) complexes are fundamental synaptic organizers in the central nervous system. An accurate spatial and temporal control of NL-NRX signaling is crucial to balance excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and perturbations are linked with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. MDGA proteins bind NLs and control their function and interaction with NRXs via unknown mechanisms. Here, we report crystal structures of MDGA1, the NL1-MDGA1 complex, and a spliced NL1 isoform. Two large, multi-domain MDGA molecules fold into rigid triangular structures, cradling a dimeric NL to prevent NRX binding...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815874/white-matter-alterations-associate-with-onset-symptom-dimension-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Irene Bollettini, Mario Gennaro Mazza, Laura Muzzarelli, Sara Dallaspezia, Sara Poletti, Benedetta Vai, Enrico Smeraldi, Francesco Benedetti
AIM: The high heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder is best described by a multidimensional model involving symptom dimensions. Our study aimed at investigating white matter alterations associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder focusing on the impact of long lasting effect of symptom dimensions assessed at onset of the illness. Furthermore, we investigate white matter alterations associated with this disorder controlling for the impact of medications and for the prevailing current symptom dimension...
August 16, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813960/towards-free-3d-end-point-control-for-robotic-assisted-human-reaching-using-binocular-eye-tracking
#7
Roni O Maimon-Dror, Jorge Fernandez-Quesada, Giuseppe A Zito, Charalambos Konnaris, Sabine Dziemian, A Aldo Faisal
Eye-movements are the only directly observable behavioural signals that are highly correlated with actions at the task level, and proactive of body movements and thus reflect action intentions. Moreover, eye movements are preserved in many movement disorders leading to paralysis (or amputees) from stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy among others. Despite this benefit, eye tracking is not widely used as control interface for robotic interfaces in movement impaired patients due to poor human-robot interfaces...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813944/robotic-set-up-to-quantify-hand-eye-behavior-in-motor-execution-and-learning-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Claudia Casellato, Marta Gandolla, Alessandro Crippa, Alessandra Pedrocchi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistence of social and communication impairment, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, motor disorders have also been described, but not objectively assessed. Most studies showed inefficient eye-hand coordination and motor learning in children with ASD; in other experiments, mechanisms of acquisition of internal models in self-generated movements appeared to be normal in autism. In this framework, we have developed a robotic protocol, recording gaze and hand data during upper limb tasks, in which a haptic pen-like handle is moved along specific trajectories displayed on the screen...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813460/mechanisms-for-pattern-specificity-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Osvaldo Matías Velarde, Germán Mato, Damián Dellavale
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely used technique for treating advanced stages of neurological and psychiatric illness. In the case of motor disorders related to basal ganglia (BG) dysfunction, several mechanisms of action for the DBS therapy have been identified which might be involved simultaneously or in sequence. However, the identification of a common key mechanism underlying the clinical relevant DBS configurations has remained elusive due to the inherent complexity related to the interaction between the electrical stimulation and the neural tissue, and the intricate circuital structure of the BG-thalamocortical network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812474/protective-effect-of-raisin-currant-against-spatial-memory-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-in-alzheimer-disease-model
#10
Mohammad Gol, Davoud Ghorbanian, Nabiollah Soltanpour, Jamshid Faraji, Mohsen Pourghasem
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive pathological changes of the brain. A number of studies demonstrated compelling evidence of the importance of oxidative processes in AD pathogenesis. Raisin contains polyphenol, phenolic acid, and tannin compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of raisin on neurobehavioral and histological changes in rats with Alzheimer...
August 16, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811624/pupil-size-tracks-attentional-performance-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
G Wainstein, D Rojas-Líbano, N A Crossley, X Carrasco, F Aboitiz, T Ossandón
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811112/exogenous-testosterone-affects-early-threat-processing-in-socially-anxious-and-healthy-women
#12
Jacobien M van Peer, Dorien Enter, Henk van Steenbergen, Philip Spinhoven, Karin Roelofs
Testosterone plays an important role in social threat processing. Recent evidence suggests that testosterone administration has socially anxiolytic effects, but it remains unknown whether this involves early vigilance or later, more sustained, processing-stages. We investigated the acute effects of testosterone administration on social threat processing in 19 female patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and 19 healthy controls. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an emotional Stroop task with subliminally presented faces...
August 12, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808329/resonance-optimization-of-polychromatic-light-in-disordered-structures
#13
Hongwei Yin, Adenowo Gbadebo, Elena G Turitsyna, Sergei K Turitsyn
Disorder offers rich possibilities for manipulating the phase and intensity of light and designing photonic devices for various applications including random lasers, light storage, and speckle-free imaging. Disorder-based optical systems can be implemented in one-dimensional structures based on random or pseudo-random alternating layers with different refractive indices. Such structures can be treated as sequences of scatterers, in which spatial light localization is characterized by random sets of spectral transmission resonances, each accompanied by a relatively high-intensity concentration...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806915/evaluating-the-maintenance-of-disease-associated-variation-at-the-blood-group-related-gene-b4galnt2-in-house-mice
#14
Marie Vallier, Maria Abou Chakra, Laura Hindersin, Miriam Linnenbrink, Arne Traulsen, John F Baines
BACKGROUND: B4galnt2 is a blood group-related glycosyltransferase that displays cis-regulatory variation for its tissue-specific expression patterns in house mice. The wild type allele, found e.g. in the C57BL/6 J strain, directs intestinal expression of B4galnt2, which is the pattern observed among vertebrates, including humans. An alternative allele class found in the RIIIS/J strain and other mice instead drives expression in blood vessels, which leads to a phenotype similar to type 1 von Willebrand disease (VWD), a common human bleeding disorder...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806053/de-blurring-signal-network-dynamics
#15
Dominic Kamps, Leif Dehmelt
To orchestrate the function and development of multicellular organisms, cells integrate intra- and extracellular information. This information is processed via signal networks in space and time, steering dynamic changes in cellular structure and function. Defects in those signal networks can lead to developmental disorders or cancer. However, experimental analysis of signal networks is challenging as their state changes dynamically and differs between individual cells. Thus, causal relationships between network components are blurred if lysates from large cell populations are analyzed...
August 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800085/recent-progress-of-development-of-optogenetic-implantable-neural-probes
#16
REVIEW
Hubin Zhao
As a cell type-specific neuromodulation method, optogenetic technique holds remarkable potential for the realisation of advanced neuroprostheses. By genetically expressing light-sensitive proteins such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in cell membranes, targeted neurons could be controlled by light. This new neuromodulation technique could then be applied into extensive brain networks and be utilised to provide effective therapies for neurological disorders. However, the development of novel optogenetic implants is still a key challenge in the field...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796415/white-matter-tract-integrity-is-associated-with-antidepressant-response-to-lurasidone-in-bipolar-depression
#17
Martin J Lan, Harry Rubin-Falcone, Fatima Motiwala, Ying Chen, Jonathan W Stewart, David J Hellerstein, J John Mann, Patrick J McGrath
OBJECTIVES: Patients with bipolar disorder spend the most time in the depressed phase, and that phase is associated with the most morbidity and mortality. Treatment of bipolar depression lacks a test to determine who will respond to treatment. White matter disruptions have been found in bipolar disorder. Previous reports suggest that white matter disruptions may be associated with resistance to antidepressant medication, but this has never been investigated in a prospective study using a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication...
August 10, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795752/coordination-change-lability-and-hemilability-in-metal-organic-frameworks
#18
REVIEW
Russell E Morris, Lee Brammer
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are some of the most exciting materials in current science. Their utility and diversity of applications depends on a combination of their chemistry, their framework topology and the spatial dimensions of their pores. In this review we concentrate on the chemistry of MOFs. Specifically we bring together many aspects of MOFs that underpin their stability, reactivity and dynamic behaviour within a common theme related to (changes in) metal-ligand bonding. In each area we provide examples to illustrate the behaviour and discuss it in the context of metal lability and coordination changes...
August 10, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795229/spatial-characteristics-of-jaw-movements-during-chewing-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-pilot-study
#19
Ignatius S B Nip, Erin M Wilson, Lucia Kearney
This study compared jaw motion between children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their typically-developing (TD) peers during chewing. The jaw movements of 11 children with spastic CP (GMFCS levels II-V) all of whom were exclusively oral feeders with no reported clinical issues with feeding [mean age = 7.49 (2.30) years; 7 males, 4 females] and 11 age- and sex-matched TD peers [mean age = 7.54 (2.35) years] were recorded using optical motion capture. Participants chewed five trials of three different consistencies, including puree, mechanical soft, and solid...
August 9, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794130/mutations-in-scaper-cause-autosomal-recessive-retinitis-pigmentosa-with-intellectual-disability
#20
Yasmin Tatour, Iker Sanchez-Navarro, Elana Chervinsky, Hakon Hakonarson, Haithum Gawi, Saoud Tahsin-Swafiri, Rina Leibu, Maria Isabel Lopez-Molina, Guillermo Fernandez-Sanz, Carmen Ayuso, Tamar Ben-Yosef
BACKGROUND: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common form of inherited retinal dystrophy, with a worldwide prevalence of 1 in 4000 persons. While in most cases of RP, the disease is limited to the eye (non-syndromic), over 40 forms of syndromic RP have been described. OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic basis for syndromic RP in three unrelated families from Israel and Spain. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was conducted in one Israeli and two Spanish families segregating autosomal recessive RP with intellectual disability...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
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