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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922849/medullary-serotonin-neuron-abnormalities-in-an-australian-cohort-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome
#1
Fiona M Bright, Roger W Byard, Robert Vink, David S Paterson
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurons in the medulla oblongata project extensively to key autonomic and respiratory nuclei in the brainstem and spinal cord regulating critical homeostatic functions. Multiple abnormalities in markers of 5-HT function in the medulla in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have been reported, informing the hypothesis that at least a subset of SIDS cases is caused by deficits in 5-HT function resulting in impaired homeostatic responses to potentially life-threatening events during sleep...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922847/germline-msh6-mutation-in-a-patient-with-two-independent-primary-glioblastomas
#2
Linda M Forsström, Koichiro Sumi, Markus J Mäkinen, Ji Eun Oh, Riitta Herva, Paul Kleihues, Hiroko Ohgaki, Lauri A Aaltonen
We previously reported a patient who had developed 2 glioblastomas at the age of 54 and 64 years, respectively. The first glioblastoma in the right frontal lobe was treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Ten years later, the patient developed a second, left frontal glioblastoma. Discordant patterns of TP53 and PTEN mutations suggested that the second tumor was not a recurrence but an independently developed glioblastoma. To determine the molecular mechanism underlying this enigmatic case with 10-year survival, we performed whole-exome sequencing...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922794/genome-wide-variation-patterns-uncover-the-origin-and-selection-in-cultivated-ginseng-panax-ginseng-meyer
#3
Ming-Rui Li, Feng-Xue Shi, Ya-Ling Li, Peng Jiang, Lili Jiao, Bao Liu, Lin-Feng Li
Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a medicinally important herb and plays crucial roles in traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological analyses identified diverse bioactive components from Chinese ginseng. However, basic biological attributes including domestication and selection of the ginseng plant remain under-investigated. Here, we presented a genome-wide view of the domestication and selection of cultivated ginseng based on the whole genome data. A total of 8,660 protein-coding genes were selected for genome-wide scanning of the 30 wild and cultivated ginseng accessions...
September 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922659/serum-matrix-metalloproteinase-7-level-is-associated-with-fibrosis-and-renal-survival-in-patients-with-iga-nephropathy
#4
Jian Zhang, Pingping Ren, Yucheng Wang, Shi Feng, Cuili Wang, Xiujin Shen, Chunhua Weng, Xiaobing Lang, Zhiming Chen, Hong Jiang, Jianghua Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In view of the latest findings that matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) acted as a vital marker and pathogenic mediator of renal fibrosis in a murine model, we hypothesized that serum MMP-7 level might serve as a noninvasive prognostic biomarker in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective follow-up study of 244 IgAN patients for a median of 81.9 months. Serum MMP-7 was detected at the time of diagnosis, and renal progression was assessed by Cox proportional hazards method...
September 18, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922512/interaction-of-spatial-and-non-spatial-cues-in-auditory-stream-segregation-in-the-european-starling
#5
Naoya Itatani, Georg M Klump
Integrating sounds from the same source and segregating sounds from different sources in an acoustic scene is an essential function of the auditory system. Naturally, the auditory system simultaneously makes use of multiple cues. Here, we investigate the interaction between spatial cues and frequency cues in stream segregation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) using an objective measure of perception. Neural responses to streaming sounds were recorded while the bird was performing a behavioral task that results in a higher sensitivity during a one-stream than a two-stream percept...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922497/mutual-independence-of-alkaline-and-calcium-mediated-signalling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-refutes-the-existence-of-a-conserved-druggable-signalling-nexus
#6
Omar Loss, Margherita Bertuzzi, Yu Yan, Natalie Fedorova, Bethany L McCann, Darius Armstrong-James, Eduardo A Espeso, Nick D Read, William C Nierman, Elaine M Bignell
Functional coupling of calcium- and alkaline responsive signalling occurs in multiple fungi to afford efficient cation homeostasis. Host microenvironments exert alkaline stress and potentially toxic concentrations of Ca(2+) , such that highly conserved regulators of both calcium- (Crz) and pH- (PacC/Rim) responsive signalling are crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Drugs targeting calcineurin are potent antifungal agents but also perturb human immunity thereby negating their use as anti-infectives, abrogation of alkaline signalling has therefore been postulated as an adjunctive antifungal strategy...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922394/sequence-features-of-viral-and-human-internal-ribosome-entry-sites-predictive-of-their-activity
#7
Alexey A Gritsenko, Shira Weingarten-Gabbay, Shani Elias-Kirma, Ronit Nir, Dick de Ridder, Eran Segal
Translation of mRNAs through Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESs) has emerged as a prominent mechanism of cellular and viral initiation. It supports cap-independent translation of select cellular genes under normal conditions, and in conditions when cap-dependent translation is inhibited. IRES structure and sequence are believed to be involved in this process. However due to the small number of IRESs known, there have been no systematic investigations of the determinants of IRES activity. With the recent discovery of thousands of novel IRESs in human and viruses, the next challenge is to decipher the sequence determinants of IRES activity...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922311/motor-imagery-training-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Zaqueline Fernandes Guerra, Alessandra L G Lucchetti, Giancarlo Lucchetti
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A number of studies have suggested that imagery training (motor imagery [MI]) has value for improving motor function in persons with neurologic conditions. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the available literature related to efficacy of MI in the recovery of individuals after stroke. METHODS: We searched the following databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently selected clinical trials that investigated the effect of MI on outcomes commonly investigated in studies of stroke recovery...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922177/project-career-an-individualized-postsecondary-approach-to-promoting-independence-functioning-and-employment-success-among-students-with-traumatic-brain-injuries
#9
Deborah Minton, Eileen Elias, Phillip Rumrill, Deborah J Hendricks, Karen Jacobs, Anne Leopold, Amanda Nardone, Elaine Sampson, Marcia Scherer, Aundrea Gee Cormier, Aiyana Taylor, Caitlin DeLatte
BACKGROUND: Project Career is a five-year interdisciplinary demonstration project funded by NIDILRR. It provides technology-driven supports, merging Cognitive Support Technology (CST) evidence-based practices and rehabilitation counseling, to improve postsecondary and employment outcomes for veteran and civilian undergraduate students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). GOAL: Provide a technology-driven individualized support program to improve career and employment outcomes for students with TBI...
September 14, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922154/atrial-fibrillation-is-independently-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-after-ischemic-stroke
#10
Russell Jude Chander, Levinia Lim, Sagarika Handa, Shaun Hiu, Angeline Choong, Xuling Lin, Rajinder Singh, Daniel Oh, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: While atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important risk factor for ischemic strokes and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Alzheimer's disease, the association between AF and post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI), and the factors mediating this association, is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of AF in PSCI, especially in relation to other markers of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: 445 subjects with mild ischemic stroke without pre-stroke cognitive decline were assessed 3-6 months post-stroke for cognitive deficits...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921903/risk-factors-for-postoperative-ileus-after-colorectal-cancer-surgery
#11
E G Rybakov, Y A Shelygin, E A Khomyakov, I V Zarodniuk
AIM: To assess the rate and independent risk factors of postoperative ileus (POI) after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Three hundred consecutive patients underwent colorectal surgery for cancer at the State Scientific Centre of coloproctology, Moscow, Russia, between November 2015 and August 2016. POI was diagnosed as an absence of intestinal function for 72 hours or more after operation and confirmed by plain radiography. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression of the tumour-, patient- and treatment-related factors was performed...
September 16, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921760/genome-wide-association-study-of-a-nicotine-metabolism-biomarker-in-african-american-smokers-impact-of-chromosome-19-genetic-influences
#12
Meghan J Chenoweth, Jennifer J Ware, Andy Z X Zhu, Christopher B Cole, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nikki Nollen, Jasjit S Ahluwalia, Neal L Benowitz, Robert A Schnoll, Larry W Hawk, Paul M Cinciripini, Tony P George, Caryn Lerman, Joanne Knight, Rachel F Tyndale
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus Whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent...
September 16, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921709/kidney-allograft-failure-in-the-steroid-free-immunosuppression-era-a-matched-case-control-study
#13
Mohamad M Alkadi, Jim Kim, Meredith J Aull, Joseph E Schwartz, John R Lee, Anthony Watkins, Jun B Lee, Darshana M Dadhania, Surya V Seshan, David Serur, Sandip Kapur, Manikkam Suthanthiran, Choli Hartono, Thangamani Muthukumar
We studied the causes and predictors of death-censored kidney allograft failure among 1670 kidney recipients transplanted at our center in the corticosteroid-free maintenance immunosuppression era. As of January 1, 2012, we identified 137 recipients with allograft failure; 130 of them (cases) were matched 1-1 for recipient age, calendar year of transplant and donor type with 130 recipients with functioning grafts (controls). Median time to allograft failure was 29 months (interquartile range 18-51). Physician validated and biopsy confirmed categories of allograft failure were: acute rejection (21%), glomerular disease (19%), transplant glomerulopathy (13%), interstitial fibrosis tubular atrophy (10%), and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (7%)...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921631/validation-of-highly-accelerated-real-time-cardiac-cine-mri-with-radial-k-space-sampling-and-compressed-sensing-in-patients-at-1-5t-and-3t
#14
Hassan Haji-Valizadeh, Amir A Rahsepar, Jeremy D Collins, Elwin Bassett, Tamara Isakova, Tobias Block, Ganesh Adluru, Edward V R DiBella, Daniel C Lee, James C Carr, Daniel Kim
PURPOSE: To validate an optimal 12-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI pulse sequence with radial k-space sampling and compressed sensing (CS) in patients at 1.5T and 3T. METHODS: We used two strategies to reduce image artifacts arising from gradient delays and eddy currents in radial k-space sampling with balanced steady-state free precession readout. We validated this pulse sequence against a standard breath-hold cine sequence in two patient cohorts: a myocardial infarction (n = 16) group at 1...
September 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921616/tangential-migration-of-corridor-guidepost-neurons-contributes-to-anxiety-circuits
#15
Andrea Tinterri, Marie Deck, Maryama Keita, Caroline Mailhes, Anna Noren Rubin, Nicoletta Kessaris, Ludmilla Lokmane, Franck Bielle, Sonia Garel
In mammals, thalamic axons are guided internally towards their neocortical target by corridor (Co) neurons that act as axonal guideposts. The existence of Co-like neurons in non-mammalian species, in which thalamic axons do not grow internally, raised the possibility that Co cells might have an ancestral role. Here, we investigated the contribution of corridor (Co) cells to mature brain circuits using a combination of genetic fate-mapping and assays in mice. We unexpectedly found that Co neurons contribute to striatal-like projection neurons in the central extended amygdala...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921241/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-vaginal-dehydroepiandosterone-for-vaginal-symptoms-in-postmenopausal-cancer-survivors-ncctg-n10c1-alliance
#16
Debra L Barton, Jeff A Sloan, Lynne T Shuster, Paula Gill, Patricia Griffin, Kathleen Flynn, Shelby A Terstriep, Fauzia N Rana, Travis Dockter, Pamela J Atherton, Michaela Tsai, Keren Sturtz, Jacqueline M Lafky, Mike Riepl, Jacqueline Thielen, Charles L Loprinzi
BACKGROUND: Women with estrogen deficiencies can suffer from vaginal symptoms that negatively impact sexual health. This study evaluated vaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for alleviation of vaginal symptoms. METHODS: This three-arm randomized, controlled trial evaluated DHEA 3.25 mg and DHEA 6.5 mg, each compared to a plain moisturizer (PM) over 12 weeks, to improve the severity of vaginal dryness or dyspareunia, measured with an ordinal scale, and overall sexual health using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI)...
September 18, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921167/brain-structural-concomitants-of-resting-state-heart-rate-variability-in-the-young-and-old-evidence-from-two-independent-samples
#17
Hyun Joo Yoo, Julian F Thayer, Steven Greening, Tae-Ho Lee, Allison Ponzio, Jungwon Min, Michiko Sakaki, Lin Nga, Mara Mather, Julian Koenig
Previous research has shown associations between brain structure and resting state high-frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV). Age affects both brain structure and HF HRV. Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between brain structure and HF HRV as a function of age. Data from two independent studies were used for the present analysis. Study 1 included 19 older adults (10 males, age range 62-78 years) and 19 younger adults (12 males, age range 19-37). Study 2 included 23 older adults (12 males; age range 55-75) and 27 younger adults (17 males; age range 18-34)...
September 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920951/srebp-controlled-glucose-metabolism-is-essential-for-nk-cell-functional-responses
#18
Nadine Assmann, Katie L O'Brien, Raymond P Donnelly, Lydia Dyck, Vanessa Zaiatz-Bittencourt, Róisín M Loftus, Paul Heinrich, Peter J Oefner, Lydia Lynch, Clair M Gardiner, Katja Dettmer, David K Finlay
Activated natural killer (NK) cells engage in a robust metabolic response that is required for normal effector function. Using genetic, pharmacological and metabolic analyses, we demonstrated an essential role for Srebp transcription factors in cytokine-induced metabolic reprogramming of NK cells that was independent of their conventional role in the control of lipid synthesis. Srebp was required for elevated glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation and promoted a distinct metabolic pathway configuration in which glucose was metabolized to cytosolic citrate via the citrate-malate shuttle...
September 18, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920933/modular-organization-of-the-brainstem-noradrenaline-system-coordinates-opposing-learning-states
#19
Akira Uematsu, Bao Zhen Tan, Edgar A Ycu, Jessica Sulkes Cuevas, Jenny Koivumaa, Felix Junyent, Eric J Kremer, Ilana B Witten, Karl Deisseroth, Joshua P Johansen
Noradrenaline modulates global brain states and diverse behaviors through what is traditionally believed to be a homogeneous cell population in the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC). However, it is unclear how LC coordinates disparate behavioral functions. We report a modular LC organization in rats, endowed with distinct neural projection patterns and coding properties for flexible specification of opposing behavioral learning states. LC projection mapping revealed functionally distinct cell modules with specific anatomical connectivity...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920896/analysis-and-optimization-of-loss-functions-for-multiclass-top-k-and-multilabel-classification
#20
Maksim Lapin, Matthias Hein, Bernt Schiele
Top-k error is currently a popular performance measure on large scale image classification benchmarks such as ImageNet and Places. Despite its wide acceptance, our understanding of this metric is limited as most of the previous research is focused on its special case, the top-1 error. In this work, we explore two directions that shed light on the top-k error. First, we provide an in-depth analysis of established and recently proposed single-label multiclass methods along with a detailed account of efficient optimization algorithms for them...
September 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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