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Spatio-temporal modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145005/assessment-of-long-term-spatio-temporal-radiofrequency-electromagnetic-field-exposure
#1
Sam Aerts, Joe Wiart, Luc Martens, Wout Joseph
As both the environment and telecommunications networks are inherently dynamic, our exposure to environmental radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) at an arbitrary location is not at all constant in time. In this study, more than a year's worth of measurement data collected in a fixed low-cost exposimeter network distributed over an urban environment was analysed and used to build, for the first time, a full spatio-temporal surrogate model of outdoor exposure to downlink Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) signals...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143530/modulation-of-spatio-temporal-particle-patterning-in-evaporating-droplets-applications-to-diagnostics-and-materials-science
#2
Rajarshi Guha, Farzad Mohajerani, Ahana Mukhopadhyay, Matthew Collins, Ayusman Sen, Darrell Velegol
Spatio-temporal particle patterning in evaporating droplets lacks a common design framework. Here, we demonstrate autonomous control of particle distribution in evaporating droplets through the imposition of a salt-induced self-generated electric field as a generalized patterning strategy. Through modeling, a new dimensionless number, termed "capillary-phoresis number" (CP), arises which determines the relative contributions of electrokinetic and convective transport to pattern formation, enabling one to accurately predict the mode of particle assembly by controlling the spontaneous electric field and surface potentials...
November 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143137/segmental-biventricular-analysis-of-myocardial-function-using-high-temporal-and-spatial-resolution-tissue-phase-mapping
#3
Marius Menza, Daniela Föll, Jürgen Hennig, Bernd Jung
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) is an important indicator of RV diseases, e.g. RV infarction or pulmonary hypertension. Tissue phase mapping (TPM) has been widely used to determine function of the left ventricle (LV) by analyzing myocardial velocities. The analysis of RV motion is more complicated due to the different geometry and smaller wall thickness. The aim of this work was to adapt and optimize TPM to the demands of the RV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TPM measurements were acquired in 25 healthy volunteers using a velocity-encoded phase-contrast sequence and kt-accelerated parallel imaging in combination with optimized navigator strategy and blood saturation...
November 15, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139050/modeling-mesoscopic-cortical-dynamics-using-a-mean-field-model-of-conductance-based-networks-of-adaptive-exponential-integrate-and-fire-neurons
#4
Yann Zerlaut, Sandrine Chemla, Frederic Chavane, Alain Destexhe
Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi) has revealed fundamental properties of neocortical processing at macroscopic scales. Since for each pixel VSDi signals report the average membrane potential over hundreds of neurons, it seems natural to use a mean-field formalism to model such signals. Here, we present a mean-field model of networks of Adaptive Exponential (AdEx) integrate-and-fire neurons, with conductance-based synaptic interactions. We study a network of regular-spiking (RS) excitatory neurons and fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory neurons...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134324/trend-to-equilibrium-for-a-reaction-diffusion-system-modelling-reversible-enzyme-reaction
#5
Ján Eliaš
A spatio-temporal evolution of chemicals appearing in a reversible enzyme reaction and modelled by a four-component reaction-diffusion system with the reaction terms obtained by the law of mass action is considered. The large time behaviour of the system is studied by means of entropy methods.
November 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134102/imperial-trophy-or-island-relict-a-new-extinction-paradigm-for-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-a-chinese-conservation-icon
#6
Samuel T Turvey, Ian Barnes, Melissa Marr, Selina Brace
Determining the 'dynamic biogeography' of range collapse in threatened species is essential for effective conservation, but reconstruction of spatio-temporal patterns of population vulnerability and resilience can require use of non-standard ecological data such as historical archives. Père David's deer or milu, one of the few living mammal species that has become extinct in the wild, is historically known only from a small captive herd of unknown provenance that survived until 1900 in the Imperial Hunting Park near Beijing, from which all living individuals are descended...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133266/mapping-suicide-mortality-in-ohio-a-spatial-epidemiological-analysis-of-suicide-clusters-and-area-level-correlates
#7
Cynthia A Fontanella, Daniel M Saman, John V Campo, Danielle L Hiance-Steelesmith, Jeffrey Bridge, Helen Anne Sweeney, Elisabeth D Root
Previous studies have investigated spatial patterning and associations of area characteristics with suicide rates in Western and Asian countries, but few have been conducted in the United States. This ecological study aims to identify high-risk clusters of suicide in Ohio and assess area level correlates of these clusters. We estimated spatially smoothed standardized mortality ratios (SMR) using Bayesian conditional autoregressive models (CAR) for the period 2004 to 2013. Spatial and spatio-temporal scan statistics were used to detect high-risk clusters of suicide at the census tract level (N=2952)...
November 10, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128243/an-empirical-model-to-predict-road-dust-emissions-based-on-pavement-and-traffic-characteristics
#8
Elio Padoan, Franco Ajmone-Marsan, Xavier Querol, Fulvio Amato
The relative impact of non-exhaust sources (i.e. road dust, tire wear, road wear and brake wear particles) on urban air quality is increasing. Among them, road dust resuspension has generally the highest impact on PM concentrations but its spatio-temporal variability has been rarely studied and modeled. Some recent studies attempted to observe and describe the time-variability but, as it is driven by traffic and meteorology, uncertainty remains on the seasonality of emissions. The knowledge gap on spatial variability is much wider, as several factors have been pointed out as responsible for road dust build-up: pavement characteristics, traffic intensity and speed, fleet composition, proximity to traffic lights, but also the presence of external sources...
November 8, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124307/mouse-models-for-human-intestinal-microbiota-research-a-critical-evaluation
#9
REVIEW
Floor Hugenholtz, Willem M de Vos
Since the early days of the intestinal microbiota research, mouse models have been used frequently to study the interaction of microbes with their host. However, to translate the knowledge gained from mouse studies to a human situation, the major spatio-temporal similarities and differences between intestinal microbiota in mice and humans need to be considered. This is done here with specific attention for the comparative physiology of the intestinal tract, the effect of dietary patterns and differences in genetics...
November 9, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123681/lifetimes-and-spatio-temporal-response-of-protein-crystals-in-intense-x-ray-microbeams
#10
Matthew A Warkentin, Hakan Atakisi, Jesse B Hopkins, Donald Walko, Robert E Thorne
Serial synchrotron-based crystallography using intense microfocused X-ray beams, fast-framing detectors and protein microcrystals held at 300 K promises to expand the range of accessible structural targets and to increase overall structure-pipeline throughputs. To explore the nature and consequences of X-ray radiation damage under microbeam illumination, the time-, dose- and temperature-dependent evolution of crystal diffraction have been measured with maximum dose rates of 50 MGy s(-1). At all temperatures and dose rates, the integrated diffraction intensity for a fixed crystal orientation shows non-exponential decays with dose...
November 1, 2017: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123188/spatio-temporal-trends-in-crop-damage-inform-recent-climate-mediated-expansion-of-a-large-boreal-herbivore-into-an-agro-ecosystem
#11
Michel P Laforge, Nicole L Michel, Ryan K Brook
Large-scale climatic fluctuations have caused species range shifts. Moose (Alces alces) have expanded their range southward into agricultural areas previously not considered moose habitat. We found that moose expansion into agro-ecosystems is mediated by broad-scale climatic factors and access to high-quality forage (i.e., crops). We used crop damage records to quantify moose presence across the Canadian Prairies. We regressed latitude of crop damage against North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and crop area to test the hypotheses that NAO-mediated wetland recharge and occurrence of more nutritious crop types would result in more frequent occurrences of crop damage by moose at southerly latitudes...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119509/a-network-based-integrative-workflow-to-unravel-mechanisms-underlying-disease-progression
#12
Faiz M Khan, Mehdi Sadeghi, Shailendra K Gupta, Olaf Wolkenhauer
Unraveling mechanisms underlying diseases has motivated the development of systems biology approaches. The key challenges for the development of mathematical models and computational tool are (1) the size of molecular networks, (2) the nonlinear nature of spatio-temporal interactions, and (3) feedback loops in the structure of interaction networks. We here propose an integrative workflow that combines structural analyses of networks, high-throughput data, and mechanistic modeling. As an illustration of the workflow, we use prostate cancer as a case study with the aim of identifying key functional components associated with primary to metastasis transitions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108690/spatialepiapp-a-shiny-web-application-for-the-analysis-of-spatial-and-spatio-temporal-disease-data
#13
Paula Moraga
During last years, public health surveillance has been facilitated by the existence of several packages implementing statistical methods for the analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal disease data. However, these methods are still inaccesible for many researchers lacking the adequate programming skills to effectively use the required software. In this paper we present SpatialEpiApp, a Shiny web application that integrate two of the most common approaches in health surveillance: disease mapping and detection of clusters...
November 2017: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107072/ectopic-phosphorylated-creb-marks-dedifferentiated-proximal-tubules-in-cystic-kidney-disease
#14
Pawan Puri, Caitlin M Schaefer, Daniel Bushnell, Mary E Taglienti, Jordan A Kreidberg, Bradley K Yoder, Carlton M Bates
Ectopic cAMP signaling is pathological in polycystic kidney disease; however, its spatio-temporal actions are unclear. We characterized expression of phosphorylated Creb (p-Creb), a target and mediator of cAMP signaling, in developing and cystic kidney models. We also examined tubule-specific effects of cAMP analogs in cystogenesis in embryonic kidney explants. In wild-type mice, p-Creb marked nephron progenitors (NP), early epithelial NP derivatives, ureteric bud, and cortical stroma; p-Creb was present in differentiated thick ascending limb of Henle, collecting duct, and stroma; however, it disappeared in mature NP-derived proximal tubules...
October 26, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106697/navigational-efficiency-in-a-biased-and-correlated-random-walk-model-of-individual-animal-movement
#15
Joseph D Bailey, Jamie Wallis, Edward A Codling
Understanding how an individual animal is able to navigate through its environment is a key question in movement ecology that can give insight into observed movement patterns and the mechanisms behind them. Efficiency of navigation is important for behavioural processes at a range of different spatio-temporal scales, including foraging and migration. Random walk models provide a standard framework for modelling individual animal movement and navigation. Here we consider a vector-weighted biased and correlated random walk (BCRW) model for directed movement (taxis), where external navigation cues are balanced with forward persistence...
November 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105233/simulating-the-recent-impacts-of-multiple-biotic-disturbances-on-forest-carbon-cycling-across-the-united-states
#16
M Kautz, P Anthoni, A J H Meddens, T A M Pugh, A Arneth
Biotic disturbances (BDs, e.g., insects, pathogens and wildlife herbivory) substantially affect boreal and temperate forest ecosystems globally. However, accurate impact assessments comprising larger spatial scales are lacking to date, although these are critically needed given the expected disturbance intensification under a warming climate. Hence, our quantitative knowledge on current and future BD impacts, e.g., on forest carbon (C) cycling, is strongly limited. We extended a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to simulate ecosystem response to prescribed tree mortality and defoliation due to multiple biotic agents across United States forests during the period 1997-2015, and quantified the BD-induced vegetation C loss, i...
November 3, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104543/simultaneous-quantification-of-spatially-discordant-alternans-in-voltage-and-intracellular-calcium-in-langendorff-perfused-rabbit-hearts-and-inconsistencies-with-models-of-cardiac-action-potentials-and-ca-transients
#17
Ilija Uzelac, Yanyan C Ji, Daniel Hornung, Johannes Schröder-Scheteling, Stefan Luther, Richard A Gray, Elizabeth M Cherry, Flavio H Fenton
Rationale: Discordant alternans, a phenomenon in which the action potential duration (APDs) and/or intracellular calcium transient durations (CaDs) in different spatial regions of cardiac tissue are out of phase, present a dynamical instability for complex spatial dispersion that can be associated with long-QT syndrome (LQTS) and the initiation of reentrant arrhythmias. Because the use of numerical simulations to investigate arrhythmic effects, such as acquired LQTS by drugs is beginning to be studied by the FDA, it is crucial to validate mathematical models that may be used during this process...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102859/three-dimensional-mammalian-tooth-development-using-dicect
#18
Qamariya Nasrullah, Marilyn B Renfree, Alistair R Evans
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop the Diffusible Iodine-based Contrast-Enhanced CT (diceCT) method for non-destructive imaging of both soft and mineralised tissues. We sought to document the 3D spatio-temporal pattern of mammalian tooth development including multiple tooth classes and generations, using the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) as a model species. DESIGN: We took microCT scans of developing fetuses and pouch young stained using Lugol's Iodine (I2KI) contrast agent...
October 20, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102809/spatio-temporal-modeling-of-connectome-scale-brain-network-interactions-via-time-evolving-graphs
#19
REVIEW
Jing Yuan, Xiang Li, Jinhe Zhang, Liao Luo, Qinglin Dong, Jinglei Lv, Yu Zhao, Xi Jiang, Shu Zhang, Wei Zhang, Tianming Liu
Many recent literature studies have revealed interesting dynamics patterns of functional brain networks derived from fMRI data. However, it has been rarely explored how functional networks spatially overlap (or interact) and how such connectome-scale network interactions temporally evolve. To explore these unanswered questions, this paper presents a novel framework for spatio-temporal modeling of connectome-scale functional brain network interactions via two main effective computational methodologies. First, to integrate, pool and compare brain networks across individuals and their cognitive states under task performances, we designed a novel group-wise dictionary learning scheme to derive connectome-scale consistent brain network templates that can be used to define the common reference space of brain network interactions...
November 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101831/temporal-trends-in-air-pollution-exposure-inequality-in-massachusetts
#20
Anna Rosofsky, Jonathan I Levy, Antonella Zanobetti, Patricia Janulewicz, M Patricia Fabian
Mounting evidence over the past several decades has demonstrated inequitable distribution of pollutants of ambient origin between sociodemographic groups in the United States. Most environmental inequality studies to date are cross-sectional and used proximity-based methods rather than modeled air pollution concentrations, limiting the ability to examine trends over time or the factors that drive exposure inequalities. In this paper, we use 1km(2) modeled PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations in Massachusetts over an 8-year period and Census demographic data to quantify inequality between sociodemographic groups and to develop a more nuanced understanding of the drivers and trends in longitudinal air pollution inequality...
November 1, 2017: Environmental Research
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