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Spatio-temporal modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436865/video-anomaly-detection-with-compact-feature-sets-for-online-performance
#1
Roberto Leyva, Victor Sanchez, Chang-Tsun Li
Over the past decade, video anomaly detection has been explored with remarkable results. However, research on methodologies suitable for online performance is still very limited. In this paper, we present an online framework for video anomaly detection. The key aspect of our framework is a compact set of highly descriptive features, which is extracted from a novel cell structure that helps to define support regions in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Based on the scene's activity, only a limited number of support regions are processed, thus limiting the size of the feature set...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433817/climate-change-risks-extinction-debt-and-conservation-implications-for-a-threatened-freshwater-fish-carmine-shiner-notropis-percobromus
#2
Shubha N Pandit, Bryan M Maitland, Laxmi K Pandit, Mark S Poesch, Eva C Enders
Climate change is affecting many freshwater species, particularly fishes. Predictions of future climate change suggest large and deleterious effects on species with narrow dispersal abilities due to limited hydrological connectivity. In turn, this creates the potential for population isolation in thermally unsuitable habitats, leading to physiological stress, species declines or possible extirpation. The current extent of many freshwater fish species' spatio-temporal distribution patterns and their sensitivity to thermal impacts from climate change - critical information for conservation planning - are often unknown...
April 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427363/a-spatio-temporal-analysis-of-suicide-in-el-salvador
#3
Carlos Carcach
BACKGROUND: In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426763/individual-based-modelling-of-population-growth-and-diffusion-in-discrete-time
#4
Natalie Tkachenko, John D Weissmann, Wesley P Petersen, George Lake, Christoph P E Zollikofer, Simone Callegari
Individual-based models (IBMs) of human populations capture spatio-temporal dynamics using rules that govern the birth, behavior, and death of individuals. We explore a stochastic IBM of logistic growth-diffusion with constant time steps and independent, simultaneous actions of birth, death, and movement that approaches the Fisher-Kolmogorov model in the continuum limit. This model is well-suited to parallelization on high-performance computers. We explore its emergent properties with analytical approximations and numerical simulations in parameter ranges relevant to human population dynamics and ecology, and reproduce continuous-time results in the limit of small transition probabilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422010/synaptic-input-sequence-discrimination-on-behavioral-time-scales-mediated-by-reaction-diffusion-chemistry-in-dendrites
#5
Upinder Singh Bhalla
Sequences of events are ubiquitous in sensory, motor, and cognitive function. Key computational operations, including pattern recognition, event prediction, and plasticity, involve neural discrimination of spatio-temporal sequences. Here we show that synaptically-driven reaction-diffusion pathways on dendrites can perform sequence discrimination on behaviorally relevant time-scales. We used abstract signaling models to show that selectivity arises when inputs at successive locations are aligned with, and amplified by, propagating chemical waves triggered by previous inputs...
April 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421165/the-diverse-cellular-and-animal-models-to-decipher-the-physiopathological-traits-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-infection
#6
REVIEW
Audrey Bernut, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Diane Ordway, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus represents an important respiratory pathogen among the rapidly-growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Infections caused by M. abscessus are increasingly found in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and are often refractory to antibiotic therapy. The underlying immunopathological mechanisms of pathogenesis remain largely unknown. A major reason for the poor advances in M. abscessus research has been a lack of adequate models to study the acute and chronic stages of the disease leading to delayed progress of evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of potentially active antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419105/year-round-breeding-equatorial-larks-from-three-climatically-distinct-populations-do-not-use-rainfall-temperature-or-invertebrate-biomass-to-time-reproduction
#7
Henry K Ndithia, Kevin D Matson, Maaike A Versteegh, Muchane Muchai, B Irene Tieleman
Timing of reproduction in birds is important for reproductive success and is known to depend on environmental cues such as day length and food availability. However, in equatorial regions, where day length is nearly constant, other factors such as rainfall and temperature are thought to determine timing of reproduction. Rainfall can vary at small spatial and temporal scales, providing a highly fluctuating and unpredictable environmental cue. In this study we investigated the extent to which spatio-temporal variation in environmental conditions can explain the timing of breeding of Red-capped Lark, Calandrella cinerea, a species that is capable of reproducing during every month of the year in our equatorial east African study locations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417248/ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-of-dogs-along-an-elevational-and-land-use-gradient-in-chiriqu%C3%A3-province-panam%C3%A3
#8
A Michelle Ferrell, R Jory Brinkerhoff, Juan Bernal, Sergio E Bermúdez
Systematic acarological surveys are useful tools in assessing risk to tick-borne infections, especially in areas where consistent clinical surveillance for tick-borne disease is lacking. Our goal was to identify environmental predictors of tick burdens on dogs and tick-borne infectious agents in dog-derived ticks in the Chiriquí Province of western Panama to draw inferences about spatio-temporal variation in human risk to tick-borne diseases. We used a model-selection approach to test the relative importance of elevation, human population size, vegetative cover, and change in landuse on patterns of tick parasitism on dogs...
April 17, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417113/temporal-registration-in-in-utero-volumetric-mri-time-series
#9
Ruizhi Liao, Esra A Turk, Miaomiao Zhang, Jie Luo, P Ellen Grant, Elfar Adalsteinsson, Polina Golland
We present a robust method to correct for motion and deformations in in-utero volumetric MRI time series. Spatio-temporal analysis of dynamic MRI requires robust alignment across time in the presence of substantial and unpredictable motion. We make a Markov assumption on the nature of deformations to take advantage of the temporal structure in the image data. Forward message passing in the corresponding hidden Markov model (HMM) yields an estimation algorithm that only has to account for relatively small motion between consecutive frames...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411563/spatio-temporal-trends-in-fire-weather-in-the-french-alps
#10
S Dupire, T Curt, S Bigot
The Alpine area is particularly sensitive to climatic and environmental changes that might impact socio-ecosystems and modify the regime of natural hazards. Among them, wildfire is of major importance as it threatens both ecosystems and human lives and infrastructures. Wildfires result from complex interactions between available vegetation fuels, climate and weather, and humans who decide of the land use and are the main source of fire ignitions. The changes in fire weather during the past decades are rather unknown in the French Alps especially due to their complex topography...
April 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411160/life-on-the-rocks-multilocus-phylogeography-of-rock-hyrax-procavia-capensis-from-southern-africa
#11
K Amanda Maswanganye, Michael J Cunningham, Nigel C Bennett, Christian T Chimimba, Paulette Bloomer
Understanding the role of geography and climatic cycles in determining patterns of biodiversity is important in comparative and evolutionary biology and conservation. We studied the phylogeographic pattern and historical demography of a rock-dwelling small mammal species from southern Africa, the rock hyrax Procavia capensis. Using a multilocus coalescent approach, we assessed the influence of strong habitat dependence and fluctuating regional climates on genetic diversity. We sequenced a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) and two nuclear introns (AP5, PRKC1) supplemented with microsatellite genotyping, in order to assess evolutionary processes over multiple temporal scales...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410528/modeling-the-spread-of-avian-influenza-viruses-in-aquatic-reservoirs-a-novel-hydrodynamic-approach-applied-to-the-rh%C3%A3-ne-delta-southern-france
#12
Marion Vittecoq, Hermann Gauduin, Thibault Oudart, Olivier Bertrand, Benjamin Roche, Matthieu Guillemain, Olivier Boutron
Wild aquatic birds represent a natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV) that can be spread to poultry. AIV epizootics were associated with huge economic impacts during the last decades and are still of major concern. Within aquatic bird populations AIV are transmitted either by direct contact or through the ingestion of water that has been contaminated by infected individuals. This second route involving environmental transmission is of utmost importance in AIV dynamics, yet it has received far less attention than direct bird-to-bird contamination...
April 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408201/spatio-temporal-control-strategy-of-drug-delivery-systems-based-nano-structures
#13
REVIEW
Nahla Rahoui, Bo Jiang, Nadia Taloub, Yu Dong Huang
The drug instability, toxicity and the barrier to the target area necessitate a suitable drug delivery system with an external or internal control of the release. Spatio-temporal control using a surface functionalized nano-carrier seems to be the best alternative for guided drug delivery and release. This manuscript provides a broad spectrum about the drug carrier interface modification to cover the need for temporal drug delivery control under neglect side effects. On the other hand, recent advances related to the drug vehicle are highlighted, besides physical (Electric field, magnetic field, light) or mechanical (Ultrasound, mechanical strain), chemical (pH, redox gradient, enzyme) stimuli mediated DDS...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405746/structured-models-of-cell-migration-incorporating-molecular-binding-processes
#14
Pia Domschke, Dumitru Trucu, Alf Gerisch, Mark A J Chaplain
The dynamic interplay between collective cell movement and the various molecules involved in the accompanying cell signalling mechanisms plays a crucial role in many biological processes including normal tissue development and pathological scenarios such as wound healing and cancer. Information about the various structures embedded within these processes allows a detailed exploration of the binding of molecular species to cell-surface receptors within the evolving cell population. In this paper we establish a general spatio-temporal-structural framework that enables the description of molecular binding to cell membranes coupled with the cell population dynamics...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405357/nonlinear-amplitude-dynamics-in-flagellar-beating
#15
David Oriola, Hermes Gadêlha, Jaume Casademunt
The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401336/genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-nb-arc-resistant-genes-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-and-their-expression-during-leaf-rust-infection
#16
Saket Chandra, Andaleeb Z Kazmi, Zainab Ahmed, Gargi Roychowdhury, Veena Kumari, Manish Kumar, Kunal Mukhopadhyay
NB-ARC domain-containing resistance genes from the wheat genome were identified, characterized and localized on chromosome arms that displayed differential yet positive response during incompatible and compatible leaf rust interactions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop; however, its production is affected severely by numerous diseases including rusts. An efficient, cost-effective and ecologically viable approach to control pathogens is through host resistance. In wheat, high numbers of resistance loci are present but only few have been identified and cloned...
April 11, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396213/effects-of-loss-aversion-on-neural-responses-to-loss-outcomes-an-event-related-potential-study
#17
Katerina Kokmotou, Stephanie Cook, Yuxin Xie, Hazel Wright, Vicente Soto, Nicholas Fallon, Timo Giesbrecht, Athanasios Pantelous, Andrej Stancak
Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of the same amount. To shed light on the spatio-temporal processes underlying loss aversion, we analysed the associations between individual loss aversion and electrophysiological responses to loss and gain outcomes in a monetary gamble task. Electroencephalographic feedback-related negativity (FRN) was computed in 29 healthy participants as the difference in electrical potentials between losses and gains. Loss aversion was evaluated using non-linear parametric fitting of choices in a separate gamble task...
April 8, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392067/cognitive-impacts-of-ambient-air-pollution-in-the-national-social-health-and-aging-project-nshap-cohort
#18
Lindsay A Tallon, Justin Manjourides, Vivian C Pun, Carmel Salhi, Helen Suh
BACKGROUND: Pathways through which air pollution may impact cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly with regard to whether and how air pollution interacts with social and emotional factors to influence cognitive health. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between air pollutant exposures and cognitive outcomes among older adults participating in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) cohort study. METHODS: Measures of cognitive function, social connectedness, and physical and mental health were obtained for each NSHAP participant starting with Wave 1 of the study in 2005...
April 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390862/phase-precession-a-neural-code-underlying-episodic-memory
#19
REVIEW
Jorge Jaramillo, Richard Kempter
In the hippocampal formation, the sequential activation of place-specific cells represents a conceptual model for the spatio-temporal events that assemble episodic memories. The imprinting of behavioral sequences in hippocampal networks might be achieved via spike-timing-dependent plasticity and phase precession of the spiking activity of neurons. It is unclear, however, whether phase precession plays an active role by enabling sequence learning via synaptic plasticity or whether phase precession passively reflects retrieval dynamics...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386607/automatic-cystocele-severity-grading-in-ultrasound-by-spatio-temporal-regression
#20
Dong Ni, Xing Ji, Yaozong Gao, Jie-Zhi Cheng, Huifang Wang, Jing Qin, Baiying Lei, Tianfu Wang, Guorong Wu, Dinggang Shen
Cystocele is a common disease in woman. Accurate assessment of cystocele severity is very important for treatment options. The transperineal ultrasound (US) has recently emerged as an alternative tool for cystocele grading. The cystocele severity is usually evaluated with the manual measurement of the maximal descent of the bladder (MDB) relative to the symphysis pubis (SP) during Valsalva maneuver. However, this process is time-consuming and operator-dependent. In this study, we propose an automatic scheme for csystocele grading from transperineal US video...
October 2016: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
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