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Spatio-temporal modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938470/genetic-disruption-of-21-hydroxylase-in-zebrafish-causes-interrenal-hyperplasia
#1
Helen Eachus, Andreas Zaucker, James A Oakes, Aliesha Griffin, Meltem Weger, Tülay Güran, Angela Taylor, Abigail Harris, Andy Greenfield, Jonathan L Quanson, Karl-Heinz Storbeck, Vincent T Cunliffe, Ferenc Müller, Nils Krone
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of common inherited disorders leading to glucocorticoid deficiency. Most cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). The systemic consequences of imbalanced steroid hormone biosynthesis due to severe 21OHD remains poorly understood. Therefore, we have developed a zebrafish model for 21OHD, which focuses on the impairment of glucocorticoid biosynthesis. A single 21-hydroxylase gene (cyp21a2) is annotated in the zebrafish genome based on sequence homology. Our in silico analysis of the Cyp21a2 protein sequence suggests a sufficient degree of similarity for the usage of zebrafish cyp21a2 to model aspects of human 21OHD in vivo...
September 13, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938101/exposure-to-particulate-matter-air-pollution-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-in-two-large-cohorts-of-us-nurses
#2
N Palacios, K L Munger, K C Fitzgerald, J E Hart, T Chitnis, A Ascherio, F Laden
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is thought to raise the risk of neurological disease by promoting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, glial activation and cerebrovascular damage. Multiple Sclerosis is a common auto-immune disorder, primarily affecting young women. We conducted, to a large prospective study of particulate matter (PM) exposure and multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in two prospective cohorts of women: the Nurses Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses Health Study II (NHS II). METHODS: Cumulative average exposure to different size fractions of PM up to the onset of MS was estimated using spatio-temporal models...
September 19, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937162/experimentally-validated-mathematical-model-of-analyte-uptake-by-permeation-passive-samplers
#3
F Salim, M Ioannidis, T Górecki
A mathematical model describing the sampling process in a permeation-based passive sampler was developed and evaluated numerically. The model was applied to the Waterloo Membrane Sampler (WMS), which employs a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane as a permeation barrier, and an adsorbent as a receiving phase. Samplers of this kind are used for sampling volatile organic compounds (VOC) from air and soil gas. The model predicts the spatio-temporal variation of sorbed and free analyte concentrations within the sampler components (membrane, sorbent bed and dead volume), from which the uptake rate throughout the sampling process can be determined...
September 22, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936168/mining-time-resolved-functional-brain-graphs-to-an-eeg-based-chronnectomic-brain-aged-index-cbai
#4
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Christos I Salis
The brain at rest consists of spatially and temporal distributed but functionally connected regions that called intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs). Resting state electroencephalography (rs-EEG) is a way to characterize brain networks without confounds associated with task EEG such as task difficulty and performance. A novel framework of how to study dynamic functional connectivity under the notion of functional connectivity microstates (FCμstates) and symbolic dynamics is further discussed. Furthermore, we introduced a way to construct a single integrated dynamic functional connectivity graph (IDFCG) that preserves both the strength of the connections between every pair of sensors but also the type of dominant intrinsic coupling modes (DICM)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931739/what-drives-the-spatial-distribution-and-dynamics-of-local-species-richness-in-tropical-forest
#5
Thorsten Wiegand, Felix May, Martin Kazmierczak, Andreas Huth
Understanding the structure and dynamics of highly diverse tropical forests is challenging. Here we investigate the factors that drive the spatio-temporal variation of local tree numbers and species richness in a tropical forest (including 1250 plots of 20 × 20 m(2)). To this end, we use a series of dynamic models that are built around the local spatial variation of mortality and recruitment rates, and ask which combination of processes can explain the observed spatial and temporal variation in tree and species numbers...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931635/a-computational-multiscale-agent-based-model-for-simulating-spatio-temporal-tumour-immune-response-to-pd1-and-pdl1-inhibition
#6
Chang Gong, Oleg Milberg, Bing Wang, Paolo Vicini, Rajesh Narwal, Lorin Roskos, Aleksander S Popel
When the immune system responds to tumour development, patterns of immune infiltrates emerge, highlighted by the expression of immune checkpoint-related molecules such as PDL1 on the surface of cancer cells. Such spatial heterogeneity carries information on intrinsic characteristics of the tumour lesion for individual patients, and thus is a potential source for biomarkers for anti-tumour therapeutics. We developed a systems biology multiscale agent-based model to capture the interactions between immune cells and cancer cells, and analysed the emergent global behaviour during tumour development and immunotherapy...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931634/improved-prediction-accuracy-for-disease-risk-mapping-using-gaussian-process-stacked-generalization
#7
Samir Bhatt, Ewan Cameron, Seth R Flaxman, Daniel J Weiss, David L Smith, Peter W Gething
Maps of infectious disease-charting spatial variations in the force of infection, degree of endemicity and the burden on human health-provide an essential evidence base to support planning towards global health targets. Contemporary disease mapping efforts have embraced statistical modelling approaches to properly acknowledge uncertainties in both the available measurements and their spatial interpolation. The most common such approach is Gaussian process regression, a mathematical framework composed of two components: a mean function harnessing the predictive power of multiple independent variables, and a covariance function yielding spatio-temporal shrinkage against residual variation from the mean...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920953/lifelong-haematopoiesis-is-established-by-hundreds-of-precursors-throughout-mammalian-ontogeny
#8
Miguel Ganuza, Trent Hall, David Finkelstein, Ashley Chabot, Guolian Kang, Shannon McKinney-Freeman
Current dogma asserts that mammalian lifelong blood production is established by a small number of blood progenitors. However, this model is based on assays that require the disruption, transplantation and/or culture of embryonic tissues. Here, we used the sample-to-sample variance of a multicoloured lineage trace reporter to assess the frequency of emerging lifelong blood progenitors while avoiding the disruption, culture or transplantation of embryos. We find that approximately 719 Flk1(+) mesodermal precursors, 633 VE-cadherin(+) endothelial precursors and 545 Vav1(+) nascent blood stem and progenitor cells emerge to establish the haematopoietic system at embryonic days (E)7-E8...
September 18, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917119/a-mechanistic-model-for-drug-release-from-plga-based-drug-eluting-stent-a-computational-study
#9
Jahed Naghipoor, Timon Rabczuk
Atherosclerosis in the coronary artery is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The stenting as a minimally invasive technique was considered as an effective tool to reduce the severity of atherosclerotic stenosis. In-stent restenosis is the main drawback of the stenting in the coronary artery. Understanding the mechanism of drug release from drug-eluting stents and drug uptake in the arterial wall and obtaining more information about their functionality using mathematical modeling and numerical simulation, could be considered as a predictive tool to investigate in-stent restenosis growth which is experimentally expensive to study...
September 8, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915548/a-spatio-temporal-statistical-model-of-maximum-daily-river-temperatures-to-inform-the-management-of-scotland-s-atlantic-salmon-rivers-under-climate-change
#10
Faye L Jackson, Robert J Fryer, David M Hannah, Colin P Millar, Iain A Malcolm
The thermal suitability of riverine habitats for cold water adapted species may be reduced under climate change. Riparian tree planting is a practical climate change mitigation measure, but it is often unclear where to focus effort for maximum benefit. Recent developments in data collection, monitoring and statistical methods have facilitated the development of increasingly sophisticated river temperature models capable of predicting spatial variability at large scales appropriate to management. In parallel, improvements in temporal river temperature models have increased the accuracy of temperature predictions at individual sites...
September 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915461/forecasting-wheat-and-barley-crop-production-in-arid-and-semi-arid-regions-using-remotely-sensed-primary-productivity-and-crop-phenology-a-case-study-in-iraq
#11
Sarchil Hama Qader, Jadunandan Dash, Peter M Atkinson
Crop production and yield estimation using remotely sensed data have been studied widely, but such information is generally scarce in arid and semi-arid regions. In these regions, inter-annual variation in climatic factors (such as rainfall) combined with anthropogenic factors (such as civil war) pose major risks to food security. Thus, an operational crop production estimation and forecasting system is required to help decision-makers to make early estimates of potential food availability. Data from NASA's MODIS with official crop statistics were combined to develop an empirical regression-based model to forecast winter wheat and barley production in Iraq...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915455/estimation-of-water-consumption-for-ecosystems-based-on-vegetation-interfaces-processes-model-a-case-study-of-the-aksu-river-basin-northwest-china
#12
Peng Yang, Jun Xia, Chesheng Zhan, Xingguo Mo, Xuejuan Chen, Shi Hu, Jie Chen
Based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Vegetation Interfaces Processes (VIP) model simulated the spatio-temporal patterns of actual evapotranspiration (ET) and the water consumption of different ecosystems in the Aksu River Basin, Northwest China between 2000 and 2015. The results revealed that: (1) the applicability of the VIP model was confirmed, with good agreement (R(2)=0.79, P<0.05) between the VIP-ET and water balance model (WB)-ET in the Aksu River Basin; (2)arable land showed the highest annual actual ET per unit pixel (362...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913778/neural-basis-of-early-somatosensory-change-detection-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#13
G Naeije, T Vaulet, V Wens, B Marty, S Goldman, X De Tiège
The mismatch negativity (MMN) reflects the early detection of changes in sensory stimuli at the cortical level. The mechanisms underlying its genesis remain debated. This magnetoencephalography study investigates the spatio-temporal dynamics and the neural mechanisms of the magnetic somatosensory MMN. Somatosensory evoked magnetic fields elicited by tactile stimulation of the right fingertip (Single), tactile stimulation of the right middle phalanx and fingertip (Double) or omissions (Omitted) of tactile stimuli were studied in different paradigms: in oddballs where Double/Omitted followed a sequence of four Single, in sequences of two stimuli where Double occurred after one Single, and in random presentation of Double only...
September 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911266/behavioral-and-brain-oscillatory-correlates-of-affective-processing-in-subclinical-depression
#14
Jaroslav Slobodskoy-Plusnin
Named among the most dangerous diseases of the modern era, depression is characterized primarily by distortions in the affective sphere. Despite extensive investigations of underlying the neural background, mechanisms of the distortion still remain unknown. The current study analyzed brain oscillatory dynamics in different frequencies during resting state and presentation of affective stimuli in nonclinical individuals with high Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores (HB) versus controls. Both behavioral and electrocortical "markers" of clinical depression were apparent at subclinical level...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910363/impaired-bone-formation-in-ovariectomized-mice-reduces-implant-integration-as-indicated-by-longitudinal-in-vivo-micro-computed-tomography
#15
Zihui Li, Gisela Kuhn, Michael Schirmer, Ralph Müller, Davide Ruffoni
Although osteoporotic bone, with low bone mass and deteriorated bone architecture, provides a less favorable mechanical environment than healthy bone for implant fixation, there is no general agreement on the impact of osteoporosis on peri-implant bone (re)modeling, which is ultimately responsible for the long term stability of the bone-implant system. Here, we inserted an implant in a mouse model mimicking estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and we monitored with longitudinal in vivo micro-computed tomography the spatio-temporal changes in bone (re)modeling and architecture, considering the separate contributions of trabecular, endocortical and periosteal surfaces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906027/sur1-trpm4-and-aqp4-form-a-heteromultimeric-complex-that-amplifies-ion-water-osmotic-coupling-and-drives-astrocyte-swelling
#16
Jesse A Stokum, Min S Kwon, Seung K Woo, Orest Tsymbalyuk, Rudi Vennekens, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
Astrocyte swelling occurs after central nervous system injury and contributes to brain swelling, which can increase mortality. Mechanisms proffered to explain astrocyte swelling emphasize the importance of either aquaporin-4 (AQP4), an astrocyte water channel, or of Na(+) -permeable channels, which mediate cellular osmolyte influx. However, the spatio-temporal functional interactions between AQP4 and Na(+) -permeable channels that drive swelling are poorly understood. We hypothesized that astrocyte swelling after injury is linked to an interaction between AQP4 and Na(+) -permeable channels that are newly upregulated...
September 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903874/mortality-in-danish-swine-herds-spatio-temporal-clusters-and-risk-factors
#17
Ana Carolina Lopes Antunes, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Kristine Bihrmann, Nils Toft
The aim of this study was to explore spatio-temporal mortality patterns in Danish swine herds from December 2013 to October 2015, and to discuss the use of mortality data for syndromic surveillance in Denmark. Although it has previously been assessed within the context of syndromic surveillance, the value of mortality data generated on a regular and mandatory basis from all swine herds remains unexplored in terms of swine surveillance in Denmark. A total of 5010 farms were included in the analysis, corresponding to 1896 weaner herds, 1490 sow herds and 3839 finisher herds...
September 15, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902905/bio-physical-characterisation-of-polynyas-as-a-key-foraging-habitat-for-juvenile-male-southern-elephant-seals-mirounga-leonina-in-prydz-bay-east-antarctica
#18
Veda Malpress, Sophie Bestley, Stuart Corney, Dirk Welsford, Sara Labrousse, Michael Sumner, Mark Hindell
Antarctic coastal polynyas are persistent open water areas in the sea ice zone, and regions of high biological productivity thought to be important foraging habitat for marine predators. This study quantified southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) habitat use within and around the polynyas of the Prydz Bay region (63°E- 88°E) in East Antarctica, and examined the bio-physical characteristics structuring polynyas as foraging habitat. Output from a climatological regional ocean model was used to provide context for in situ temperature-salinity vertical profiles collected by tagged elephant seals and to characterise the physical properties structuring polynyas...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898582/spatio-temporal-distribution-and-alpine-behavior-of-short-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-in-air-at-shergyla-mountain-and-lhasa-on-the-tibetan-plateau-of-china
#19
Jing Wu, Wei Gao, Yong Liang, Jianjie Fu, Yan Gao, Yawei Wang, Guibin Jiang
Pristine high-altitude mountains are ideal areas for studying the potential mechanism behind the long-range transport and environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in remote areas. Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are the most complex halogenated contaminants in the environment, and have attracted extensive worldwide interest in recent years. In this study, the spatio-temporal concentrations and distributions of SCCPs in air collected from Shergyla Mountain (located in the southeast of the Tibetan Plateau) and Lhasa were investigated during 2012-2015...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891988/a-multivariate-dynamic-spatial-factor-model-for-speciated-pollutants-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#20
Kimberly A Kaufeld, Montse Fuentes, Brian J Reich, Amy H Herring, Gary M Shaw, Maria A Terres
Evidence suggests that exposure to elevated concentrations of air pollution during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of birth defects and other adverse birth outcomes. While current regulations put limits on total PM2.5 concentrations, there are many speciated pollutants within this size class that likely have distinct effects on perinatal health. However, due to correlations between these speciated pollutants, it can be difficult to decipher their effects in a model for birth outcomes. To combat this difficulty, we develop a multivariate spatio-temporal Bayesian model for speciated particulate matter using dynamic spatial factors...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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