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Spatio-temporal modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631320/spatial-patterns-and-broad-scale-weather-cues-of-beech-mast-seeding-in-europe
#1
Giorgio Vacchiano, Andrew Hacket-Pain, Marco Turco, Renzo Motta, Janet Maringer, Marco Conedera, Igor Drobyshev, Davide Ascoli
Mast seeding is a crucial population process in many tree species, but its spatio-temporal patterns and drivers at the continental scale remain unknown . Using a large dataset (8000 masting observations across Europe for years 1950-2014) we analysed the spatial pattern of masting across the entire geographical range of European beech, how it is influenced by precipitation, temperature and drought, and the temporal and spatial stability of masting-weather correlations. Beech masting exhibited a general distance-dependent synchronicity and a pattern structured in three broad geographical groups consistent with continental climate regimes...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631166/morphology-and-the-gradient-of-a-symmetric-potential-predict-gait-transitions-of-dogs
#2
Simon Wilshin, G Clark Haynes, Jack Porteous, Daniel Koditschek, Shai Revzen, Andrew J Spence
Gaits and gait transitions play a central role in the movement of animals. Symmetry is thought to govern the structure of the nervous system, and constrain the limb motions of quadrupeds. We quantify the symmetry of dog gaits with respect to combinations of bilateral, fore-aft, and spatio-temporal symmetry groups. We tested the ability of symmetries to model motion capture data of dogs walking, trotting and transitioning between those gaits. Fully symmetric models performed comparably to asymmetric with only a [Formula: see text] increase in the residual sum of squares and only one-quarter of the parameters...
June 19, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630712/quantifying-drivers-of-wild-pig-movement-across-multiple-spatial-and-temporal-scales
#3
Shannon L Kay, Justin W Fischer, Andrew J Monaghan, James C Beasley, Raoul Boughton, Tyler A Campbell, Susan M Cooper, Stephen S Ditchkoff, Steve B Hartley, John C Kilgo, Samantha M Wisely, A Christy Wyckoff, Kurt C VerCauteren, Kim M Pepin
BACKGROUND: The movement behavior of an animal is determined by extrinsic and intrinsic factors that operate at multiple spatio-temporal scales, yet much of our knowledge of animal movement comes from studies that examine only one or two scales concurrently. Understanding the drivers of animal movement across multiple scales is crucial for understanding the fundamentals of movement ecology, predicting changes in distribution, describing disease dynamics, and identifying efficient methods of wildlife conservation and management...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630488/initial-pseudo-steady-state-asymptotic-kpz-universality-in-semiconductor-on-polymer-deposition
#4
Renan A L Almeida, Sukarno O Ferreira, Isnard Ferraz, Tiago J Oliveira
The Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class is a paradigmatic example of universality in nonequilibrium phenomena, but clear experimental evidences of asymptotic 2D-KPZ statistics are still very rare, and far less understanding stems from its short-time behavior. We tackle such issues by analyzing surface fluctuations of CdTe films deposited on polymeric substrates, based on a huge spatio-temporal surface sampling acquired through atomic force microscopy. A pseudo-steady state (where average surface roughness and spatial correlations stay constant in time) is observed at initial times, persisting up to deposition of ~10(4) monolayers...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626276/standing-and-travelling-waves-in-a-spherical-brain-model-the-nunez-model-revisited
#5
S Visser, R Nicks, O Faugeras, S Coombes
The Nunez model for the generation of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is naturally described as a neural field model on a sphere with space-dependent delays. For simplicity, dynamical realisations of this model either as a damped wave equation or an integro-differential equation, have typically been studied in idealised one dimensional or planar settings. Here we revisit the original Nunez model to specifically address the role of spherical topology on spatio-temporal pattern generation. We do this using a mixture of Turing instability analysis, symmetric bifurcation theory, centre manifold reduction and direct simulations with a bespoke numerical scheme...
June 15, 2017: Physica D. Nonlinear Phenomena
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625616/modelling-explicit-tides-in-the-indonesian-seas-an-important-process-for-surface-sea-water-properties
#6
Dwiyoga Nugroho, Ariane Koch-Larrouy, Philippe Gaspar, Florent Lyard, Guillaume Reffray, Benoit Tranchant
Very intense internal tides take place in Indonesian seas. They dissipate and affect the vertical distribution of temperature and currents, which in turn influence the survival rates and transports of most planktonic organisms at the base of the whole marine ecosystem. This study uses the INDESO physical model to characterize the internal tides spatio-temporal patterns in the Indonesian Seas. The model reproduced internal tide dissipation in agreement with previous fine structure and microstructure observed in-situ in the sites of generation...
June 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624421/spatial-synchrony-and-harvesting-in-fluctuating-populations-relaxing-the-small-noise-assumption
#7
Steinar Engen
In spatio-temporal population dynamic models the most important concept, in addition to mean and variance of local density fluctuations, is the spatial scale of fluctuations in density expressed by studying the spatial autocovariance function. Analytical formulas for this scale in models with local density regulation, dispersal and spatially autocorrelated noise, are rather simple when based on asymptotic theory giving linear models in the limit as the environmental variance approaches zero. The accuracy of these analytical small noise approximations has, however, not been investigated theoretically...
June 14, 2017: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624371/histone-ubiquitination-in-the-dna-damage-response
#8
REVIEW
Michael Uckelmann, Titia K Sixma
DNA double strand breaks need to be repaired in an organized fashion to preserve genomic integrity. In the organization of faithful repair, histone ubiquitination plays a crucial role. Recent findings suggest an integrated model for DNA repair regulation through site-specific histone ubiquitination and crosstalk to other posttranslational modifications. Here we discuss how site-specific histone ubiquitination is achieved on a molecular level and how different multi-protein complexes work together to integrate different histone ubiquitination states...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623284/spatio-temporal-steering-for-testing-nonclassical-correlations-in-quantum-networks
#9
Shin-Liang Chen, Neill Lambert, Che-Ming Li, Guang-Yin Chen, Yueh-Nan Chen, Adam Miranowicz, Franco Nori
We introduce the concept of spatio-temporal steering (STS), which reduces, in special cases, to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and the recently-introduced temporal steering. We describe two measures of this effect referred to as the STS weight and robustness. We suggest that these STS measures enable a new way to assess nonclassical correlations in an open quantum network, such as quantum transport through nano-structures or excitation transfer in a complex biological system. As one of our examples, we apply STS to check nonclassical correlations among sites in a photosynthetic pigment-protein complex in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson model...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618791/broadband-classification-and-statistics-of-echoes-from-aggregations-of-fish-measured-by-long-range-mid-frequency-sonar
#10
Benjamin A Jones, Timothy K Stanton, John A Colosi, Roger C Gauss, Joseph M Fialkowski, J Michael Jech
For horizontal-looking sonar systems operating at mid-frequencies (1-10 kHz), scattering by fish with resonant gas-filled swimbladders can dominate seafloor and surface reverberation at long-ranges (i.e., distances much greater than the water depth). This source of scattering, which can be difficult to distinguish from other sources of scattering in the water column or at the boundaries, can add spatio-temporal variability to an already complex acoustic record. Sparsely distributed, spatially compact fish aggregations were measured in the Gulf of Maine using a long-range broadband sonar with continuous spectral coverage from 1...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618586/pattern-of-a-confined-chemical-garden-controlled-by-injection-speed
#11
Shu Wagatsuma, Takuro Higashi, Yutaka Sumino, Ayumi Achiwa
Pattern of confined chemical garden was controlled by the speed of injected fluid, and their mechanism is discussed. A confined chemical garden system was constructed where an aqueous solution of cobalt chloride was injected into a cell filled with sodium silicate solution. The reaction of these two solutions resulted in the formation of precipitation. The viscosities of the prepared aqueous solutions were set to be similar in order to rule out the possibility of Saffman-Taylor instability. The injection front showed three distinctive patterns: algaes, shells, and filaments, which were dependent on injection speed...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612053/micro-epidemiological-structuring-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasite-populations-in-regions-with-varying-transmission-intensities-in-africa
#12
Irene Omedo, Polycarp Mogeni, Teun Bousema, Kirk Rockett, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Isabella Oyier, Jennifer C Stevenson, Amrish Y Baidjoe, Etienne P de Villiers, Greg Fegan, Amanda Ross, Christina Hubbart, Anne Jeffreys, Thomas N Williams, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Philip Bejon
Background: The first models of malaria transmission assumed a completely mixed and homogeneous population of parasites.  Recent models include spatial heterogeneity and variably mixed populations. However, there are few empiric estimates of parasite mixing with which to parametize such models. Methods: Here we genotype 276 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5199 P. falciparum isolates from two Kenyan sites and one Gambian site to determine the spatio-temporal extent of parasite mixing, and use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and linear regression to examine the relationship between genetic relatedness and relatedness in space and time for parasite pairs...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608436/bayesian-epidemic-models-for-spatially-aggregated-count-data
#13
Chrisovalantis Malesios, Nikolaos Demiris, Konstantinos Kalogeropoulos, Ioannis Ntzoufras
Epidemic data often possess certain characteristics, such as the presence of many zeros, the spatial nature of the disease spread mechanism, environmental noise, serial correlation and dependence on time-varying factors. This paper addresses these issues via suitable Bayesian modelling. In doing so, we utilize a general class of stochastic regression models appropriate for spatio-temporal count data with an excess number of zeros. The developed regression framework does incorporate serial correlation and time-varying covariates through an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process formulation...
June 12, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607100/control-of-mucosal-candidiasis-in-the-zebrafish-swimbladder-depends-on-neutrophils-that-block-filament-invasion-and-drive-extracellular-trap-production
#14
Remi L Gratacap, Allison K Scherer, Brittany G Seman, Robert T Wheeler
Candida albicans is a ubiquitous mucosal commensal that is normally prevented from causing acute or chronic invasive disease. Neutrophils contribute to protection in oral infection but exacerbate vulvovaginal candidiasis. To dissect the role of neutrophils during mucosal candidiasis we took advantage of a new, transparent zebrafish swimbladder infection model. Intravital microscopic tracking of individual animals revealed that blocking neutrophil recruitment leads to rapid mortality in this model through faster disease progression...
June 12, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601604/axonal-dystrophy-in-the-brain-of-mice-with-sanfilippo-syndrome
#15
Helen Beard, Sofia Hassiotis, Wei-Ping Gai, Emma Parkinson-Lawrence, John J Hopwood, Kim M Hemsley
Axonal dystrophy has been described as an early pathological feature of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Axonal inclusions have also been reported to occur in several neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders including Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA; Sanfilippo syndrome). This disorder results from a mutation in the gene encoding the lysosomal sulphatase sulphamidase, and as a consequence heparan sulphate accumulates, accompanied by secondarily-stored gangliosides...
June 7, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600632/dynamic-complexity-measures-and-entropy-paths-for-modelling-and-comparison-of-evolution-of-patients-with-drug-resistant-epileptic-encephalopathy-syndromes-drees
#16
Ricardo Zavala-Yoe, Ricardo A Ramirez-Mendoza
Epileptic encephalopathies (EE) is a term coined by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) to refer to a group of epilepsies in which the ictal and interictal abnormalities may contribute to progressive cerebral dysfunction. Among them, two affect mainly children and are very difficult to deal with, Doose and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes, (DS and LGS, respectively). So far (Zavala-Yoe et al., J Integr Neurosci 15(2):205-223, 2015a and works of ours there), quantitative analysis of single case studies of EE have been performed...
June 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600238/long-term-temporal-convolutions-for-action-recognition
#17
Gul Varol, Ivan Laptev, Cordelia Schmid
Typical human actions last several seconds and exhibit characteristic spatio-temporal structure. Recent methods attempt to capture this structure and learn action representations with convolutional neural networks. Such representations, however, are typically learned at the level of a few video frames failing to model actions at their full temporal extent. In this work we learn video representations using neural networks with long-term temporal convolutions (LTC). We demonstrate that LTC-CNN models with increased temporal extents improve the accuracy of action recognition...
June 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599365/the-critical-role-of-local-policy-effects-in-arid-watershed-groundwater-resources-sustainability-a-case-study-in-the-minqin-oasis-china
#18
Yuanyuan Hao, Yaowen Xie, Jinhui Ma, Wenpei Zhang
Designed as a watershed groundwater restoration policy (WGRP), the Comprehensive Treatment Program of the Shiyang River Basin (CTSRB) was launched in 2006 to restore the groundwater resources in the Minqin oasis, northwestern China. This study sought to verify the recovery effects of CTSRB implementation from the perspective of groundwater depth. We reconstructed the spatio-temporal distribution of groundwater depth at interannual and pixel scales by using digital groundwater depth models (DGDMs), based on the ordinary kriging interpolation method...
June 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593563/spatio-temporal-monitoring-of-cotton-cultivation-using-ground-based-and-airborne-multispectral-sensors-in-gis-environment
#19
Antonis Papadopoulos, Dionissios Kalivas, Sid Theocharopoulos
Multispectral sensor capability of capturing reflectance data at several spectral channels, together with the inherent reflectance responses of various soils and especially plant surfaces, has gained major interest in crop production. In present study, two multispectral sensing systems, a ground-based and an aerial-based, were applied for the multispatial and temporal monitoring of two cotton fields in central Greece. The ground-based system was Crop Circle ACS-430, while the aerial consisted of a consumer-level quadcopter (Phantom 2) and a modified Hero3+ Black digital camera...
July 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592317/modeling-the-spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-porcine-reproductive-respiratory-syndrome-cases-at-farm-level-using-geographical-distance-and-pig-trade-network-matrices
#20
Sara Amirpour Haredasht, Dale Polson, Rodger Main, Kyuyoung Lee, Derald Holtkamp, Beatriz Martínez-López
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating infectious diseases for the swine industry. A better understanding of the disease dynamics and the transmission pathways under diverse epidemiological scenarios is a key for the successful PRRS control and elimination in endemic settings. In this paper we used a two step parameter-driven (PD) Bayesian approach to model the spatio-temporal dynamics of PRRS and predict the PRRS status on farm in subsequent time periods in an endemic setting in the US...
June 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
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