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Spatio-temporal modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548240/viscoelastic-computational-modeling-of-the-human-head-neck-system-eigenfrequencies-and-time-dependent-analysis
#1
E Boccia, A Gizzi, C Cherubini, M G C Nestola, S Filippi
A subject-specific three-dimensional viscoelastic finite element model of the human head-neck system is presented and investigated based on Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance biomedical images. Ad hoc imaging processing tools are developed for the reconstruction of the simulation domain geometry and the internal distribution of bone and soft tissues. Materials viscoelastic properties are characterized point-wise through an image-based interpolating function used then for assigning the constitutive prescriptions of a heterogenous viscoelastic continuum model...
May 26, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546341/intra-generational-protein-malnutrition-impairs-temporal-astrogenesis-in-rat-brain
#2
Aijaz Ahmad Naik, Nisha Patro, Pankaj Seth, Ishan K Patro
The scanty information on astrogenesis following stressor effect, albeit imperative roles of astroglia in normal physiology and pathophysiology, incited us to assess temporal astrogenesis and astrocyte density in an intra-generational protein malnutrition (PMN) rat model. Standard immunohistochemical procedures for glial lineage markers and their intensity measurements and qRT-PCR studies were performed to reveal the spatio-temporal origin and density of astrocytes. Reduced A2B5+ glia restricted precursor population in ventricles and poor dissemination to cortex at embryonic days (E)11-14, low BLBP+ secondary radial glia in SVZ of E16 LP brains reflect compromised progenitor pooling...
May 25, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545208/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-particulate-matter-intake-fractions-for-vehicular-emissions-hourly-variation-by-micro-environments-in-the-greater-toronto-and-hamilton-area-canada
#3
Weeberb J Requia, Matthew D Adams, Altaf Arain, Petros Koutrakis, Wan-Chen Lee, Mark Ferguson
Previous investigations have reported intake fraction (iF) for different environments, which include ambient concentrations (outdoor exposure) and microenvironments (indoor exposure). However, little is known about iF variations due to space-time factors, especially in microenvironments. In this paper, we performed a spatio-temporal analysis of particulate matter (PM2.5) intake fractions for vehicular emissions. Specifically, we investigated hourly variation (12:00am-11:00pm) by micro-environments (residences and workplaces) in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA), Canada...
May 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533086/spatio-temporal-pattern-of-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-visual-system-a-user-s-guide-to-the-dynamic-morphology-of-the-developing-optic-lobe
#4
Kathy T Ngo, Ingrid Andrade, Volker Hartenstein
Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522119/neural-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-circuit-to-molecule-perspective-of-optogenetics
#5
REVIEW
Qinghu Yang, Da Song, Hong Qing
Alzheimer's disease (AD), as a crucial neurodegenerative disorder, affects neural activities at many levels. Synaptic plasticity and neural circuits are most susceptible in AD, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Optogenetic tools provide unprecedented spatio-temporal specificity to stimulate specific neural circuits or synaptic molecules to reveal the precise function of normal brain and mechanism of deficits in AD models. Furthermore, using optogenetics to stimulate neurons can rescue learning and memory loss caused by AD...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521277/the-spatio-temporal-mechanical-environment-of-healthy-and-injured-human-cartilage-during-sustained-activity-and-its-role-in-cartilage-damage
#6
Saeed Miramini, David W Smith, Lihai Zhang, Bruce S Gardiner
Recently we presented a computational model of articular cartilage calibrated for normal human tissue explants. This model was able to capture the transient deformation of cartilage experiencing a cyclic load. The model takes into account the tension-compression nonlinearity of the cartilage and incorporates the dependency of the compressive stiffness and fluid permeability of cartilage on the deformation-dependent aggrecan concentration in cartilage tissue. As such it represents a leading constitutive model of articular cartilage...
May 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507228/understanding-principles-of-integration-and-segregation-using-whole-brain-computational-connectomics-implications-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Louis-David Lord, Angus B Stevner, Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
To survive in an ever-changing environment, the brain must seamlessly integrate a rich stream of incoming information into coherent internal representations that can then be used to efficiently plan for action. The brain must, however, balance its ability to integrate information from various sources with a complementary capacity to segregate information into modules which perform specialized computations in local circuits. Importantly, evidence suggests that imbalances in the brain's ability to bind together and/or segregate information over both space and time is a common feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495369/group-level-spatio-temporal-pattern-recovery-in-meg-decoding-using-multi-task-joint-feature-learning
#8
Seyed Mostafa Kia, Fabian Pedregosa, Anna Blumenthal, Andrea Passerini
BACKGROUND: The use of machine learning models to discriminate between patterns of neural activity has become in recent years a standard analysis approach in neuroimaging studies. Whenever these models are linear, the estimated parameters can be visualized in the form of brain maps which can aid in understanding how brain activity in space and time underlies a cognitive function. However, the recovered brain maps often suffer from lack of interpretability, especially in group analysis of multi-subject data...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494013/modeling-spatial-variation-in-risk-of-presence-and-insecticide-resistance-for-malaria-vectors-in-laos
#9
Marc Souris, Sébastien Marcombe, Julie Laforet, Paul T Brey, Vincent Corbel, Hans J Overgaard
Climatic, sociological and environmental conditions are known to affect the spatial distribution of malaria vectors and disease transmission. Intensive use of insecticides in the agricultural and public health sectors exerts a strong selective pressure on resistance genes in malaria vectors. Spatio-temporal models of favorable conditions for Anopheles species' presence were developed to estimate the probability of presence of malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in Lao PDR. These models were based on environmental and meteorological conditions, and demographic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489532/video-super-resolution-via-bidirectional-recurrent-convolutional-networks
#10
Yan Huang, Wei Wang, Liang Wang
Super resolving a low-resolution video, namely video super-resolution (SR), is usually handled by either single-image SR or multi-frame SR. Single-Image SR deals with each video frame independently, and ignores intrinsic temporal dependency of video frames which actually plays a very important role in video SR. Multi-Frame SR generally extracts motion information, e.g., optical flow, to model the temporal dependency, but often shows high computational cost. Considering that recurrent neural networks (RNNs) can model long-term temporal dependency of video sequences well, we propose a fully convolutional RNN named bidirectional recurrent convolutional network for efficient multi-frame SR...
May 4, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483568/mathematical-models-of-retinitis-pigmentosa-the-oxygen-toxicity-hypothesis
#11
Paul A Roberts, Eamonn A Gaffney, Philip J Luthert, Alexander J E Foss, Helen M Byrne
The group of genetically mediated diseases, known collectively as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), cause retinal degeneration and, hence, loss of vision. The most common inherited retinal degeneration, RP is currently untreatable. The retina detects light using cells known as photoreceptors, of which there are two types: rods and cones. In RP, genetic mutations cause patches of photoreceptors to degenerate and typically directly affect either rods or cones, but not both. During disease progression, degenerate patches spread and the unaffected photoreceptor type also begins to degenerate...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475051/predicting-macular-edema-recurrence-from-spatio-temporal-signatures-in-optical-coherence-tomography-images
#12
Wolf-Dieter Vogl, Sebastian M Waldstein, Bianca S Gerendas, Ursula Schmidt-Erfurth, Georg Langs
Prediction of treatment responses from available data is key to optimizing personalized treatment. Retinal diseases are treated over long periods and patients' response patterns differ substantially, ranging from a complete response to a recurrence of the disease and need for re-treatment at different intervals. Linking observable variables in high-dimensional observations to outcome is challenging. In this paper, we present and evaluate two different data-driven machine learning approaches operating in a high-dimensional feature space: sparse logistic regression and Random Forests based extra trees (ET)...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472096/a-bayesian-spatio-temporal-model-for-forecasting-the-prevalence-of-antibodies-to-borrelia-burgdorferi-causative-agent-of-lyme-disease-in-domestic-dogs-within-the-contiguous-united-states
#13
Stella C Watson, Yan Liu, Robert B Lund, Jenna R Gettings, Shila K Nordone, Christopher S McMahan, Michael J Yabsley
This paper models the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in domestic dogs in the United States using climate, geographic, and societal factors. We then use this model to forecast the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in dogs for 2016. The data available for this study consists of 11,937,925 B. burgdorferi serologic test results collected at the county level within the 48 contiguous United States from 2011-2015. Using the serologic data, a baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence map was constructed through the use of spatial smoothing techniques after temporal aggregation; i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469494/studying-dyadic-structure-function-relationships-a-review-of-current-modeling-approaches-and-new-insights-into-ca-2-mis-handling
#14
Mary M Maleckar, Andrew G Edwards, William E Louch, Glenn T Lines
Excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac myocytes requires calcium influx through L-type calcium channels in the sarcolemma, which gates calcium release through sarcoplasmic reticulum ryanodine receptors in a process known as calcium-induced calcium release, producing a myoplasmic calcium transient and enabling cardiomyocyte contraction. The spatio-temporal dynamics of calcium release, buffering, and reuptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum play a central role in excitation-contraction coupling in both normal and diseased cardiac myocytes...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467430/analysis-of-transcription-factors-expressed-at-the-anterior-mouse-limb-bud
#15
Shigetoshi Yokoyama, Soichi Furukawa, Shoya Kitada, Masaki Mori, Takeshi Saito, Koichi Kawakami, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Yasuhiko Kawakami, Yoshiaki Ito, Tempei Sato, Hiroshi Asahara
Limb bud patterning, outgrowth, and differentiation are precisely regulated in a spatio-temporal manner through integrated networks of transcription factors, signaling molecules, and downstream genes. However, the exact mechanisms that orchestrate morphogenesis of the limb remain to be elucidated. Previously, we have established EMBRYS, a whole-mount in situ hybridization database of transcription factors. Based on the findings from EMBRYS, we focused our expression pattern analysis on a selection of transcription factor genes that exhibit spatially localized and temporally dynamic expression patterns with respect to the anterior-posterior axis in the E9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453604/modelling-seasonal-and-spatio-temporal-variation-in-respiratory-prescribing
#16
Eleni Sofianopoulou, Tanja Pless-Mulloli, Stephen Rushton, Peter J Diggle
Many measures of chronic diseases including respiratory disease exhibit seasonal variation together with residual correlation between consecutive time-periods and neighboring areas. We demonstrate a modern strategy for modelling data that exhibit both seasonal trend and spatio-temporal correlation, through an application to respiratory prescribing. We analyzed 55 months (2002-2006) of prescribing data, in the northeast of England, UK. We estimated the seasonal pattern of prescribing by fitting a dynamic harmonic regression (DHR) model to salbutamol prescribing in relation to temperature...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450841/gaze-behavior-consistency-among-older-and-younger-adults-when-looking-at-emotional-faces
#17
Laurence Chaby, Isabelle Hupont, Marie Avril, Viviane Luherne-du Boullay, Mohamed Chetouani
The identification of non-verbal emotional signals, and especially of facial expressions, is essential for successful social communication among humans. Previous research has reported an age-related decline in facial emotion identification, and argued for socio-emotional or aging-brain model explanations. However, more perceptual differences in the gaze strategies that accompany facial emotional processing with advancing age have been under-explored yet. In this study, 22 young (22.2 years) and 22 older (70...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448899/undesirable-properties-of-the-dimensionless-normalisation-for-spatio-temporal-variables
#18
Kohleth Chia, Morgan Sangeux
We used theory and empirical data to demonstrate three undesirable properties of the dimensionless normalisation technique for gait spatio-temporal parameters. Firstly, it may not fully remove the correlation between leg length and spatio-temporal parameters. Secondly, it induces spurious correlation among spatio-temporal parameters, which might obscure their true correlation structure. Thirdly, it induces spurious correlation with external covariates, which complicates further statistical modelling. Therefore, depending on the objectives, we propose alternatives...
April 19, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447646/a-130-000-year-old-archaeological-site-in-southern-california-usa
#19
Steven R Holen, Thomas A Deméré, Daniel C Fisher, Richard Fullagar, James B Paces, George T Jefferson, Jared M Beeton, Richard A Cerutti, Adam N Rountrey, Lawrence Vescera, Kathleen A Holen
The earliest dispersal of humans into North America is a contentious subject, and proposed early sites are required to meet the following criteria for acceptance: (1) archaeological evidence is found in a clearly defined and undisturbed geologic context; (2) age is determined by reliable radiometric dating; (3) multiple lines of evidence from interdisciplinary studies provide consistent results; and (4) unquestionable artefacts are found in primary context. Here we describe the Cerutti Mastodon (CM) site, an archaeological site from the early late Pleistocene epoch, where in situ hammerstones and stone anvils occur in spatio-temporal association with fragmentary remains of a single mastodon (Mammut americanum)...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444200/the-mediterranean-the-cradle-of-anthoxanthum-poaceae-diploid-diversity
#20
Zuzana Chumová, Eliška Záveská, Terezie Mandáková, Karol Krak, Pavel Trávnícek
Background and Aims: Knowledge of diploid phylogeny and ecogeography provide a foundation for understanding plant evolutionary history, diversification patterns and taxonomy. The genus Anthoxanthum (vernal grasses, Poaceae) represents a taxonomically intricate polyploid complex with large phenotypic variation and poorly resolved evolutionary relationships. The aims of the study were to reveal: (1) evolutionary lineages of the diploid taxa and their genetic differentiation; (2) the past distribution of the rediscovered 'Mediterranean diploid'; and (3) possible migration routes of diploids in the Mediterranean...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
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