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Spatio-temporal modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331008/coordination-of-the-pincer-grasp-and-transport-following-a-mechanical-perturbation-of-the-index-finger
#1
Luis F Schettino, Sergei V Adamovich, Eugene Tunik
Our understanding of reach-to-grasp movements has evolved from the original formulation of the movement as two semi-independent visuomotor channels to one of interdependence. In spite of a number of important contributions involving perturbations of the reach or the grasp, some of the features of the movement, such as the presence or absence of coordination between the digits during the pincer grasp and the extent of spatio-temporal interdependence between the transport and the grasp are still unclear. In this study, we physically perturbed the index finger into extension during grasping closure, on a minority of trials, to test whether modifying the movement of one digit would affect the movement of the opposite digit, suggestive of an overarching coordinative process...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327632/assessment-of-residential-environmental-exposure-to-pesticides-from-agricultural-fields-in-the-netherlands
#2
Maartje Brouwer, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen, Jan Duyzer, Henk Kramer, Gerard Hazeu, Geert de Snoo, Anke Huss
We developed a spatio-temporal model for the Netherlands to estimate environmental exposure to individual agricultural pesticides at the residential address for application in a national case-control study on Parkinson's disease (PD). Data on agricultural land use and pesticide use were combined to estimate environmental exposure to pesticides for the period 1961 onwards. Distance categories of 0-50 m, >50-100 m, >100-500 m and >500-1000 m around residences were considered. For illustration purposes, exposure was estimated for the control population (n=607) in the PD case-control study...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324943/overcoming-spatio-temporal-limitations-using-dynamically-scaled-in-vitro-pc-mri-a-flow-field-comparison-to-true-scale-computer-simulations-of-idealized-stented-and-patient-specific-left-main-bifurcations
#3
Susann Beier, John Ormiston, Mark Webster, John Cater, Stuart Norris, Pau Medrano-Gracia, Alistair Young, Kathleen Gilbert, Brett Cowan
The majority of patients with angina or heart failure have coronary artery disease. Left main bifurcations are particularly susceptible to pathological narrowing. Flow is a major factor of atheroma development, but limitations in imaging technology such as spatio-temporal resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNRv), and imaging artefacts prevent in vivo investigations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is a common numerical approach to study flow, but it requires a cautious and rigorous application for meaningful results...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324791/spatio-temporal-neighborhood-impacts-on-internalizing-and-externalizing-behaviors-in-u-s-elementary-school-children-effect-modification-by-child-and-family-socio-demographics
#4
Jamie L Humphrey, Elisabeth D Root
Increasing evidence from experimental and non-experimental research has shown that children residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods exhibit greater levels of internalizing and externalizing behaviors, above and beyond individual characteristics, and family or school contexts. Using the ECLS-K, a nationally representative, longitudinal survey of U.S. school children, this study examined direct neighborhood effects on internalizing (N = 14,870; N = 10,610) and externalizing (N = 14,960; N = 10,730) behaviors at the beginning and end of elementary school...
March 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319711/why-coastal-upwelling-is-expected-to-increase-along-the-western-iberian-peninsula-over-the-next-century
#5
Magda Catarina Sousa, Maite deCastro, Ines Alvarez, Moncho Gomez-Gesteira, João Miguel Dias
Former studies about coastal upwelling along the Western Iberian Peninsula (WIP) using historical data indicated contradictory results, showing either its strengthening or reduction, while previous studies using Global Climate Models (GCMs) indicated that global warming is likely to intensify this phenomenon although predicting different rates and not justifying the patterns found. Taking advantage of the recent high spatial resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) projections from EURO-CORDEX project (Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP 8...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318698/stochastic-modeling-of-phosphorus-transport-in-the-three-gorges-reservoir-by-incorporating-variability-associated-with-the-phosphorus-partition-coefficient
#6
Lei Huang, Hongwei Fang, Xingya Xu, Guojian He, Xuesong Zhang, Danny Reible
Phosphorus (P) fate and transport plays a crucial role in the ecology of rivers and reservoirs in which eutrophication is limited by P. A key uncertainty in models used to help manage P in such systems is the partitioning of P to suspended and bed sediments. By analyzing data from field and laboratory experiments, we stochastically characterize the variability of the partition coefficient (Kd) and derive spatio-temporal solutions for P transport in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). We formulate a set of stochastic partial different equations (SPDEs) to simulate P transport by randomly sampling Kd from the measured distributions, to obtain statistical descriptions of the P concentration and retention in the TGR...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316563/a-saccade-based-framework-for-real-time-motion-segmentation-using-event-based-vision-sensors
#7
Abhishek Mishra, Rohan Ghosh, Jose C Principe, Nitish V Thakor, Sunil L Kukreja
Motion segmentation is a critical pre-processing step for autonomous robotic systems to facilitate tracking of moving objects in cluttered environments. Event based sensors are low power analog devices that represent a scene by means of asynchronous information updates of only the dynamic details at high temporal resolution and, hence, require significantly less calculations. However, motion segmentation using spatiotemporal data is a challenging task due to data asynchrony. Prior approaches for object tracking using neuromorphic sensors perform well while the sensor is static or a known model of the object to be followed is available...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316255/a-bayesian-double-fusion-model-for-resting-state-brain-connectivity-using-joint-functional-and-structural-data
#8
Hakmook Kang, Hernando Ombao, Christopher Fonnesbeck, Zhaohua Ding, Victoria L Morgan
Current approaches separately analyze concurrently acquired diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The primary limitation of these approaches is that they do not take advantage of the information from DTI that could potentially enhance estimation of resting state functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions. To overcome this limitation, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model that incorporates structural connectivity into estimating FC. In our proposed approach, structural connectivity (SC) based on DTI data is used to construct an informative prior for functional connectivity based on resting state fMRI data via the Cholesky decomposition...
March 19, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315461/single-or-multi-frequency-generators-in-on-going-brain-activity-a-mechanistic-whole-brain-model-of-empirical-meg-data
#9
Gustavo Deco, Joana Cabral, Mark W Woolrich, Angus B A Stevner, Tim J van Hartevelt, Morten L Kringelbach
During rest, envelopes of band-limited on-going MEG signals co-vary across the brain in consistent patterns, which have been related to resting-state networks measured with fMRI. To investigate the genesis of such envelope correlations, we consider a whole-brain network model assuming two distinct fundamental scenarios: one where each brain area generates oscillations in a single frequency, and a novel one where each brain area can generate oscillations in multiple frequency bands. The models share, as a common generator of damped oscillations, the normal form of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation operating at the critical border between the steady state and the oscillatory regime...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303015/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-a-planktonic-system-and-chlorophyll-distribution-in-a-2d-spatial-domain-matching-model-and-data
#10
Davide Valenti, Giovanni Denaro, Rosalia Ferreri, Simona Genovese, Salvatore Aronica, Salvatore Mazzola, Angelo Bonanno, Gualtiero Basilone, Bernardo Spagnolo
Field data on chlorophyll distribution are investigated in a two-dimensional spatial domain of the Mediterranean Sea by using for phytoplankton abundances an advection-diffusion-reaction model, which includes real values for physical and biological variables. The study exploits indeed hydrological and nutrients data acquired in situ, and includes intraspecific competition for limiting factors, i.e. light intensity and phosphate concentration. As a result, the model allows to analyze how both the velocity field of marine currents and the two components of turbulent diffusivity affect the spatial distributions of phytoplankton abundances in the Modified Atlantic Water, the upper layer of the water column of the Mediterranean Sea...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301603/drought-risk-assessment-under-climate-change-is-sensitive-to-methodological-choices-for-the-estimation-of-evaporative-demand
#11
Candida F Dewes, Imtiaz Rangwala, Joseph J Barsugli, Michael T Hobbins, Sanjiv Kumar
Several studies have projected increases in drought severity, extent and duration in many parts of the world under climate change. We examine sources of uncertainty arising from the methodological choices for the assessment of future drought risk in the continental US (CONUS). One such uncertainty is in the climate models' expression of evaporative demand (E0), which is not a direct climate model output but has been traditionally estimated using several different formulations. Here we analyze daily output from two CMIP5 GCMs to evaluate how differences in E0 formulation, treatment of meteorological driving data, choice of GCM, and standardization of time series influence the estimation of E0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293559/data-driven-risk-assessment-from-small-scale-epidemics-estimation-and-model-choice-for-spatio-temporal-data-with-application-to-a-classical-swine-fever-outbreak
#12
Kokouvi Gamado, Glenn Marion, Thibaud Porphyre
Livestock epidemics have the potential to give rise to significant economic, welfare, and social costs. Incursions of emerging and re-emerging pathogens may lead to small and repeated outbreaks. Analysis of the resulting data is statistically challenging but can inform disease preparedness reducing potential future losses. We present a framework for spatial risk assessment of disease incursions based on data from small localized historic outbreaks. We focus on between-farm spread of livestock pathogens and illustrate our methods by application to data on the small outbreak of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) that occurred in 2000 in East Anglia, UK...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287551/temporal-ordering-of-dynamic-expression-data-from-detailed-spatial-expression-maps
#13
Charlotte S L Bailey, Robert A Bone, Philip J Murray, J Kim Dale
During somitogenesis, pairs of epithelial somites form in a progressive manner, budding off from the anterior end of the pre-somitic mesoderm (PSM) with a strict species-specific periodicity. The periodicity of the process is regulated by a molecular oscillator, known as the "segmentation clock," acting in the PSM cells. This clock drives the oscillatory patterns of gene expression across the PSM in a posterior-anterior direction. These so-called clock genes are key components of three signaling pathways: Wnt, Notch, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282439/iterative-free-energy-optimization-for-recurrent-neural-networks-inferno
#14
Alexandre Pitti, Philippe Gaussier, Mathias Quoy
The intra-parietal lobe coupled with the Basal Ganglia forms a working memory that demonstrates strong planning capabilities for generating robust yet flexible neuronal sequences. Neurocomputational models however, often fails to control long range neural synchrony in recurrent spiking networks due to spontaneous activity. As a novel framework based on the free-energy principle, we propose to see the problem of spikes' synchrony as an optimization problem of the neurons sub-threshold activity for the generation of long neuronal chains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276626/exploration-on-the-risk-factors-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-incidence-in-wenchuan-earthquake-stricken-area
#15
Xiaoyan Yang, Hailong Zhou, Xiaoping Pan
AIM: To explore the risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis incidence in Wenchuan earthquake-stricken area during a nine-year period of time. METHODS: The incidence and socio-economic indicators in the 181 counties of Sichuan province from 2004 to 2012 were collected, multilevel extra-Poisson model was performed for variable screening, Bayesian spatio-temporal models were fitted. RESULTS: The morbidity showed a downward time trend from 2004 to 2012...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274248/a-bayesian-spatio-temporal-model-for-forecasting-the-prevalence-of-antibodies-to-ehrlichia-species-in-domestic-dogs-within-the-contiguous-united-states
#16
Yan Liu, Robert B Lund, Shila K Nordone, Michael J Yabsley, Christopher S McMahan
BACKGROUND: Dogs in the United States are hosts to a diverse range of vector-borne pathogens, several of which are important zoonoses. This paper describes factors deemed to be significantly related to the prevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in domestic dogs, including climatic conditions, geographical factors, and societal factors. These factors are used in concert with a spatio-temporal model to construct an annual seroprevalence forecast. The proposed method of forecasting and an assessment of its fidelity are described...
March 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273663/sex-specific-transcript-diversity-in-the-fly-head-is-established-during-pupal-stages-and-adulthood-and-is-largely-independent-of-the-mating-process-and-the-germline
#17
Carmen Mohr, Sarah Kleiner, Marco Blanchette, George Pyrowolakis, Britta Hartmann
Alternative splicing (AS), the process which generates multiple RNA and protein isoforms from a single pre-mRNA, greatly contributes to transcript diversity and compensates for the fact that the gene number does not scale with organismal complexity. A number of genomic approaches have established that the extent of AS is much higher than previously expected, raising questions on its spatio-temporal regulation and function. In the present study, we address AS in the context of sex-specific neuronal development in the model Drosophila melanogaster...
March 9, 2017: Sexual Development: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution, Endocrinology, Embryology, and Pathology of Sex Determination and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269650/a-boolean-approach-to-bacterial-chemotaxis
#18
Anuj Deshpande, Sibendu Samanta, Haimabati Das, Ritwik Kumar Layek
Bacterium such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) show biased Brownian motion in different chemical concentration gradients. This chemical sensitive motility or chemotaxis has gained considerable interest among scientists for some remarkable features such as chemo-sensory dynamic range, adaptation, diffusion and drift. A Boolean model of the whole chemotaxis process has been developed in this manuscript. The response of the circuit is in accordance with the experimental results available in the literature, providing indirect validation of the model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269607/a-dce-mri-imaging-based-model-for-simulation-of-vascular-tumour-growth
#19
Thais Roque, Veerle Kersemans, Sean Smart, Danny Allen, Julia A Schnabel, Michael Chappell
Imaging-based modelling of tumour growth can serve as a powerful tool to understand and predict tumour evolution and its response to therapy. The purpose of this study was to introduce, calibrate and evaluate a multi-scale model of vascular tumour growth. The model allows for proliferation, death and spatial spread of tumour cells as well as for new vessel creation. Both the calibration and the evaluation of the tumour growth model were performed using pre-clinical longitudinal time series of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of colon carcinoma...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269181/source-imaging-of-simple-finger-movements-captured-during-auditory-response-tasks-using-space-time-frequency-based-sparsity-constraints
#20
Aritra Chaudhuri, Aurobinda Routray
Neural Information Flow during simple cognitive or motor actions is a significant research topic; one of which is a simple finger movement. In this paper, Electro-encephalograph (EEG) Source Imaging has been used to model the Neural Information flow, during performance of a simple Auditory Response Task (ART), specifically by employment of a space-time-frequency sparsity constrained based algorithm, namely, Spatio-temporal Unifying Tomography (STOUT). The estimated sources are then studied according to location defined based on Destrieux atlas...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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