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Soumya Sagar, Jonathan Rick, Ankush Chandra, Garima Yagnik, Manish K Aghi
Functional brain mapping (FBM) is an integral part of contemporary neurosurgery. It is crucial for safe and optimal resection of brain lesions like gliomas. The eloquent regions of the cortex like motor, somatosensory, Wernicke's, and Broca are usually mapped, either preoperatively or intraoperatively. Since its birth in the nineteenth century, FBM has witnessed immense modernization, radical refinements, and the introduction of novel techniques, most of which are non-invasive. Direct electrical stimulation of the cortex, despite its high invasiveness, remains the technique of choice...
July 13, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
Anello Marcello Poma, Liborio Torregrossa, Rossella Bruno, Fulvio Basolo, Gabriella Fontanini
The disruption of the Hippo pathway occurs in many cancer types and is associated with cancer progression. Herein, we investigated the impact of 32 Hippo genes on overall survival (OS) of cancer patients, by both analysing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and reviewing the related literature. mRNA and protein expression data of all solid tumors except pure sarcomas were downloaded from TCGA database. Thirty-two Hippo genes were considered; for each gene, patients were dichotomized based on median expression value...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dongsic Choi, Laura Montermini, Dae-Kyum Kim, Brian Meehan, Frederick P Roth, Janusz Rak
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive and heterogeneous form of primary brain tumors, driven by a complex repertoire of oncogenic alterations, including the constitutively active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII). EGFRvIII impacts both cell-intrinsic and non-cell autonomous aspects of GBM progression, including cell invasion, angiogenesis and modulation of the tumor microenvironment. This is, at least in part, attributable to the release and intercellular trafficking of extracellular vesicles (EVs), heterogeneous membrane structures containing multiple bioactive macromolecules...
July 13, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Lingjun Zhang, Mia Sorensen, Bjarne W Kristensen, Guido Reifenberger, Thomas M McIntyre, Feng Lin
PURPOSE: Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-1 and -2 genes are remarkably penetrant in diffuse gliomas. These highly effective gain-of-function mutations enable mutant IDH to efficiently metabolize isocitrate to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D 2-HG) that accumulates to high concentrations within the tumor microenvironment. D 2-HG is an intracellular effector that promotes tumor growth through widespread epigenetic changes in IDH mutant tumor cells, but its potential role as an intercellular immune regulator remains understudied...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Muralidhar Allam, A K D Bhavani, Anwita Mudiraj, Nikhil Ranjan, Mallikarjuna Thippana, Phanithi Prakash Babu
A series of hybrid aza heterocycles containing pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(5H)-ones tethered to 1,2,3-triazole scaffold were synthesized from 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of pyrazolopyrimidinone based alkyne with azides using Cu(II) catalyst in presence of sodium ascorbate and evaluated for their anticancer efficacy in vitro against C6 rat and U87 human glioma cell lines. These compounds induced a concentration dependent inhibition of C6 rat and U87 human glioma cell proliferation. Compound 5f arrested the cells at S-phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptosis in U87 GBM cell lines...
June 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Chong Hyun Suh, Ho Sung Kim, Seung Chai Jung, Choong Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the imaging features of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant glioma and to assess the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prediction of IDH mutation in patients with glioma. METHODS: A systematic search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 10 October 2017 was conducted to find relevant studies. The search terms combined synonyms for 'glioma', 'IDH mutation' and 'MRI'. Studies evaluating the imaging features of IDH mutant glioma and the diagnostic performance of MRI for prediction of IDH mutation in patients with glioma were selected...
July 12, 2018: European Radiology
Jiao Wang, Qian Wang, Fangfang Zhou, Jie Li, Qian Li, Hong Zhou, Shiman Li, Sujuan Ma, Tieqiao Wen
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is one of the most malignant brain cancer, thus, establishing an effective therapy is paramount. Our previous results indicate that dendritic cell-derived factor (DCF1) is an attractive candidate for therapy against Glioblastoma, since its overexpression in Glioblastoma U251 cells leads to apoptosis. However, the delivery approach limits its clinical application, in this paper, we expressed TAT-DCF1 fusion protein in E.coli in order to surmount its current delivery problems...
June 25, 2018: Neuropeptides
Enrique R Perez, Olena Bracho, Liliana Ein, Mikhaylo Szczupak, Paula V Monje, Cristina Fernandez-Valle, Abdulaziz Alshaiji, Michael Ivan, Jacques Morcos, Xue-Zhong Liu, Michael Hoffer, Adrien Eshraghi, Simon Angeli, Fred Telischi, Christine T Dinh
HYPOTHESIS: Merlin-deficient Schwann cells (MD-SC) and primary human vestibular schwannoma (VS) cells exhibit selective uptake of sodium-fluorescein (SF), allowing for fluorescent detection and improved visualization of tumor cells, when compared with Schwann cells (SC). BACKGROUND: SF is a fluorescent compound used for fluorescence-guided resection of gliomas. The utility of SF for VS surgery has not been assessed. METHODS: Mouse MD-SCs and rat SCs were cultured on 96-well plates at different cell densities and treated with SF at several drug concentrations and durations...
July 9, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Krissie Lenting, Mohammed Khurshed, Tom H Peeters, Corina N A M van den Heuvel, Sanne A M van Lith, Tessa de Bitter, Wiljan Hendriks, Paul N Span, Remco J Molenaar, Dennis Botman, Kiek Verrijp, Arend Heerschap, Mark Ter Laan, Benno Kusters, Anne van Ewijk, Martijn A Huynen, Cornelis J F van Noorden, William P J Leenders
Diffuse gliomas often carry point mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase ( IDH1mut ), resulting in metabolic stress. Although IDHmut gliomas are difficult to culture in vitro, they thrive in the brain via diffuse infiltration, suggesting brain-specific tumor-stroma interactions that can compensate for IDH-1 deficits. To elucidate the metabolic adjustments in clinical IDHmut gliomas that contribute to their malignancy, we applied a recently developed method of targeted quantitative RNA next-generation sequencing to 66 clinical gliomas and relevant orthotopic glioma xenografts, with and without the endogenous IDH-1R132H mutation...
July 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Eveline Teresa Hidalgo, Michelle W McQuinn, Jeffrey H Wisoff
Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are relatively common and benign lesions in children; however, in adults these lesions are nearly always malignant and hold a very poor prognosis. In this report the authors present the case of an adult patient with a benign OPG who underwent subtotal resection without adjuvant therapy and has had no tumor progression for more than 20 years. A 50-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of personality changes, weight gain, and a few months of visual disturbances. Ophthalmological evaluation showed incomplete right homonymous hemianopsia...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Andres Morales La Madrid, Surabhi Ranjan, Katherine E Warren
Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is an aggressive glioma characterized by an invasive growth pattern and a dismal prognosis. The low incidence and non-specific symptoms at presentation pose unique challenges for early diagnosis and disease-specific research. There is no standard of care for the treatment of patients with a GC phenotype. Understanding the biology of this entity is a critical step in determining effective treatments. Toward this end, the Second International GC Group convened at National Institutes of Health, Bethesda on June 22nd-23rd 2017...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Yiqiao Tian, Yanyu Huang, Pan Gao, Tianfeng Chen
A negatively-charged and nucleus-targeted DNA tetrahedron is rationally designed and used as a nanocarrier of positively-charged metal complexes. This tetrahedron speeds up the translocation of metal complexes into the cell nucleus, and inhibits the growth and invasion of glioma cells by triggering vascular mimicry-associated signaling pathways, thus achieving precise glioma treatment.
July 12, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Hao Xu, Shangchen Xu, Rui Zhang, Tao Xin, Qi Pang
Purpose: SIL1 is a ubiquitous protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and functions as a cochaperone of BiP. Previous studies have shown that function loss of SIL1 is often associated with neurological diseases, such as Marinesco-Sjögren Syndrome. However, no studies have investigated the function of SIL1 in tumors. In this study we aim to reveal functions of SIL1 and the underlying mechanisms in glioma. Materials and methods: First, by searching on Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis, we examined SIL1 expression and prognostic value in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and brain lower grade glioma (LGG)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Ross W Walton, Michael C Brown, Matthew T Sacco, Matthias Gromeier
We are pursuing cancer immunotherapy with neuro-attenuated recombinant poliovirus, PVSRIPO. PVSRIPO is the live attenuated type 1 (Sabin) poliovirus vaccine carrying a heterologous internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2). Intratumoral infusion of PVSRIPO is showing promise in the therapy of recurrent WHO grade IV malignant glioma (glioblastoma), a notoriously treatment-refractory cancer with dismal prognosis. PVSRIPO exhibits profound cytotoxicity in infected neoplastic cells expressing the poliovirus receptor CD155...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yi-Hui Huang, Qian-Jin Feng
Accurate segmentation of multiple gliomas from multimodal MRI is a prerequisite for many precision medical procedures. To effectively use the characteristics of glioma MRI and im-prove the segmentation accuracy, we proposes a multi-Dice loss function structure and used pre-experiments to select the good hyperparameters (i.e. data dimension, image fusion step, and the implementation of loss function) to construct a 3D full convolution DenseNet-based image feature learning network. This study included 274 segmented training sets of glioma MRI and 110 test sets without segmentation...
June 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Javier Vila, Michelle C Turner, Esther Gracia-Lavedan, Jordi Figuerola, Joseph D Bowman, Laurel Kincl, Lesley Richardson, Geza Benke, Martine Hours, Daniel Krewski, Dave McLean, Marie-Elise Parent, Siegal Sadetzki, Klaus Schlaefer, Brigitte Schlehofer, Joachim Schüz, Jack Siemiatycki, Martie van Tongeren, Elisabeth Cardis
INTRODUCTION: In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B), although the epidemiological evidence for the association between occupational exposure to RF-EMF and cancer was judged to be inadequate, due in part to limitations in exposure assessment. This study examines the relation between occupational RF and intermediate frequency (IF) EMF exposure and brain tumor (glioma and meningioma) risk in the INTEROCC multinational population-based case-control study (with nearly 4000 cases and over 5000 controls), using a novel exposure assessment approach...
July 8, 2018: Environment International
Seçkin Akgül, Yinghua Li, Siyuan Zheng, Marcel Kool, Daniel M Treisman, Chaoyang Li, Yuan Wang, Susanne Gröbner, Tsuneo Ikenoue, Yiping Shen, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Gerald Tomasek, Sebastian Stark, Vinay Guduguntla, James F Gusella, Kun-Liang Guan, Stefan M Pfister, Roel G W Verhaak, Yuan Zhu
Most human cancers arise from stem and progenitor cells by the sequential accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations, while cancer modeling typically requires simultaneous multiple oncogenic events. Here, we show that a single p53 mutation, despite causing no defect in the mouse brain, promoted neural stem and progenitor cells to spontaneously accumulate oncogenic alterations, including loss of multiple chromosomal (chr) regions syntenic to human chr10 containing Pten, forming malignant gliomas with PI3K/Akt activation...
July 10, 2018: Cell Reports
Chao Ma, Gongning Luo, Kuanquan Wang
Segmentation of brain tumors from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets is of great importance for improved diagnosis, growth rate prediction and treatment planning. However, automating this process is challenging due to the presence of severe partial volume effect and considerable variability in tumor structures, as well as imaging conditions, especially for the gliomas. In this work, we introduce a new methodology that combines random forests and active contour model for the automated segmentation of the gliomas from multimodal volumetric MR images...
February 13, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Lei Chen, Han Zhang, Junfeng Lu, Kimhan Thung, Abudumijiti Aibaidula, Luyan Liu, Songcan Chen, Lei Jin, Jinsong Wu, Qian Wang, Liangfu Zhou, Dinggang Shen
The O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation in high-grade gliomas (HGG) have proven to be the two important molecular indicators associated with better prognosis. Traditionally, the statuses of MGMT and IDH1 are obtained via surgical biopsy, which has limited their wider clinical implementation. Accurate presurgical prediction of their statuses based on preoperative multimodal neuroimaging is of great clinical value for a better treatment plan...
February 19, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Meriem Ben Abdallah, Marie Blonski, Sophie Wantz-Mezieres, Yann Gaudeau, Luc Taillandier, Jean-Marie Moureaux, Amelie Darlix, Nicolas Menjot de Champfleur, Hugues Duffau
Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas (DLGG) are brain tumors of young adults. They affect the quality of life of the inflicted patients and, if untreated, they evolve into higher grade tumors where the patient's life is at risk. Therapeutic management of DLGGs includes chemotherapy, and tumor diameter is particularly important for the follow-up of DLGG evolution. In fact, the main clinical basis for deciding whether to continue chemotherapy is tumor diameter growth rate. In order to reliably assist the doctors in selecting the most appropriate time to stop treatment, we propose a novel clinical decision support system...
May 7, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
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