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Zhihong J Wang, Yubin Ge, Deniz Altinok, Janet Poulik, Sandeep Sood, Jeffrey W Taub, Holly Edwards, Mark W Kieran, Miller Steven
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) remains a devastating disease. Panobinostat has been shown to have therapeutic efficacy both in vitro and in DIPG orthotopic xenograft models; however, clinical data in patients with DIPG are lacking. We present 2 cases of DIPG, who were treated with panobinostat at 22 to 25 mg/m/dose, 3 times weekly for 2 weeks in 3-week cycles and concomitant reirradiation after disease progression. Two episodes of asymptomatic thrombocytopenia were observed in 1 patient. Hyperacetylation of histone H4 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evident following treatment...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Stewart G Neill, Debra F Saxe, Michael R Rossi, Matthew J Schniederjan, Daniel J Brat
The evaluation of central nervous system tumors increasingly relies on molecular genetic methods to aid in classification, offer prognostic information, and predict response to therapy. Available assays make it possible to assess genetic losses, amplifications, translocations, mutations, or the expression levels of specific gene transcripts or proteins. Current molecular diagnostics frequently use a panel-based approach and whole genome analysis, and generally rely either on DNA sequencing or on hybridization-based methodologies, such as those used in cytogenomic microarrays...
March 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Shivanjali Saxena, Sushmita Jha
Gliomas are the most common solid tumors among central nervous system tumors. Most glioma patients succumb to their disease within two years of the initial diagnosis. The median survival of gliomas is only 14.6 months, even after aggressive therapy with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Gliomas are heavily infiltrated with myeloid- derived cells and endothelial cells. Increasing evidence suggests that these myeloid- derived cells interact with tumor cells promoting their growth and migration. NLRs (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-containing protein like receptors) are a class of pattern recognition receptors that are critical to sensing pathogen and danger associated molecular patterns...
February 9, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Brittany C Parker Kerrigan, Yuzaburo Shimizu, Michael Andreeff, Frederick F Lang
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cell that has been exploited for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer. In particular, MSCs have been studied extensively for their ability to treat glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and deadly form of brain cancer in adults. MSCs are attractive therapeutics because they can be obtained relatively easily from patients, are capable of being expanded numerically in vitro, can be easily engineered and are inherently capable of homing to tumors, making them ideal vehicles for delivering biological antitumoral agents...
February 20, 2017: Cytotherapy
Somnath Mondal, Iman Hazra, Ankur Datta, Omar Faruk Sk Md, Saibal Moitra, Santanu Kumar Tripathi, Swapna Chaudhuri
Combating gliomagenic global immunosuppression is the one of the emerging key for improving prognosis in malignant glioma. Apoptosis plays a pivotal role within the adult hematopoietic system particularly in regulating the cells of immune system. Gliomagenic regulation of apoptotic mediators within bone marrow milieu has not been elucidated. We previously demonstrated that administration of membrane glycopeptides T11 target structure (T11TS) not only rejuvenate bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (BMHSCs) from glioma mediated hibernation by inhibiting gliomagenic overexpression of Ang-1/Tie-2 but also stimulate glioma mediated diminution of expression CD34, c-kit and Sca-1 markers...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Magimairajan Issai Vanan, D Alan Underhill, David D Eisenstat
Progress in the treatment of adult high-grade gliomas (HGG), including chemoradiation with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma, has not translated into significant therapeutic advances for pediatric HGG, where overall survival has plateaued at 15% to 20%, especially when considering specialized pediatric treatment in tertiary care centers, maximal safe neurosurgical resection, optimized delivery of involved field radiation, and improvements in supportive care. However, recent advances in our understanding of pediatric HGG, including the application of next-generation sequencing and DNA methylation profiling, have identified mutations in the histone variant H3...
February 23, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
J Ricardo McFaline-Figueroa, Patrick Y Wen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The high incidence of and mortality from glioblastoma are matched by a lack of effective therapies. Previous research suggests an association between viral infection and glioma formation. In this manuscript, we review the available evidence for this association and the efficacy of treatment strategies targeted against viral infection. RECENT FINDINGS: We find that while a wide array of viruses can drive glioma tumor formation in vitro and in xenograft models, the most convincing association is with the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV)...
February 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Kirsten Ludwig, Harley I Kornblum
Gliomas are the most malignant and aggressive form of brain tumors, and account for the majority of brain cancer related deaths. Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma are treated with radiation and temozolomide, with only a minor benefit in survival time. A number of advances have been made in understanding glioma biology, including the discovery of cancer stem cells, termed glioma stem cells (GSC). Some of these advances include the delineation of molecular heterogeneity both between tumors from different patients as well as within tumors from the same patient...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Jennifer L Clarke, Annette M Molinaro, Juan R Cabrera, Ashley A DeSilva, Jane E Rabbitt, Joshua Prey, Daryl C Drummond, Jaeyeon Kim, Charles Noble, Jonathan B Fitzgerald, Susan M Chang, Nicholas A Butowski, Jennie W Taylor, John W Park, Michael D Prados
PURPOSE: Preclinical activity of irinotecan has been seen in glioma models, but only modest efficacy has been noted in clinical studies, perhaps related to drug distribution and/or pharmacokinetic limitations. In preclinical testing, irinotecan liposome injection (nal-IRI) results in prolongation of drug exposure and higher tissue levels of drug due to slower metabolism and the effect of enhanced permeability and retention. The objective of the current study was to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of nal-IRI and to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma stratified based on UGT1A1 genotyping...
February 23, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Hank F Kung, Karl Ploessl, David Mankoff, Lin Zhu, Rong Zhou
Glucose and glutamine are the most abundant nutrients for producing energy and building blocks in normal and tumor cells. Increased glycolysis in tumors, "Warburg Effect", is the basis for (18)F-FDG/PET imaging. Cancer cells can also be genetically reprogrammed to use glutamine. 5-(11)C-(2S)-glutamine and (18)F- (2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine may be useful complementary tools to measure changes in tumor metabolism. In glioma patients the tracer, (18)F-(2S,4R)4-fluoroglutamine, showed tumor-background contrast different from that of (18)F-FDG and differences in uptake in glioma patients with clinical progression of disease versus stable disease (tumor/brain ratio > 3...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Li Zhang, Huaijun Liu, Xiaodan Mu, Jianling Cui, Zhigang Peng
Aberrant expression of Fos-related antigen-1 (Fra1) is commonly elevated in various malignant cancers and is strongly implicated in invasion and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its dysregulation in human glioma remain poorly understood. In the present study we demonstrate that upregulation of Fra1 plays a crucial role in the glioma aggressiveness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition activated by Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. In glioma cells, activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Wnt3a administration obviously induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and directly activated the transcription of Fra1...
February 23, 2017: Bioscience Reports
Zhen-Nan Ye, Jing-Peng Liu, Ling-Yun Wu, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Zong Zhuang, Qiang Chen, Yue Lu, Ce-Gang Liu, Zi-Huan Zhang, Hua-Sheng Zhang, Wen-Zhong Hou, Chun-Hua Hang
Glioma is the most common type of malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system, with high incidence and mortality rate. MicroRNAs, as a class of small non-coding RNAs, play an important role in carcinogenesis and correlate with glioma diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we investigated the microRNA-204 (miR-204) concentration in glioma tissues and its relation to the expression of ezrin and bcl-2 mRNA, as well as its potential predictive and prognostic values in glioma. The concentrations of miR-204 were significantly lower in glioma tissues than in non-tumor brain tissues and also were lower in high-grade than in low-grade gliomas (World Health Organization [WHO] grades III and IV vs grades I and II)...
February 20, 2017: Human Pathology
Alan T Yeo, Al Charest
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant primary brain cancer that is associated with abysmal prognosis. The median survival of GBM patients is ∼15 months and there have not been any significant advance in therapies in over a decade, leaving treatment options limited. There is clearly an unmet need for GBM treatment. Immunotherapies are treatments based on usurping the power of the host's immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells. They have recently proven to be a successful strategy for combating a variety of cancers...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
David H Gutmann, Rosalie E Ferner, Robert H Listernick, Bruce R Korf, Pamela L Wolters, Kimberly J Johnson
Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a complex autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations in the NF1 tumour suppressor gene. Nearly all individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 develop pigmentary lesions (café-au-lait macules, skinfold freckling and Lisch nodules) and dermal neurofibromas. Some individuals develop skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis, tibial pseudarthrosis and orbital dysplasia), brain tumours (optic pathway gliomas and glioblastoma), peripheral nerve tumours (spinal neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours), learning disabilities, attention deficits, and social and behavioural problems, which can negatively affect quality of life...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Xiaqing Guo, Yabo Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between smoking and glioma risk by meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid, and CNKI to find the suitable studies related to association between smoking and glioma risk. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of smokers in glioma patients compared to normal controls were aggregated by statistic software Stata11.0. The publication bias was evaluated by Begg's funnel plot...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Yabo Wang, Xiaqing Guo
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between mobile phone use and glioma risk through pooling the published data. METHODS: By searching Medline, EMBSE, and CNKI databases, we screened the open published case-control or cohort studies about mobile phone use and glioma risk by systematic searching strategy. The pooled odds of mobile use in glioma patients versus healthy controls were calculated by meta-analysis method. The statistical analysis was done by Stata12...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Sophie J Camp, Vasileios Apostolopoulos, Vasileios Raptopoulos, Amrish Mehta, Kevin O'Neill, Mohammed Awad, Babar Vaqas, David Peterson, Federico Roncaroli, Dipankar Nandi
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that maximal surgical resection of primary intrinsic brain tumours is beneficial, both by improving progression free and overall survival and also by facilitating postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Hence, there has been an increase in the popularity of real-time intraoperative imaging in brain tumour surgery. The complex theatre arrangements, prohibitive cost and prolonged theatre time of intraoperative MRI have restricted its application...
2017: Journal of Therapeutic Ultrasound
Ashley Ramsawhook, Lara Lewis, Beth Coyle, Alexey Ruzov
BACKGROUND: Alteration of DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) patterns represents one of the causes of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Tet proteins can oxidise 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Although the roles of these oxidised forms of 5mC (oxi-mCs) in cancer pathogenesis are still largely unknown, there are indications that they may be involved in the mechanisms of malignant transformation. Thus, reduction of 5hmC content represents an epigenetic hallmark of human tumours, and according to our recent report, 5caC is enriched in a proportion of breast cancers and gliomas...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
(no author information available yet)
Several cancers, including glioma and acute myeloid leukemia, carry mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 Researchers have found that these mutations impair homologous recombination, making the tumors sensitive to PARP inhibition. They showed that one such inhibitor, olaparib, killed IDH1/2-mutant cancer cells in culture and slowed tumor growth in mice.
February 22, 2017: Cancer Discovery
M Kadkhodaei, S Samavi, N Karimi, H Mohaghegh, S M R Soroushmehr, K Ward, A All, K Najarian, M Kadkhodaei, S Samavi, N Karimi, H Mohaghegh, S M R Soroushmehr, K Ward, A All, K Najarian, K Ward, S M R Soroushmehr, A All, S Samavi, M Kadkhodaei, H Mohaghegh, K Najarian, N Karimi
Despite the rapid growth in brain tumor segmentation approaches, there are still many challenges in this field. Automatic segmentation of brain images has a critical role in decreasing the burden of manual labeling and increasing robustness of brain tumor diagnosis. We consider segmentation of glioma tumors, which have a wide variation in size, shape and appearance properties. In this paper images are enhanced and normalized to same scale in a preprocessing step. The enhanced images are then segmented based on their intensities using 3D super-voxels...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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