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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448269/circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-clinical-cancer-biomarkers
#1
REVIEW
Virginie Armand-Labit, Anne Pradines
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that are master regulators of genic expression and consequently of many cellular processes. But their expression is often deregulated in human tumors leading to cancer development. Recently miRNAs were discovered in body fluids (serum, plasma and others) and their levels have often been reported to be altered in patients. Circulating miRNAs became one of the most promising biomarkers in oncology for early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. Here we describe the origins and roles of miRNAs, and summarize the most recent studies focusing on their usefulness as cancer biomarkers in lung, breast, colon, prostate, ovary cancers and melanoma...
April 27, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447112/-imaging-diagnostics-of-breast-metastases-from-extramammary-tumors
#2
REVIEW
S Wienbeck, S Nemat, J Lotz, A Surov
Breast metastases of solid extramammary tumors are very rare in comparison to primary malignancies of the breast and account for only 0.33-6.3% of all malignant neoplasms of the breast. The most common primary tumors are malignant melanoma, distant sarcomas, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, renal cell cancer and thyroid cancer in decreasing order of frequency. This review article summarizes the clinical features and the different imaging findings of breast metastases from different extramammary solid tumors. Breast metastases are often incidental findings in computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) imaging...
April 26, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444227/incidence-and-prognosis-of-patients-with-brain-metastases-at-diagnosis-of-systemic-malignancy-a-population-based-study
#3
Daniel N Cagney, Allison M Martin, Paul J Catalano, Amanda J Redig, Nancy U Lin, Eudocia Q Lee, Patrick Y Wen, Ian F Dunn, Wenya Linda Bi, Stephanie E Weiss, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Brian M Alexander, Ayal A Aizer
Background: Brain metastases are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Population-level data describing the incidence and prognosis of patients with brain metastases are lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize the incidence and prognosis of patients with brain metastases at diagnosis of systemic malignancy using recently released data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Methods: We identified 1,302,166 patients diagnosed with non-hematologic malignancies originating outside of the central nervous system between 2010-2013 and described the incidence proportion and survival of patients with brain metastases...
April 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439153/supraclavicular-metastases-from-distant-primary-solid-tumours-a-retrospective-study-of-41%C3%A2-years
#4
Keyvan Sagheb, Asina Manz, Stefan B Albrich, Katherine J Taylor, Georg Hess, Christian Walter
OBJECTIVES: Approximately 1 % of all malignant solid tumours of the head and neck area are metastases from primary tumours beneath the clavicles. The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of primary tumours since meta-analyses might have been biased due to the usually extraordinary character of case reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patient files from 1970 to 2012 from the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery unit at a University Hospital were analysed regarding the existence of metastases to the head and neck area from distant primaries...
June 2017: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434095/patient-reported-outcomes-in-cancer-survivors-a-population-wide-cross-sectional-study
#5
Michael Jefford, Andrew C Ward, Karolina Lisy, Karen Lacey, Jon D Emery, Adam W Glaser, Hannah Cross, Mei Krishnasamy, Sue-Anne McLachlan, Jim Bishop
PURPOSE: There is a lack of robust population-based data regarding the lived experience of cancer survivors. This study assessed the quality of life (QoL) of survivors of breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma or melanoma 1, 3 and 5 years post-diagnosis. Associations between various demographic and disease-related factors and QoL were assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional postal survey was undertaken. Eligible participants were identified from a population-based cancer registry...
April 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433532/exci-cest-exploiting-pharmaceutical-excipients-as-mri-cest-contrast-agents-for-tumor-imaging
#6
Dario Livio Longo, Fatima Zzahra Moustaghfir, Alexandre Zerbo, Lorena Consolino, Annasofia Anemone, Martina Bracesco, Silvio Aime
Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) approach is a novel tool within magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows visualization of molecules possessing exchangeable protons with water. Many molecules, employed as excipients for the formulation of finished drug products, are endowed with hydroxyl, amine or amide protons, thus can be exploitable as MRI-CEST contrast agents. Their high safety profiles allow them to be injected at very high doses. Here we investigated the MRI-CEST properties of several excipients (ascorbic acid, sucrose, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, meglumine and 2-pyrrolidone) and tested them as tumor-detecting agents in two different murine tumor models (breast and melanoma cancers)...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431765/immune-modulation-by-vitamin-d-special-emphasis-on-its-role-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Franco Pandolfi, Laura Franza, Claudia Mandolini, Pio Conti
PURPOSE: Vitamin D has been known to be involved in mineral and bone homeostasis for many years. In the past its main use was in treating osteoporosis and rickets. In recent years it was found that vitamin D is an immune-modulating agent and may also have a role in several diseases, including autoimmune diseases. The immune-modulating effects appear to be mediated by vitamin D interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that has transcriptional effects and is expressed on various cell types, especially those of the immune system...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429726/verteporfin-induced-formation-of-protein-cross-linked-oligomers-and-high-molecular-weight-complexes-is-mediated-by-light-and-leads-to-cell-toxicity
#8
Eleni K Konstantinou, Shoji Notomi, Cassandra Kosmidou, Katarzyna Brodowska, Ahmad Al-Moujahed, Fotini Nicolaou, Pavlina Tsoka, Evangelos Gragoudas, Joan W Miller, Lucy H Young, Demetrios G Vavvas
Verteporfin (VP) was first used in Photodynamic therapy, where a non-thermal laser light (689 nm) in the presence of oxygen activates the drug to produce highly reactive oxygen radicals, resulting in local cell and tissue damage. However, it has also been shown that Verteporfin can have non-photoactivated effects such as interference with the YAP-TEAD complex of the HIPPO pathway, resulting in growth inhibition of several neoplasias. More recently, it was proposed that, another non-light mediated effect of VP is the formation of cross-linked oligomers and high molecular weight protein complexes (HMWC) that are hypothesized to interfere with autophagy and cell growth...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428642/-technology-and-prevention-in-the-era-of-mobile-health-applications-for-cancer-screening-programs
#9
Fabrizio Bert, Maria Rosaria Gualano, Salvatore Clemente, Giulia Villa, Roberta Siliquini
The Italian national health system provides screening to detect breast, colorecatal and cervical cancers, however, population adherence is not as high as expected. Smartphones and their applications (apps) could be used as a tool to communicate with the population and to help improve adherence. The aim of this study was to analyze the features and functions of smartphone applications aimed at secondary prevention of oncological diseases. In February 2016, we reviewed online app stores, using specific key-words, to search for available apps for cancer screening...
January 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426539/the-effect-of-cancer-patients-and-their-family-caregivers-physical-and-emotional-symptoms-on-caregiver-burden
#10
Safora Johansen, Milada Cvancarova, Cornelia Ruland
BACKGROUND: Although there is significant evidence that the family caregivers (FCs) of cancer patients can experience significant caregiver burden and symptoms, less is known about the relationships between FCs and patient characteristics that influence caregiver burden. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cancer patients' and FCs' symptoms and demographic characteristics on caregiver burden at initiation of the patients' radiation treatment...
April 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425165/melanogenesis-inhibitory-and-cytotoxic-activities-of-limonoids-alkaloids-and-phenolic-compounds-from-phellodendron-amurense-bark
#11
Toshihiro Akihisa, Satoru Yokokawa, Eri Ogihara, Masahiro Matsumoto, Jie Zhang, Takashi Kikuchi, Kazuo Koike, Masahiko Abe
Four limonoids, 1-4, five alkaloids, 5-9, and four phenolic compounds, 10-13, were isolated from a MeOH extract of the bark of Phellodendron amurense (Rutaceae). Among these, compound 13 was a new, and its structure was established as rel-(1R,2R,3R)-5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-6-methoxy-1-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)indane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (γ-di(methyl ferulate)) based on the spectrometric analysis. Upon evaluation of compounds 1-13 against the melanogenesis in the B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), four compounds, limonin (1), noroxyhydrastinine (6), haplopine (7), and 4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-quiolone (8), exhibited potent melanogenesis-inhibitory activities with almost no toxicity to the cells...
April 20, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423659/targeting-hox-pbx-dimers-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Richard Morgan, Mohamed El-Tanani, Keith D Hunter, Kevin J Harrington, Hardev S Pandha
The HOX and PBX gene families encode transcription factors that have key roles in establishing the identity of cells and tissues in early development. Over the last 20 years it has become apparent that they are also dysregulated in a wide range of solid and haematological malignancies and have a predominantly pro-oncogenic function. A key mode of transcriptional regulation by HOX and PBX proteins is through their interaction as a heterodimer or larger complex that enhances their binding affinity and specificity for DNA, and there is growing evidence that this interaction is a potential therapeutic target in malignancies that include prostate, breast, renal, ovarian and lung cancer, melanoma, myeloma, and acute myeloid leukaemia...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422067/synthesis-characterization-antimicrobial-and-antiproliferative-activity-evaluation-of-cu-ii-co-ii-zn-ii-ni-ii-and-pt-ii-complexes-with-isoniazid-derived-compound
#13
Elena Pahonțu, Diana-Carolina Ilieș, Sergiu Shova, Camelia Oprean, Virgil Păunescu, Octavian Tudorel Olaru, Flavian Ștefan Rădulescu, Aurelian Gulea, Tudor Roșu, Doina Drăgănescu
Hydrazone complexes of Cu(II), Co(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pt(II) with N-isonicotinoyl-N'-(3-metoxy-2 hydroxybenzaldehyde)-hydrazone (HL) were synthesized and characterized by different physico-chemical techniques including elemental and thermal analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, molar electric conductivity, as well as IR (infrared), ¹H-NMR and (13)C-NMR (hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance, UV-Vis (ultraviolet-visible), FAB (fast atom bombardment), EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance), and mass spectroscopies...
April 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418845/preclinical-development-of-g1t38-a-novel-potent-and-selective-inhibitor-of-cyclin-dependent-kinases-4-6-for-use-as-an-oral-antineoplastic-in-patients-with-cdk4-6-sensitive-tumors
#14
John E Bisi, Jessica A Sorrentino, Jamie L Jordan, David D Darr, Patrick J Roberts, Francis X Tavares, Jay C Strum
Inhibition of the p16INK4a/cyclin D/CDK4/6/RB pathway is an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Although efficacious, current treatment regimens require a dosing holiday due to severe neutropenia potentially leading to an increased risk of infections, as well as tumor regrowth and emergence of drug resistance. Therefore, a next generation CDK4/6 inhibitor that can inhibit proliferation of CDK4/6-dependent tumors while minimizing neutropenia could reduce both the need for treatment holidays and the risk of inducing drug resistance...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418841/circulating-uric-acid-levels-and-subsequent-development-of-cancer-in-493-281-individuals-findings-from-the-amoris-study
#15
Andrew Yiu, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Hans Garmo, Lars Holmberg, Håkan Malmström, Mats Lambe, Niklas Hammar, Göran Walldius, Ingmar Jungner, Wahyu Wulaningsih
OBJECTIVES: Serum uric acid has been suggested to be associated with cancer risk. We aimed to study the association between serum uric acid and cancer incidence in a large Swedish cohort. RESULTS: A positive association was found between uric acid levels and overall cancer risk, and results were similar with adjustment for glucose, triglycerides and BMI. Hazard ratio (HR) for overall cancer for the 4th quartile of uric acid compared to the 1st was 1.08 (95% CI: 1...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416823/-identification-of-a-new-pro-invasion-factor-in-tumor-microenvironment-progress-in-function-and-mechanism-of-extracellular-atp
#16
W G Fang, X X Tian
Up to 90% of all cancer related morbidity and mortality can be attributed to metastasis. In recent years the study of tumor microenvironment, its cellular and molecular components, and how they can affect neoplastic progression toward metastasis, has become a hot focus in cancer research. Accumulated evidence shows that the formation of metastasis is a multi-step sequential process, in which, the tumor cells continuously interact with the host microenvironment. Host derived factors, i.e. growth factors/inhibitors, angiogenic factors, chemokines, etc...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416604/oncogenic-characterization-and-pharmacologic-sensitivity-of-activating-fibroblast-growth-factor-receptor-fgfr-genetic-alterations-to-the-selective-fgfr-inhibitor-erdafitinib
#17
Jayaprakash D Karkera, Gabriela Martinez Cardona, Katherine Bell, Dana Gaffney, Joseph C Portale, Ademi Santiago-Walker, Christopher Moy, Peter King, Michael Sharp, Rastilav Bahleda, Feng R Luo, John D Alvarez, Matthew V Lorenzi, Suso J Platero
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genetic alterations are frequently observed in cancer, suggesting that FGFR inhibition may be a promising therapy in patients harboring these lesions.  Identification of predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers to select and monitor patients most likely to respond to FGFR inhibition will be the key to clinical development of this class of agents.  Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition and correlation with FGFR pathway activation status were determined in molecularly annotated panels of cancer cell lines and xenograft models...
April 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415749/hmagea2-promotes-progression-of-breast-cancer-by-regulating-akt-and-erk1-2-pathways
#18
Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Jain Jeong, Minjee Choi, Jinhee Lee, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Si Jun Park, Hyeng-Soo Kim, Mee-Hyun Lee, Dong Joon Kim, Kangdong Liu, Sung-Hyun Kim, Zigang Dong, Zae Young Ryoo, Myoung Ok Kim
Breast cancer is the most abundant cancer worldwide and a severe problem for women. Notably, breast cancer has a high mortality rate, mainly because of tumor progression and metastasis. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly progressive and lacks the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Therefore, there are no established therapeutic targets against TNBC. In this study, we investigated whether the expression of human melanoma-associated antigen A2 (MAGEA2) is associated with TNBC...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412093/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-as-a-second-primary-among-patients-with-previous-malignancy-who-is-at-risk
#19
Geena X Wu, Rebecca A Nelson, Jae Y Kim, Dan J Raz
BACKGROUND: Patients with previous malignancies could be at increased risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the extent of the risk is unknown for many cancer types; thus, it is unclear who might benefit from screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data set from 1992 to 2012 was used to identify patients with previous malignancies who received a diagnosis of NSCLC ≥ 6 months after their initial cancer diagnosis...
March 2, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408492/cd81-as-a-tumor-target
#20
REVIEW
Felipe Vences-Catalán, Caroline Duault, Chiung-Chi Kuo, Ranjani Rajapaksa, Ronald Levy, Shoshana Levy
CD81 participates in a variety of important cellular processes such as membrane organization, protein trafficking, cellular fusion and cell-cell interactions. In the immune system, CD81 regulates immune synapse, receptor clustering and signaling; it also mediates adaptive and innate immune suppression. CD81 is a gateway in hepatocytes for pathogens such as hepatitis C virus and Plasmodium; it also confers susceptibility to Listeria infection. These diverse biological roles are due to the tendency of CD81 to associate with other tetraspanins and with cell-specific partner proteins, which provide the cells with a signaling platform...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
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